Інтеграція як форма соціального буття дітей з особливими освітніми потребами
Keywordsдіти з особливими освітніми потребами
children with special educational needs
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AbstractСтаття присвячена теоретичному аналізу поняття «інтеграція» у вітчизняному освітньому просторі. У статті проаналізовано сучасні підходи до визначення вище зазначеного поняття у світлі впровадження інклюзивної освіти в Україні. Аналіз наукових розвідок засвідчує, що інтеграція, в силу суб’єктивних і об’єктивних чинників, не є оптимальною для дітей з особливими освітніми потребами. На сучасному етапі розвитку спеціальної освіти в Україні відзначається суттєве переосмислення сутності поняття «інтеграція». Загальносвітові тенденції в галузі соціальної політики надають нового, соціально-педагогічного забарвлення процесу інтеграції в освітній практиці, тобто заміною терміну «інтеграція» поняттям «інклюзія»: переходом від системи, яка передбачає адаптацію дитини до вимог освіти, до пристосування системи до потреб дитини.
The article is focused on the theoretical analysis of the notion «integration» in education. Modern approaches to the definition of this notion are analysed from the point of view of inclusive education in Ukraine. Social values have been rethought under the influence of social and political changes in Ukraine. Among them are child’s rights. Human values have been recognized as the top priority. This fact requires the theoretical rethinking of the notion «integration» considering inclusive terminology. Research shows that integration is not optimal for children with special educational needs and disability due to the objective and subjective factors.
The development of inclusive education in Ukraine nowadays is marked by the rethinking of the notion “integration”. New tendencies in social policy influence the process of integration in education. New concepts ensuring equal conditions for achieving different educational levels by children with special educational needs appear.
At present there is a tendency to replace the notion «integration» by the notion «inclusion». It implies the transition from the system which provides the adaptation of a child to educational requirements to the system adapting to the needs of a child. All these increase concern about the necessity of introducing inclusive education and make it the topical issue of formation and development of inclusive education in the country.
To address the problems at various stages of research the following theoretical methods were used: retrospective comparative analysis of philosophical, psychological, pedagogical and methodological literature, thesis papers to ascertain the state of elaboration of the problems researched; ordering, synthesis, generalization, theoretical modeling.
The results of the theoretical analysis of the notion «integration» require further study of such notions as «inclusion», «inclusive education», «inclusive learning environment», their relationship and succession.
The results of the theoretical analysis of the essence of the concept «integration» in the light of inclusive education implementation in Ukraine requires further investigation of key definitions, their interrelation and succession.
Малишевська, І. А. Інтеграція як форма соціального буття дітей з особливими освітніми потребами [Текст] / І. А. Малишевська // Педагогічні науки: теорія, історія, інноваційні технології : науковий журнал / МОН України, Сумський держ. пед. ун-т ім. А. С. Макаренка ; [редкол.: А. А. Сбруєва, О. Є. Антонова, Дж. Бішоп та ін.]. – Суми : СумДПУ ім. А. С. Макаренка, 2015. – № 7 (51). – С. 368–375.
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European standards of the civil service integrityL. V. Prudyus (Grani, 2016-09-01)In the article was researched the European standards of the civil service integrity. It was established that corruption is the one of the dangerous threats to human rights, democracy, rule of law, fairness and social justice. Among the risks of corruption of civil service indicated non integrity of civil servants; conflicts of interest; lack of control by management; discretionary power. It was determined that integrity is the basic principle of the civil service and ethical behavior of the civil servants to ensure public, professional, politically impartial, effective, citizen-oriented civil service, which operates in the interests of the state and society. The core of the integrity principle lie in the action of the civil servant to protect public interest and refusal from prevalence of private interests during exercise powers. It was proved that the basis of the integrity development in the Ukrainian civil service is the European standards of integrity and fight against corruption determined in international agreements and treaties ratified by Ukraine. It was found that for ensuring of integrity civil service in Ukraine are applied European standards in mechanisms of lustration, avoiding of conflicts of interests, ethical behavior, ethical conducting, and declaration of assets, revenues, expenses and financial obligations of civil servants. It was researched that general principles of the fight against corruption defined in the Civil Law Convention on Corruption, Criminal Law Convention on Corruption and the United Nations Convention against Corruption. It was indicated that important role in the civil service integrity play European standards in lustration sphere. It was concluded that the European standards of integrity intended to protect society from corruption, ensure democracy, human rights, rule of law, fairness and social justice. It was offered for further implementation of the European standards of integrity to develop a new Code of integrity for civil servants and take measures, which contain Anti-Corruption Strategy: adopt a law on the protection of persons who honestly reported regarding corruption offenses (denunciators), in particular a law concerning conducting the inspection of public servants on integrity.