The Law and Ethics Collection focuses on academic theses concerned by ethical aspects in law.

Recent Submissions

  • The Criteria for the Guardianship of the Islamic Jurist (With an Emphasis on the Ideas of Imam Khomeini)

    Ali Akbari Moallem (Political Studies Association of the Seminary, 2020-11-01)
    The purpose of the present study is to explain the criteria for the guardianship of the Islamic Jurist with an emphasis on the political ideas of Imam Khomeini. To this aim, descriptive analysis was used in this study to make an enquiry about the essence and arguments of the guardianship of the Islamic jurist, the jurists’ obligation to establish an Islamic state, the virtues and vices of the Islamic jurist’s political ethics, as well as the responsibility and authority of the Islamic jurist. Based on the triplet classification model in Islam and the framework of Imam Khomeini’s political ideology, the subject under study that is the guardianship of the Islamic jurist was classified into 3 aspects of political philosophy, political ethics, and political jurisprudence. In general, 33 criteria for different aspects of the guardianship of the Islamic jurist were extracted including 9 criteria about political philosophy, 15 criteria about political ethics, and 9 criteria about political jurisprudence. Furthermore, the results showed that there is a logical relationship between the 3 above-mentioned classified aspects, that is to say the imperfection and perfection of each aspect is effective on the others as well.
  • Skolastik Felsefede Ahlâkın İnsan Doğası ve Tanrı ile İlişkisi

    Mustafa Çakmak (Sakarya University, 2021-12-01)
    Skolastik felsefede ahlâkın insanın doğasında nasıl yerleşik hale geldiği ve bu süreçte Tanrının rolünün ne olduğu tartışması Antik Yunan felsefesine kadar geri götürülebilir. Bu makale, Skolastik felsefenin iki farklı dönemini temsil eden iki önemli teoloğu temel alarak ahlâkın insanın doğası ve Tanrı ile ilişkisini ele almaktadır. Skolastik felsefenin ilk dönemlerinde Thomas Aquinas, insan doğasında mündemiç bir ahlâklılık potansiyeline vurgu yapan teolojik bir doğal yasa teorisi savunmuştur. Buna karşılık John Duns Scotus insan doğasındaki ahlâklılık potansiyelini yadsımamış, fakat yine de ahlâkın ilahî emirlerle temellendiğini iddia ettiği ılımlı bir ilahî emir teorisini savunmuştur. Aquinas ve Scotus’un iki meselede ciddi bir ayrışma yaşadıkları söylenebilir. Bunlardan birincisi insandaki ahlâklı olma bilincinin insan doğasının bir parçası olarak akılda (ratio) mı yoksa iradede (voluntas) mi açığa çıktığı tartışmasıdır. Aquinas bu konuda akla vurgu yaparken Scotus belirleyici olanın akıl değil irade olduğunu düşünmüştür. Ayrışma noktalarından ikincisi On Emir’in hangi prensiplerinin doğal yasa ile bilinebileceği meselesidir. Aquinas On Emir’in tüm ilkelerinin doğal yasa ile bilinebileceğini iddia ederken Scotus, sadece ilk üç ilkenin doğal yasanın konusu olabileceğini; diğer ilkelerin ise ancak ilahî emirlerle belirlenebileceğine inanmıştır. Bu makale Skolastik felsefedeki ahlâk, insan doğası ve ilahî emirlere bakıştaki ayrışma sürecini iki önemli figür üzerinden irdelemeye çalışmıştır.
  • The Role of Nature in New England Puritan Theology: The Case of Samuel Willard

    Wolfe Stephen M. (Sciendo, 2022-06-01)
    This article discusses the role of nature in the theological system of New England minister Samuel Willard (1640-1707). I focus specifically on his account of theological anthropology, the relationship of nature and grace, and the moral (or natural) law, and show how each relates to his views on civil government and civil law. Willard affirmed the natural law, natural religion, and natural worship, and he acknowledged and respected pagan civic virtue and grounded civil order and social relations in nature. Willard’s theological articulations are substantively the same as those found among the ‘Reformed orthodox’ theologians of 17th century Europe, which provides evidence for the thesis that Reformed orthodoxy was a transatlantic movement. His reliance on nature also corrects scholarship on the New England Puritans, which often assumes that they rejected the Christian natural law tradition.
  • ‘All Things Are Lawful’: Adiaphora, Permissive Natural Law, Christian Freedom, and Defending the English Reformation

    Dominiak Paul (Sciendo, 2022-06-01)
    Adiaphora (‘indifferent matters’) and permissive natural law both conceptually pointed towards an arena of liberty in which the individual remained free to take up (or not) particular courses of action. In the Reformation debates over the external regulation of Christian freedom for the maintenance of peace and order, these two concepts became freighted with political significance; but they also in turn shaped attitudes over when and where obedience was due in relation to the civic regulation of liberty. Tudor apologetics deployed both ideas in order to defend the English Reformation, especially the claim of the royal supremacy to have due authority to regulate ecclesiastical affairs in indifferent matters, limiting Christian freedom and requiring obedience. By situating these debates within the context of the conceptual development of adiaphora and permissive natural law from their original philosophical roots through to the Reformation, this article establishes the genealogy of claims that defined such apologetics. After surveying the seemingly intractable dilemmas in the thought of Thomas Starkey and John Whitgift over why obedience to lay ecclesiastical supremacy was due, this article considers the radical return to the permissive natural law traditions of the medieval period in the Elizabethan conformist thought of Richard Hooker. In this return, Hooker supplanted divine permissions and scriptural principles as the guide for the proper regulation of indifferent matters with an appeal to the light of reason as the divine instrument through which binding human laws are made to govern society and limit freedom for the public good, even in the life of the national church.
  • John Calvin on the Intersection of Natural, Roman, and Mosaic Law

    Sytsma David S. (Sciendo, 2022-06-01)
    Although there are many studies on John Calvin’s teaching on natural law, the relation between natural law and Roman law has received relatively less attention. This essay examines the relation between natural law and Roman law in Calvin’s exegetical writing on the Mosaic law. I argue that Calvin regarded Roman law as an exemplary, albeit imperfect, witness to the natural law, and he used Roman law to aid in his interpretation of the Mosaic law. Since he assumed that Roman law embodies principles of natural law, Calvin drew on Roman law as an aid in order to distinguish natural from positive law within the Mosaic law. He also broadened the scope of commandments in the second table of the Decalogue by comparison with natural and Roman law. Yet although Calvin drew many continuities between Mosaic and Roman laws, he remained critical of the Roman system due to various failings in comparison with Scripture and principles of natural law.
  • ‘Vestiges of the Divine Light’: Girolamo Zanchi, Richard Hooker, and a Reformed Thomistic Natural Law Theory

    Littlejohn Bradford (Sciendo, 2022-06-01)
    This article assesses Jerome Zanchi’s (1560-90) theory of natural law in relation to that of Richard Hooker’s (1554-1600) by arguing three theses. First, Zanchi’s view of natural law is generally Thomistic, but he expands upon it in a manner similar to his contemporaries, thereby providing further evidence against the increasingly discredited narrative of a Protestant voluntarism dominating early Reformed scholastic thought. Second, Zanchi’s commitment to the Reformed doctrine of total depravity does not represent as drastic a departure from Thomas as might first appear. Third, Hooker’s disagreement with Zanchi on this last point does not, as often argued, result from his own diluted commitment to total depravity, but denotes a more coherent and elegant way of reaching the same Reformed Thomistic synthesis. The historical record suggests that Hooker’s approach proved more influential than Zanchi’s.
  • Pagans and Theologians: An Examination of the Use of Christian Sources in Niels Hemmingsen’s De Lege Naturae

    Hutchinson Eric J. (Sciendo, 2022-06-01)
    At the conclusion of his De lege naturae apodictica methodus, a treatise on the law of nature, how it is grasped by the human mind, and how it coheres with the Decalogue, Niels Hemmingsen claims to have eschewed the use of theological sources in his argument, claiming instead to have demonstrated ‘how far reason is able to progress without the prophetic and apostolic word’. Yet the reader of the treatise will notice several citations of theologians alongside those of pagan poets and philosophers. This essay demonstrates that there is less here than meets the eye, that is, that Hemmingsen quotes theologians only to buttress what one can know from natural reason or the classical tradition, even when he is discussing God, and thus he does not violate his own stated principle.
  • Étude sur la vie et les travaux de Grotius : ou, Le droit naturel et le droit international

    Princeton Theological Seminary Library; Caumont, Aldrick, 1825-1884 (Paris : Auguste Durand, 1862-01-01)
    316 pages ; 23 cm
  • Ley natural y derechos humanos: Propuesta católica hacia una base común para el diálogo interreligioso

    González García, Alexander (2017)
    This article studies the proposal of the Catholic Church towards a common basis for interreligious dialogue. For the Church, dialogue with other religions can not be based on the commandments of love, as Muslim leaders suggest in their document "A common word" (2007), because it is an exclusive idea between Christians and Muslims; That is why the Church presents in several documents the idea of the natural law as a common pillar for all people, believers and non-believers, since God has provided humanity with reason, and this can guide human beings towards common benefit. This article analyzes the natural law as a valid means for interreligious relations.
  • Natural law and human rights: Catholic proposal towards a common base of interreligious dialogue

    González García, Alexander (2017)
    This article studies the proposal of the Catholic Church towards a common base for interreligious dialogue. For the Church, dialogue with other religions can not be based on the commandments of love, as Muslim leaders suggest in their document "A Common Word" (2007), because it is an exclusive idea between Christians and Muslims; that is why the Church presents in several documents the idea of the natural law as a common pillar for all people, believers and non-believers, since God has provided humanity with reason, and this can guide human beings towards common benefit. This article analyzes the natural law as a valid means for interreligious relations.
  • Private Bar Monitors Public Defense - Oversight Committee Sets Standards for Indigent Defense Providers

    Bernhard, Adele (DigitalCommons@NYLS, 1998-04-01)
    The oversight committee drafted standards and guidelines with the primary goal of creating a yardstick for defense services organizations against which to measure performance and the hope that a practical set of standards serve multiple purposes, including: educating a skeptical public about what it takes to provide quality defense services; promoting an understanding of why adequate funding is necessary (to engender public support for more spending); and providing notice to the organizations themselves of what is expected of a publicly funded defense office.
  • Establishing Religious Ideas: Evolution, Creationism, and Intelligent Design

    Greenawalt, Kent (Scholarship Archive, 2003-01-01)
    In this article, I first sketch the basic conflict between evolutionary theory and creationism and describe the opposition of creationists to the teaching of standard evolutionary theory. I then state the basic educational and constitutional questions about evolution, standard creationism, and "intelligent design." After exploring of five fundamental premises that, in combination, generate the most troubling questions about science, religion, and the public schools, I turn to claims of miracles. Like assertions that God has intervened in natural processes of development, these claims suppose that God transcends or violates scientific principles; their investigation suggests that scientific principles; their investigation suggests that scientific procedures may help identify limits of science.
  • The Aristotelian Conception of Natural Law and Its Reception in Early Protestant Commentaries on the Nicomachean Ethics

    Svensson Manfred (Sciendo, 2022-06-01)
    The Protestant reception both of Aristotle and of the concept of natural law have been the object of renewed attention. The present article aims at a cross-fertilization of these two recoveries: did a specifically Aristotelian approach to natural law (among other important sources) play a significant role in classical Protestant thought? The article answers this question by means of a review of the Protestant commentaries on Aristotle’s natural law-passage in Nicomachean Ethics V, 7. Reformation and post-Reformation scholars sometimes offered original readings of this text, but above all they cultivated the various approaches to the passage that had been developed during the medieval period.
  • Moral y representación

    UCH. Departamento de Ciencias Políticas, Ética y Sociología; Aznar Gómez, Hugo. (Societat de Filosofia del País Valencià., 1991)
  • The Washington Blade, July 11, 1986

    Washington Blade, al (null, 2016-07)
    An independent newspaper serving the LGBTQIA+ community. This edition features articles on demonstration fueled by anger over the Supreme Court decision upholding the Georgia sodomy law on the basis of ''majority belief' that homosexual activity is 'immoral'', a confrontation at P Street Beach between eight gay men with improvised weapons and a group of black teens who attempted a homophobic assault, concerns that testing alone would not be sufficient to protect the nation's blood supply from AIDS and that it was still necessary to ask gays and other high risk groups not to donate blood, a decision by the mayor's office requiring Georgetown University to recognize its long-embattled gay student groups equally in order to proceed with street closures it requested for university construction purposes, criticism of an Attorney General's report on pornography which included non-pornographic gay publications such as news-magazine The Advocate and photographs of gay couples kissing in its lists of obscene materials, reviews of gay interest arts and media, style advice including a look at Le Corbusier, suggestions for area hiking trails and advice on hiking etiquette, an explanation of computer databases, and ads for gay-friendly businesses, events, and groups.
  • Soper's Moral Conception of Law

    Lyons, David (Scholarly Commons at Boston University School of Law, 1987-10-01)
    A central, persisting problem for legal theory is the relationship between law and morality. Reasons to affirm and to deny that law merits some measure of respect seem safely grounded in the law.
  • De las similitudes y diferencias: Honor y drama de los siglos XVI y XVII en Italia y España

    Andrés, Angel Repáraz; Toro, Alfonso de (Vervuert VerlagIberoamericana, 1998)
    La investigación 'De las Similitudes y Diferencias. Honor y Drama de los siglos XVI y XVII en Italia y España' es una obra fundamental y la contribución más importante y completa en el contexto de un sistema semiótico-epistemológico de la teoría de la cultura desarrolla un amplio modelo de interpretación para los campos del drama, del honor, de la ética, de la teología moral, de la jurisprudencia, de las leyes penales, etc. El trabajo se divide en dos grandes partes: la primera se ocupa del concepto de honor, venganza, matrimonio, adulterio etc. en la ética, en la jurisprudencia (recurriendo aquí a la jurisprudencia romana, germana y a la española medieval, a la teología moral, a los libros de confesores y predicadores, a colecciones de refranes y de anecdotarios tanto en Italia como en España. Partiendo de este material se establecen las características fundamentales, de las similitudes y diferencias, entre ambos sistemas. En la segunda parte dedicada al análisis dramático de la tragedia, y tragicomedia en Italia y España de los siglos XVI y XVII se emplea el mismo procedimiento, de las similitudes y diferencias para el estudio histórico-tipológico de los géneros dramáticos (y poéticas) en ambos países desarrollando un sistema explicativo e interpretativo para los dramas de honor. El trabajo concluye con un modelo para la interpretación epistemológica (del origen del discurso del honor y sus constituyentes en la respectiva episteme de la época) y sígnica (de su concretización en ‘marcas’ semánticas, pragmáticas y sintácticas).
  • Von den Ähnlichkeiten und Differenzen: Ehre und Drama des 16. und 17. Jahrhunderts in Italien und Spanien

    Toro, Alfonso de (Vervuert Verlag, 1993)
    Die Untersuchung 'Von den Ähnlichkeiten und Differenzen. Ehre und Drama des XVI. und XVII. Jahrhunderts in Italien und Spanien' stellt ein Standardwerk sowie den bisher stärksten und gründlichsten Beitrag zu einem der meistdiskutierten Themen der Hispanistik, zur Ehre und zum Drama des 16. und 17. Jahrhunderts unter Berücksichtigung Italiens dar, das im Rahmen eines kulturtheoretischen, semiotisch-epistemologischen Konzepts ein umfassendes Interpretations- und Erklärungsmodell für die interkulturelle und intertextuelle Behandlung der Gebiete Drama, Poetik, Ehre, Ethik, Rechtsphilosophie, Moraltheologie, Strafgesetze entwickelt. Die Arbeit gliedert sich in zwei große Abteilungen: die erste beschäftigt sich gleichermaßen mit dem Ehr-begriff, der Rache, der Ehe und dem Ehebruch in der Ethik und Jurisprudenz in Italien und Spanien. (Hier greift er auf die römische, germanische und spanische Rechtsprechung des Mittelalters, auf die Moraltheologie, auf die Bücher der Beichtväter und Prediger, auf Sammlungen von Sprichworten und Anekdoten zurück.) Auf Grundlage dieses Materials werden die Wesenszüge, die Ähnlichkeiten und Differenzen, zwischen beiden Systemen. Im zweiten Teil der Analyse der Tragödie und der Tragikomödie in Italien und Spanien des XVI. und XVII. Jahrhundert mit über dreihundert Dramen gewidmet, wird Ein vergleichbares Verfahren, das der Ähnlichkeiten und Differenzen, bei den historisch-typologischen Untersuchung (Poetiken) der dramatischen Gattungen in beiden Ländern verwendet womit ein System zur Verfügung gestellt wird, das die Ehrendramen erklärt und interpretiert. Die Arbeit schließt mit einem Modell für die epistemologische (von den Ursprüngen des Ehrdiskurses und seiner Konstituenten im entsprechenden Epistem der Epoche) und zeichenhafte Interpretation (in ihrer Konkre-tisierung in semantische, pragmatische und syntaktische ‚Marken‘).
  • Review of <em>The Authority of Law: Essays on Law and Morality</em> by Joseph Raz

    Lyons, David (Scholarly Commons at Boston University School of Law, 1982-07-01)
    The title of this books marks out a subject both fitting and timely for a confessed legal positivist to explore. Positivists differ on what law is and whether morality is rationally respectable, but they agree that there is (as H.L.A. Hart has put it) "no necessary connection" between law and morals. Though it seems a platitude to many, this doctrine remains for critics a focus of attack, including the important recent one launched by Ronald Dworkin. It is a central theme of Raz's book.
  • On 'Synderesis' and Moral Imagination: An Inquiry into the Beneficence of ‘Imaginative Prudence’ in Moral Development Via the First Principles of Natural Law of Saint Thomas Aquinas and the Imagination Ethic Theory of Darcia Narvaez

    Repuyan, Pierangelo dela Cruz (ResearchOnline@ND, 2021-01-01)
    he Thomistic habit of synderesis innately inclines moral agents to the first principles of natural law which state that good is to be done and pursued and evil to be avoided. Serving as an ethical foundation in moral development, these primary moral principles direct practical reason to those acts that actualise the essence of human nature. Since the act of synderesis involves pre-cognitive (intuitive) and cognitive (apprehensive) processes, moral formation is necessary for the formal knowledge of the primary moral principles to inchoately foment through virtue habituation. According to St. Thomas Aquinas, virtues are habitual acts that form moral agents to become virtuous people and inform them, too, of which acts are morally apt for human flourishing. In this human process where ignorance, passion, weak will, vices, sin and concupiscence may vitiate the intended moral outcome, synderesis and moral virtues correlatively work together to set the ends to moral virtues and to determine which acts to do, pursue and avoid respectively. Specifically, the acquired moral virtue of prudence, which Aquinas considers as right reason applied to action, enables the proper discernment of the primary moral principles that temporally address the contingencies and particularity of everyday human historicity. A human faculty that assists in facilitating this discernment process is the interior sense called moral imagination (vis imaginativa). While Aquinas has considered imagination as one of the sources of human knowledge, his treatment of prudential moral inquiry, however, appears to be underdeveloped without the consideration of imagination as one of the quasi-integral parts of prudence. In view of developing the seed of insight which Aquinas has sowed into the reality of imagination, the beneficence of imaginative prudence will be argued on account of its capacity to dispose practical reason to synthetically evaluate (productive imagination) and to ingeniously explore (creative imagination) various facets of given moral situations while integrating the primary moral principles in prudential moral inquiries. Apart from considering arguments from the theological and philosophical perspectives, the Imagination Ethic Theory of Darcia Narvaez will be explored to demonstrate how modern scientific research in psychology affirms the integrity and indispensability of moral imagination in realising natural law’s ends via prudential moral inquiry.

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