Peace-Building and Conflict Resolution
The ethics of peace are not limited to UN Security Council Resolutions, which delineate since 1946 the authorization for the “maintenance of international peace and security”. The question of international intervention as "ius ad interventionem" should be distinguished from a broad framework of efforts made by non-governmental organizations to manage and transform conflicts, both on local, regional and international dimensions. The major religions, legal and normative doctrines have provided important concepts for understanding pacifism which, as an ethical and religious attitude, must map the multiple facets of conflicts across the world. The Globethics Peace Building and Conflict Resolution collection make's available (mainly) open access resources on the subject of peacebuilding, because the importance of information for conflict resolution is as great as our capacity for understanding and of good will. Globethics Library offers through this interdisciplinary collection an important contribution to global peace ethics, covering a wide range of political, social, cultural, economic and (inter-) religious perspectives of peacebuilding.
Credo Reference titles
This content is restricted to registered users. In order to view the items you need to login with your Globethics participant's credentials (https://repository.globethics.net/login).
- Encyclopedia of Interpersonal Violence (2008)
- Encyclopedia of Terrorism (2002)
- Encyclopedia of Victimology and Crime Prevention (2010)
- Human Rights Worldwide: A Reference Handbook (2006)
- The Ashgate Research Companion to Ethics and International Relations (2009)
- The Ashgate Research Companion to Political Leadership (2009)
- The Ashgate Research Companion to Political Violence (2011)
- The Ashgate Research Companion to Religion and Conflict Resolution (2012)
- The Ashgate Research Companion to War: Origins and Prevention (2011)
See more Credo Reference titles
- Règlement judiciaire des conflits électoraux : précis de droit comparé africain (2021)
- Résilience et transformation des conflits dans les états des Grands Lacs africains : théorie, démarches et applications (2021)
See more Globethics Publications
- African Journal on Conflict Resolution
- Conflict & Communication Online
- Cuadernos de Marte
- Dilemas: Revista de Estudos de Conflito e Controle Social
- Eirene Estudios de Paz y Conflictos
- Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal
- International Journal of Conflict and Violence
- Journal for Deradicalization
- Journal for Peace and Nuclear Disarmament
- Revista de Cultura de Paz
- Revista de Paz y Conflictos
- Revista Latinoamericana Estudios de la Paz y el Conflicto
Evaluating Violence and (Non)violence: A Critical, Practical Theology of Social ChangeThis dissertation uses a practical theological approach to evaluate Christian (non)violence in light of interviews with twelve scholars and activists in the United States about the means of social change and the relationship of those means to social location. Social location conditions an understanding of what violence is and how different groups justify and respond to various uses of violence and (non)violence within society and for social change. The project sets Christian (non)violent practice within the context of direct, structural and cultural violence, and implicates Christian tradition, theology and practice in each level of violence. The qualitative data exposes the rationalizing mechanisms of the dominant culture's violence: the denial of violence; the reversal of the perpetrators of violence, and; the entitlements of privileged social location. When Christian (non)violence emerges from a dominant social location and does not address these levels and mechanisms of violence, it functions ideologically to obscure the operation of political and economic power, maintains the violence and privilege of those in power, thereby undermining fundamental social transformation. Interviewee data also portrays a comprehensive constellation of effective practices of social change, be they violent or (non)violent, that destabilize the dominant trajectory of rationalizing violence. Emergent qualitative perspectives on questions and practices of organized violence and (non)violence point towards renewed Christian praxis for social transformation. The practical theological model offers an approach to social change which values: practices determined in the context of social struggle over theological abstractions; collective modes of action that undermine individualism; disruption over pacification; and self-critical, Christian solidarity that welcomes differences in belief regarding the justifiability of various means of social change.
Peace from Below: Recent Steps Taken along the Track-Two Diplomacy PathA review of: Peacemakers in Action: Profiles of Religion in Conflict Resolution. Edited by David Little. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2007. and Peace Out of Reach: Middle Eastern Travels and the Search for Reconciliation. By Stephen Eric Bronner. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 2007.
In a Material World: Analyzing Religious Peacebuilding in Lebanon and Bosnia-HerzegovinaWhile intergroup peace is statistically far more common than is intergroup or inter-religious conflict, there has been a rise in recent years in conflict framed in religious terms. Peace and development practitioners have, in response, become increasingly interested in engaging religion, in various ways, in peace and development work. A theoretical field of religious peacebuilding has emerged simultaneous to this increased practitioner engagement of religion. Despite this increase in religious peacebuilding, at both practical and theoretical levels, we have not seen a measurable increase in social cohesion in contexts plagued by so-called religious conflict, as I show in my comparative examination of case studies in Lebanon and Bosnia-Herzegovina. I argue that this is because the current theoretical approach to religious peacebuilding often views religion as solely ideological and uni-directional in how it relates to conflict and peace (as an independent, rather than a dependent variable in a given conflict setting). This stems from a shallow application of Scott Appleby's ambivalence thesis, which is in and of itself more robust than is often applied, in both theoretical and practical approaches. I demonstrate in this dissertation that by re-anchoring religious peacebuilding theory in a material theory of religion, both the fields of theory and practice benefit by looking at religion as a more holistic and dynamic conflict variable- one that is shaped by conflict as much as it affects the course or tone of a conflict itself. I argue for an expansion of the ambivalence thesis, as I show that religion is not only ambivalent when it comes to belief or ideology, but it is also ambivalent in the ways in which it seeks to challenge or uphold the status quo in a given situation. This added dimension of ambivalence helps peace and conflict practitioners to engage religion in ways that deal with root cause issues of justice and rights, rather than simply looking at religion through the lens of violence and peace. This theoretical shift thereby makes space for more fruitful approaches to actively engaging religion in peacebuilding practice in particular, intentional ways. Beyond deepening the theoretical field of religious peacebuilding, this shift will also help to refine how international actors engage religion in peacebuilding for years to come, looking toward sustainable social cohesion rather than static peace agreements as the goal for societies in conflict.
A philosophy for resource managementTheory concerning the field of Resource Management is non-existent. No explicit statement of the principles and assumptions from which people involved in the study of Resource Management operate or the methodology they use for resource problem solving has been developed. Such a state has led to confusion both within the study of Resource Management and between other disciplines.
By applying the philosophical technique of asking questions relevant to the theory of Resource Management a statement of first principles and a methodology were developed. Two steps were necessary in developing a philosophy for Resource Management. First, a statement of the components which encompassed the meaning of a resource was identified. Second, the present resource managers was exposed. On methodology inspection adopted by the present method and approach used by resource managers was found to be deficient. A proposed methodology was developed which modified the present methodology considerably.
The proposed methodology acknowledges and incorporates the constraints of time and the incomplete and provisional status of any knowledge used in resource problem solving and policy formulation. This methodology suggests a new attitude towards policy that of accepting the fallibility of any policy. The concept of fallibility was found to have ramifications for the study of Resource Management and any definition constituting Resource Management.
Finally, it was concluded that Resource Management is not a discipline, it Management is defined is a way of thinking. Resource as a rational, analytical way of thinking specifically concerned with the interaction of resources, society and the environment. Three abilities were ascertained as essential to the effectiveness of a resource manager. These abilities include the need for creativity, critical analysis and a competent level of oral and written presentation for the communication of ideas.
Conflict sensitive reporting in the Nigerian print media : Boko Haram crisis as a case studyConflict sensitive reporting has become an important field of research since the Norwegian prof. Johan Galtung started his research into peace and conflict resolution, which has been further developed by several authors, such as Mari Holmboe, Jake Lynch, Annabel McGoldrick, Erving Goffman, or Nadine Bilke. In the present work, this model has been used to analyse the conflict reporting of the Boko Haram crisis in Nigeria, which has become the 2nd deadliest conflict in the country only after the Nigerian civil war of 1967-1970 and has claimed more than 16,000 lives since its start in 1999. This research will conclude that the Nigerian print media were not equally conflict sensitive in the coverage of the Boko Haram crisis in recent period.
Islam, the state and Turkey’s Syrian refugees: The vaiz of BursaThis study looks at the work of Turkey's network of state 'preachers' in the management of Syrian refugees in Bursa-a city in the north-west of the country. Based on interviews and workshops undertaken between 2015 and 2017, it traces out how these civil servants have approached a rapidly changing social situation in which belief and organized religion continue to be highly important. It focuses on the role of Islam in the provision of basic assistance programmes, the management of local conflicts and broader efforts at ensuring long-term integration. In each of these areas, our research reveals that faith remains a significant motivational element in the Turkish state's response to the Syrian refugee crisis.
La formación ciudadana en el contexto del posacuerdo en Colombia: experiencias en la educación mediaComprender los procesos de formación ciudadana y para la paz que se desarrollan en el contexto escolar, constituye un elemento importante a la hora de fortalecer una educación de calidad que potencie la convivencia, la armonía y el respeto hacia el otro en el contexto del posacuerdo. El presente artículo refleja una apuesta por la integración de espacios de reflexión y resolución de conflictos, en los que juegan un papel fundamental los actores de la escuela: estudiantes, profesores, directivos y padres de familia.
ISLAMIC RELIGIOUS EDUCATION AND THE GLOBAL ETHICS: OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES TOWARDS PEACE EDUCATION IN INDONESIAThe world has many problems, economic interests, chaos, and wars. Man needs a binder to prevent man (countries) from being able to do something that only benefits himself and harms others. Thus, global ethics as a minimalist ethic is needed in this world. The goal is that there be peace and order. This article aims to construct an idea of creating peaceful education through Islamic Religious Education with a global ethical perspective. This research confirms that the main points of global ethics are relevant to Islamic religious education in Indonesia regarding Islamic teachings and Government Regulations. The integration of global ethics in Islamic Religious Education can be implemented in Indonesia. On the other hand, there are challenges to integrating global ethics in learning; how can teachers provide students with an understanding of the universal values of global ethics in Indonesia context of a plural society? The leading global ethics precepts must be included in the Islamic religious education curriculum at the basic, secondary, and higher levels. This study is devoted to developing a rudimentary idea of Islamic religious education from a global ethical standpoint. As a result, additional research on Islamic religious education from a global ethical viewpoint is required.
Justicia y verdad en los acuerdos de la Habana entre el gobierno de Colombia y las FARC.El proceso de paz que se celebró entre el gobierno de Colombia y el grupo guerrillero de las farc, ha generado tanto impacto no solo en el país, sino a nivel mundial, esto debido a las banderas que se izaron desde el primer momento de los acercamientos entre las actores principales, que el objetivo de buscar una paz estable y duradera en el país, tras más de 60 años de conflicto. Ahora bien, el debate se ha centrado en las victimas, por ser ellas quien más sufrieron el rigor de la guerra y sus consecuencias, para ello se implementó un modelo de Justicia Transicional para que tanto victimas como victimarios tuvieran, el escenario a través de los diferentes mecanismos que el marco jurídico para la paz trae en sí, todo esto siempre desde el punto de vista de los grandes principios de Justicia y Verdad.
The imperative of success: United Nations Peacekeeping in Cambodia (1991–1993)In the early 1990s, the United Nations achieved in Cambodia an outcome that has been promoted as an important and rare peacekeeping success. The United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia (UNTAC) was a key experiment in the laboratory of post-Cold War peacekeeping. Although UNTAC was confronted with one major spoiler party, the Khmer Rouge, the mission’s leadership supposedly resisted venturing into peace enforcement and succeeded in achieving the mission’s end goal of holding democratic elections in May 1993. However, UNTAC’s outcome has been all too readily interpreted in the light of the peacekeeping failures in the former Yugoslavia and Somalia. Using newly declassified documents, this study breaks with the traditional narrative that ascribes the causes for “success” in Cambodia to a strict adherence to the traditional peacekeeping principles. It reveals that under the imperative of turning the mission into a success, and paradoxically, saving the credibility of UN peacekeeping itself, UNTAC eventually violated the core principle of impartiality by forging an alliance with the government faction against the Khmer Rouge. The historical analysis thereby demonstrates that the theoretical and legalistic distinction between peacekeeping and peace enforcement has long distorted a thorough understanding of the true challenges in UN peacekeeping operations.
Enabling autocracy? Peacebuilding and post-conflict authoritarianism in the Democratic Republic of CongoDoes peacebuilding shape the regime type of countries where international missions are deployed? Most peacebuilding missions take place in authoritarian contexts, and seek to overcome the legacies of conflict by overseeing transitions to democratic rule; however, most regimes that experience peacebuilding still retain some form of authoritarian rule. In this article, we examine the extent to which international peacebuilding missions contribute to the consolidation of post-conflict authoritarian regimes even when their stated aims involve the promotion of democracy. We argue that international peacebuilders can act as enablers of authoritarianism in host countries. We distinguish this category of behaviour from explicit ‘autocracy promotion’, which implies intentional support to autocracy. Instead, enabling is often an unintended consequence, and we identify two mechanisms through which enabling occurs: by building the capacity of incumbent authoritarian leaders and by signalling a permissive environment for authoritarian behaviour for national actors. We illustrate our argument with the case of the United Nations peacekeeping operation in the Democratic Republic of Congo.
Gandhi's SatyagrahaIn this paper, we present the influence of religion on the revolutionary movement that led India to political independence in the last century. The most credit for the changes has Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, who achieved political changes through satyagraha without violence. After introducing the term satyagraha, the authors outline Gandhi's life and his spiritual development, which enabled him to think and act nonviolently. The sources of his spirituality are highlighted as the Bhagavad-gita, the Bible and Leo Tolstoy's prose. He was also influenced by Jain religious practice, especially the principle of ahimsa practiced by Mohandas' mother. The paper concludes with an outline of the influence of satyagraha in India and beyond after Gandhi's death.
Conscientious objection, complicity in wrongdoing, and a not-so-moderate approachThis article analyzes the problem of complicity in wrongdoing in the case of healthcare practitioners (and in particular Roman Catholic ones) who refuse to perform abortions, but who are nonetheless required to facilitate abortions by informing their patients about this option and by referring them to a willing colleague. Although this solution is widely supported in the literature and is also widely represented in much legislation, the argument here is that it fails to both (1) safeguard the well-being of the patients, and (2) protect the moral integrity of healthcare practitioners. Finally, the article proposes a new solution to this problem that is based on a desirable ratio of conscientious objectors to non-conscientious objectors in a hospital or in a given geographic area.
Normalising Conflict and De-Normalising Violence: Challenges and Possibilities of Critical Teaching of the History of the Colombian Armed ConflictThis article explores the contribution history teaching may make toward peace education processes in school, specifically by addressing the history of the Colombian Armed Conflict. We analyze narratives about the armed conflict which are present in three widely disseminated history school textbooks, as well as the ¡Basta Ya!, Colombia: Memories of War and Dignity report, drafted by the Historical Memory Group (gmh, 2013). Our analysis emphasizes: i) narrative structure, ii) explanation of the causes of violence, and iii) the representation of victims’ experience. We examine these narrative elements in light of four critical inquiry categories (Problem Posing, Reflexive Skepticism, Multiperspectivity and Systemic Thinking), in order to establish the extent to which the former help foster a critical understanding of political violence. The article ends with some recommendations for a kind of history teaching capable of nurturing –in the framework of peace education–reflections that favor delegitimization of violence and non-repetition.