AbstractSound in non-fiction is routinely manipulated in order to accentuate, suppress or replace some aspects of sound to present a clearer, more intelligible, exciting, involving or dramatic representation to the audience. This manipulation, or potential for manipulation, indicates the need for a discussion on the ethical dimensions of such a practice. Ethical models across a range of disciplines such as journalism, documentary and history can inform the approach applied to sound. This paper examines some of the realities and complexities of the nonfiction soundtrack. Given its potential to mislead, misrepresent and misinform, some practical guidelines for the ethical use of sound in non-fiction are suggested.