SOMBRAS TERRIBLES DE EVITA. Representaciones del debate nacional: del letrado al piquetero
KeywordsArgentine Literature, Civilization and Barbarism, Eva Per??n, Fronteras, National identity, Peronismo
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AbstractReflecting on the figure of Eva Per??n, V.S. Naipaul comments; 'The truth begins to disappear; it is not relevant to the legend.' In his novel <em>Santa Evita </em>, Tom? s Eloy Mart? nez writes 'Little by little Evita began to turn into a story that, before it ended, kindled another.' This dissertation explores the cultural transformations of the figure of Eva Per??n, from political icon to the object of multiple representations in mass culture, literature and art, 'Evita.' During the 1940s and 50s, the rapid spread of radio, cinema, and television allowed Peronism to broadcast its struggle on behalf of the <em>descamisados</em> as a performance in which Evita was the main performer. This dissertation will show that from her multifaceted character, the popular collective imagination projected an array of representations associated with an archive of images of social, religious and gender ideals: Mother of the Nation, Savior of the Poor, Madonna, and Saint Evita, among numerous others. As the centerpiece of a corpus of literary and artistic representations, Evita becomes a metaphor of the central controversy of Argentine identity --what this dissertation labels <em>La Gran Discusi??n</em>;--best articulated in Sarmiento's question: <em>??Qu1 somos?#60;/em#62; Sarmiento's attempt to answer that question has been traditionally interpreted as his depicting the forces of Civilization and Barbarism as mutually exclusive and as a statement that only one of them would eventually rescue the 'true' Argentine essence; in that tradition, cultural appropriations of the figure of Evita present her as either a deviation from a lost civilized greatness or a liberation from that oppressive dream. This dissertation, however, reads Sarmiento's work itself as an example of the Argentine dilemma because, under the influence of Romanticism and his own autodidact's literacy, he also recognized the ineluctable presence of the oral culture of the <em>other</em>, tacitly acknowledging that Argentina's destiny rests on recognizing its hybrid identity. Based on this reading of Argentine culture, this dissertation demonstrates that in the breadth of 'Evitas' in mass communication, popular media, literature and the fine arts, every representation of her inevitably embodies the convergence of the national polarities, re-enacting <em>La Gran Discussion</em>.
Stony Brook University Libraries. SBU Graduate School in Department of Hispanic Languages and Literature. Charles Taber (Dean of Graduate School).