Alaska Native people&#x0027;s perceptions, understandings, and expectations for research involving biological specimens
focus groups research ethics
Arctic medicine. Tropical medicine
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AbstractObjectives. Members of racially and ethnically diverse groups have been persistently underrepresented in biomedical research in general, possibly due to mistrust with the medical and research community. This article describes the perceptions, understandings, and expectations of Alaska Native people about research involving the collection and storage of biological specimens. Study design. Stratified focus groups. Methods. Twenty-nine focus groups with Alaska Native people (n =&#x200A;178) were held in 14 locations using a semi-structured moderator guide. ATLAS.ti was used for thematic analysis through iterative readings and coding. Alaska Native peoples&#x2019; perceptions, understandings, and expectations of researcher beneficence, informed consent processes, and provision of research findings were elicited. Results and conclusions. Alaska Native people desired extensive disclosure of information beyond that typically provided in consent and results dissemination processes. Information germane to the motivation and intent of researchers and specifics of specimen storage and destruction were specifically requested. A clear and extensive process of informed consent and continued improvements in sharing results may enhance the transparency of research intent, conduct, and use of obtained results among Alaska Native people. Meeting expectations may improve relationships between researchers and the Alaska Native population which could result in increased research participation. Our findings offer a guide for researchers and communities when planning and implementing research with biological specimens.
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The Effect of Using Sewerage System on Incidence of Acute Diarrhoea on Children under Five Years Old in Bandar-Anzali City in Guilan Province in 2009-Phase IMorteza Fallah-Karkan; Hannan Ebrahimi; Zahra Akbarian; Seyyede Zohreh Banihashemi; Maryam Rostamnejad; Matin Daneshyari; Elahe Sayyarifard2; Kaveh Marzbani; Haleh Ahmadnia; Javad Moazzami-Sahzabi; et al. (Iranian Society for Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, 2013-07-01)Backgroun and objective:The scarce water resources and Poor quality drinking water with the lack of a proper sewage collection and disposal system and increasing management problems due to rapid population growth made Islamic Republic of Iran to pay priority attention to the water and sewerage problems of districts in its five-year development plan. In this regard, water and sewerage project in Bandar Anzali became a priority by Guilan province Urban Water and Sewerage Company with the government partnership and World Bank financial support. The objective of this study is to complete the first phase of a two-phase study to determine the impact of using an urban sewerage system on acute Diarrhoea in children under five years of age in Bandar-Anzali in the Guilan province.Materails and methods: The study is a concurrent control before and after field trial which is carried out in two stages: before (phase I) and after (phase II). Sampling for phase I was performed in the middle month of each season, November and February 2009 and May and August 2010. The incidence of acute Diarrhoea was measured with the participation of 2400 mothers of children under 5 years old in the city of Bandar-Anzali in two groups: the intervention group (inside the sewerage system project perimeters) and the control group (outside the project perimeters). Data were collected by local female general practitioners and medical students in each city, under supervision of the community medicine department and by door-to-door interview with mothers. Data were analyzed using the SPSS 11.5 software package and the Pearson Chi-Square was used to compare qualitative variables between groups, and the t-test and One-Way ANOVA was used to compare quantitative variables.Results: The annual incidence of acute diarrhoea in children under five years old was 11.9%. The seasonal pattern of acut diarrheoa incidence was 12.6% in May, 13.3 in August, 11.5% in November, and 10.3% in February respectively. The highest incidence of acute diarrhoea was seen in children from 2 to 5 years of age.Conclusion: The study showed the incidence of acute diarrhoea on children under five years old in Bandar-Anzali city is moderate and it follows a seasonal pattern. The highest rate was seen in summer and the lowest rate in winter. It is expected to decrease with the initiation of the sewerage system program.
Clinical Features, Presence of Human Herpesvirus-8 and Treatment Results in Classic Kaposi SarcomaÖzlem Su; Nahide Onsun; Hande Arda; Ömer Ümmetoğlu; Ayşe Pekdemir (Galenos Yayincilik, 2008-12-01)Background and Design: Classic Kaposi sarcoma (KS) occurs predominantly among the elderly, with Jews, Italians and Greeks. Classic KS has been seen relatively frequently in Turkey. Our aim was to evaluate the demographic, clinical features of Kaposi sarcoma and etiopathological role of human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8). Treatment results of 18 classic Kaposi’s sarcoma were also concluded.Material and Method: Eighteen cases of classic Kaposi sarcoma diagnosed as clinically and histopathologically between January 2001 and August 2008 in our dermatology department were taken to this study. Demographic, clinical features and treatment results were reviewed retrospectively in all patients. HHV-8 was investigated in the lesional skin of 7 patients.Results: A male/female ratio of 2/1 was found. Mean age at diagnosis was 67.2 (37-94) years. Bilaterally lower extremities were involved in 15 patients (83.3%), the trunk was involved in 3 patients (16.6%). Plaques and nodules were the common type of lesions (66.6% and 55.5%). Nine patients had no symptoms (50%). Edema was the most common symptom (38.8%). A second primary malignancy was found in 2 patients (11.1%). HHV-8 was detected in 6 of the 7 patients(85.7%). Majority of the patients were treated with interferon alfa (subcutaneously) and cryotherapy as a monotherapy or a combination therapy. Imiquimod was the second agent in combined treatment (27.7%). Conclusion: We suggest that interferon alfa and imiquimod can be used as first line therapy agents with their antiviral and immunmodulatuar features in the treatment of KKS. (Turkderm 2008; 42: 122-6)
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