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Soumissions récentes

  • PENGEMBANGAN MODEL E–DEMOKRASI LOKAL MELALUI RADIO (Studi Pada Program Lang-lang Kota Radio Mayangkara FM)

    Anam Miftakhul Huda (Universitas Islam Negeri Sunan Kalijaga Yogyakarta, 2020-03-01)
    The new model of developing electronic democracy through e-democracy makes local democracy very dynamic. The level of public trust in radio is very high with an indicator of the number of community members who voluntarily inform all incidents in Blitar City and Regency. This new concept in the framework of radio journalism is referred to as citizen journalism. This study intends to develop a tripartite model of local democracy between the information giver (complainant), the handling agency (the agency complained) and the media (radio) as a bridge in solving the problem. So far the research method used is using qualitative methods with emphasis on participatory aspects. Radio owners, program directors, reporters and listeners who complain are the core informants in this study. The sampling technique used was purposive sampling using data or source triangulation and theory triangulation as a test tool. The results of this study are in the form of the city langlang program as a forum for public discussion on air in the form of complainants reporting their problems to the radio through sms, telephone, e-mail and social media. The model developed is not only on air but also off water, so that complainants can communicate with related parties via the Mayangkara FM radio bridge.
  • Islam in International Relations

    Eva Alexe; Țuțu Pișleag (Danubius University, 2019-07-01)
    The purpose of this article is to provide a brief examination of the situation in the Middle
 East through the realm of Islam as a power in a geographical and historical perspective by studying
 the interaction between the Arab and Muslim states that make up the MENA region, but also the
 interaction between Islam as power and the West without neglecting the contemporary terrorist
 organizations and their potential to diminish the state sovereignty.
  • Materi Himpunan Terintegrasi Keislaman: Sebuah Studi Pengembangan Perangkat Pembelajaran berbasis Model Problem Based Learning

    Nurmala Sari; Sri Rezeki; Rezi Ariawan (Tadris Matematika IAIN Palopo, 2019-03-01)
    Abstract: The purpose of this study is to produce a mathematical learning tool developed based on Islamic Integrated Problem-Based Learning (PBL) model that meets the validity criteria and practicality in which this learning device will make students able to solve problems related to Islam. Learning tools developed in the form of RPP (learning implementation plan) and LKPD (student worksheets) Problem-Based Learning (PBL) Islamic Integrated Model. The development of learning tools in this study uses a modification of R & D from Sugiyono so that it becomes several stages, namely: (1) Potential and problems; (2) data collection; (3) Product design; (4) Design validity; (5) Design revisions; (6) Product testing; (7) Product revision; and (8) Final product. This product was developed in class VII of SMP. The instruments of this study were the validation sheets of RPP and LKPD with Islamic Integrated, practicality questionnaire of RPP and LKPD and questionnaire for implementation of integrated Islamic learning. Islamic integration referred to in this development research by incorporating knowledge about Islam such as: the names of figures in Islam. From the research, the validation of RPP with validity criteria is quite valid and the results of the validation of LKPD with validity criteria are quite valid. While the results of the practicality of lesson plans with very practical criteria and the results of practical LKPD obtained from student questionnaire responses with very practical criteria, as well as the average results of the implementation of learning. Based on this research development produces a mathematical learning device Problem-Based Learning (PBL) model of Islam in the material of the SMP VII Class Association tested its feasibility. Abstrak: Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk menghasilkan Perangkat pembelajaran matematika yang dikembangkan berdasarkan model Problem-Based Learning (PBL) Terintegrasi Keislaman yang memenuhi kriteria kevalidan dan kepraktisan yang mana perangkat pembelajaran ini akan menjadikan siswa mampu menyelesaikan masalah yang terkait dengan keislaman. Perangkat pembelajaran yang dikembangkan berupa RPP (Rencana pelaksanaan pembelajaran) dan LKPD (Lembar kerja peserta didik) model Problem-Based Learning (PBL) Terintegrasi Keislaman. Pengembangan perangkat pembelajaran  dalam penelitian ini menggunakan modifikasi  R&D dari Sugiyono sehingga menjadi beberapa tahap yaitu: (1) Potensi dan masalah; (2) pengumpulan data; (3) Desain produk; (4) Validitas desain; (5) Revisi desain; (6) Uji coba produk; (7) Revisi produk; dan (8) Produk akhir. Produk ini dikembangkan pada kelas VII SMP. Instrumen penelitian ini adalah lembar validasi RPP dan LKPD dengan Terintegrasi Keislaman, angket kepraktisan RPP dan LKPD dan angket keterlaksanaan pembelajaran yang Terintegrasi keislaman. Terintegrasi keislaman yang dimaksud dalam penelitian pengembangan ini dengan memasukkan pengetahuan tentang islam seperti: nama-nama tokoh-tokoh  dalam islam. Dari penelitian diperoleh hasil validasi RPP dengan kriteria kevalidan cukup valid dan hasil validasi LKPD dengan kriteria kevalidan cukup valid. Sedangkan hasil kepraktisan RPP dengan kriteria sangat praktis dan hasil kepraktisan LKPD diperoleh dari angket respon siswa dengan kriteria sangat praktis, serta rata-rata hasil keterlaksanaan pembelajaran. Berdasarkan penelitian pengembangan ini menghasilkan perangkat pembelajaran matematika model Problem-Based Learning (PBL) Terintegrasi keislaman pada materi Himpunan kelas VII SMP teruji kelayakannya.
  • Political Islam and Democracy

    Browne-Michael, Mikellon S (STARS, 2017-01-01)
    The Middle East is a predominately Islamic region. Islam is not only a religion, it is the Muslim way of life and law. The western world follows a more modern system of government, in the form of democracy. Democracy is not modern, as in new, since it was started by the ancient Greeks, but it is modern, because it is the main system being adopted in contemporary times. Muslims follow the ideals found in the Holy Quran, the book dictated by the prophet Muhammad. The Middle East has had a strong Islamic influence since the mid-seventh century. Islam originated in Mecca in 610 C.E. About twelve years later, in 622 C.E., after much persecution in Mecca, Muslims migrated to Medina. This was in 622 C.E. and it marked the start of the Muslim calendar. Soon, by 655 C.E., Islam had begun spreading over the regions along the Mediterranean Sea, Arabian Peninsula, Asia, and Africa. This research will span the political systems from pre-Ottoman, to Ottoman, to the Modern era. The beginning of the modern Middle East is marked by the collapse of the Ottoman Empire and the end of World War I. Since the end of World War I, much of the Middle Eastern region has been exposed to the western system of government and western culture. The intent of this Thesis is to analyze and draw a conclusion on the possibility of Politically Islamic states having Democracy and following Democratic ideologies. It will examine the ideologies of Islam to determine if democracy, a system of government that includes the citizens of the nation having the right to speak and receiving civil liberties to choose their leaders, is actually present. It will use data from Turkey, Iran, and Egypt, Middle Eastern nations located either in, or bordering, three different continents of the world. In each country the research will examine, the governmental system, the regime type, the leaders past and present, and the policies, including how each country vary according to a specific Islamic sector (Sunni or Shia). This thesis will draw conclusions from the comparative analysis on each case study, on whether it is possible to have democracy in a state where Islamic ideologies are a major factor. From the case study findings, there were clear differences between all the countries studied. Turkey was found to be majority Sunni with a secular republic government but it is showing signs of reverting into the realm of political Islam. Iran was found to be majority Shia with a religious republic government, one that freely allows religion into the law-making body and has emphasized policies that are based on Islamic law. In addition, Iran shows adversity to western democratic bodies, which falls in line with the idea that Islam and democracy are at odds. Finally, Egypt the most revolution-plagued has changed leaders constantly through coups and protests, when the citizens find the leaders as corrupt or not acting in the best interest of the country. Like Turkey, Egypt is a secular republic with the majority of its citizens being from the Sunni Islamic sect it has recently shown an inclination to be the most democratic nation of those studied. The research showed that the Middle East is still having trouble adjusting to the idea of democracy and democratic ideology. The issues were found on various cultural, social, and leadership levels. There were not only civil and regional disputes among the nations of the Middle East, some of the issues have been extended to international levels. The split between Democracy and traditional Islamic values, appeared to only deepen the conflicts of the region.
  • From Pre-Islam to Mandate States: Examining Cultural Imperialism and Cultural Bleed in the Levant

    Willman, Gabriel (STARS, 2013-08-01)
    To a large degree, historical analyses of the Levantine region tend to focus primarily upon martial interaction and state formation. However, perhaps of equitable impact is the chronology of those interactions which are cultural in nature. The long-term formative effect of cultural imperialism and cultural bleed can easily be as influential as the direct alterations imposed by martial invasion. While this study does not attempt to establish comparative causal weight or catalytic impact between these types of interactions, it does contend that the cultural evolution of the Levant has been significantly influenced by external interaction for a period of time extending beyond the Levantine Islamic Expansion. This study presents a chronological examination of the region from the pre-Expansion Period through the Mandate Period, focused upon relevant cultural structures. Specifically, emphasis is placed upon religious, ethnic, and nationalistic identity development, sociolinguistic shifts, and institutional changes within the societal structure. The primary conclusion of this study is that significant evidence exists to support a long-term historical narrative of externally influenced Levantine cultural evolution, inclusive of both adaptive and reactive interactions.
  • The Roles of Tuan Guru Haji (TGH) Abd Rahman Al-Fathani in the Development of Islamic Education in Patani Southern Thailand

    Zulkipli Lessy; Supean Chemo (Universitas Islam Negeri Sunan Kalijaga Yogyakarta, 2020-03-01)
    Rigorous research has reported reformist figures from Islamic education in Patani Thailand, such as Tuan Guru Haji (TGH) Abd Rahman al-Fathani. This paper discusses the role of TGH Abd Rahman al-Fathani in the development of Islamic education in Ma'had Tsaqafah Islamiyah Pombing Patani Southern Thailand. This study uses field studies with in-depth interviews, observation, and a literature search. The results showed a critical point that the development of Islamic education in Muassasah Ma'had Tsaqafah al-Islamiyah since its inception until now is inseparable from the work and thought innovations of Muassasah leaders with the help of elements in Muassasah's organizational structure. This illustrates the role of TGH Abd Rahman al-Fathani in the development of Islamic education by modernizing Islamic boarding schools, spreading literacy in Islamic education, conceptualizing institutional curricula, and sparking effective learning methods. Supporting factors include togetherness in managing the curriculum and teaching and learning process, adequate facilities and infrastructure, and experienced teachers. Inhibiting factors include different abilities and psychological abilities of students, low community participation, and poor management of funds.
  • Analysis of economic convergence of Islamic justice in selected Islamic countries

    Mohammad Reza Alizadeh Emamzadeh (SpringerOpen, 2020-03-01)
    Abstract Justice is the most important principle in Islam and measures the extent to which decisions in Islamic countries comply with Islamic doctrine. Economic justice is a sub-domain of justice and is further subdivided to distributive justice. Distributive justice implies that improvement in economic well-being of an individual occurs to the detriment of another’s. The present study investigates economic convergence of Islamic justice in selected Islamic countries (Albania, Bangladesh, Azerbaijan, Egypt, Guinea, Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kosovo, Kyrgyzstan, Malaysia, Maldives, Niger, Pakistan, Senegal, Tajikistan, Turkey, Yemen And Tunisia) during 1995–2015 using beta-type convergence and generalized method of moment. It is argued that growth rate of income distribution in communities that suffer from bad income distribution system will move in the long run towards fair distribution. Results of absolute beta convergence indicate convergence of Gini coefficient at rate of 0.31. The Gini coefficient is significant at 1%. Moreover, results of conditional beta convergence reveal convergence of Gini coefficient. Inflation rate and GDP positively affect this convergence.
  • Regionalmacht Vereinigte Arabische Emirate: Abu Dhabi tritt aus dem Schatten Saudi-Arabiens

    Stiftung Wissenschaft und Politik -SWP- Deutsches Institut für Internationale Politik und Sicherheit; Steinberg, Guido (DEUBerlin, 2020-03-26)
    Seit dem Arabischen Frühling 2011 verfolgen die Vereinigten Arabischen Emirate (VAE) eine zunehmend aktive Außen- und Sicherheitspolitik. Sie sind dadurch eine wichtige Regionalmacht geworden. Die VAE sehen in der Muslimbruderschaft eine ernsthafte Bedrohung für die Regimestabilität im eigenen Land und bekämpfen die Organisation und ihr nahestehende Gruppierungen in der gesamten arabischen Welt. Bevorzugte Partner der emiratischen Regionalpolitik sind autoritäre Herr­scher, die den politischen Islam kritisch sehen und die Muslimbruder­schaft bekämpfen. Die neue emiratische Regionalpolitik richtet sich auch gegen die iranische Expansion im Nahen Osten. Die antiiranische Dimension der emiratischen Außenpolitik ist jedoch schwächer ausgeprägt als die antiislamistische Dimension. Die VAE wollen die Kontrolle der Seewege vom Golf von Aden in das Rote Meer erlangen und haben im Laufe des Jemen-Konflikts seit 2015 ein kleines Seereich rund um den Golf von Oman aufgebaut. Der Aufstieg der VAE zur Regionalmacht hat das Land zu einem wich­tigeren und gleichzeitig problematischeren Partner für die deutsche und die europäische Politik gemacht. (Autorenreferat)
  • Philippine Economic And Political Development And Philippine Muslim Unrest

    de Leon, Justin (STARS, 2008-01-01)
    Muslim culture and society has been a part of the Philippine islands in spite of nearly ninety-five percent of the population being Christian (a majority Catholic), yet did not become a separatist movement until the 1970's. Since then, the two main separatist groups the Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF) and the Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF) have been battling the Philippine government. The parties entered truces in 1996 and 2001, yet there has been a cycle of violence continues. The Abu Sayyaf Group (ASG), linked to Al Qaeda, emerged in 1990 and has launched many attacks on the Christian Philippine majority. The prolonged Muslim unrest in the ARMM has left thousands dead and hundreds of thousands displaced. The main objective of this research paper is to examine Philippine economic and political development and its impact on Philippine Muslim unrest. This paper presents a critical analysis of the economic and political development and Philippine Muslim unrest by examining six major features of the Philippines; they are: The historical evolution, economic development, political development, socio-cultural setting, geographic setting, and the quality of life of the Filipino people. This research also examines Fareed Zakaria's illiberal democracies theory, liberal institutionalism, and the Marxist theory of class revolution and primarily relies on research conducted at the University of the Philippines and from Philippine and Asian scholars. By taking a holistic comprehensive approach and by using international relations theory, this research fills two gaps in the literature about Philippine Muslim unrest. The research concludes with a look at future challenges, both short term and long term that face the country, as well as, possible future scenarios. The findings of this research are that the economic and political development and the historical evolution, though major contributory factors, are not the sole reason for the prolonged Philippine Muslim unrest. The most pervasive causal factor to Muslim unrest was the socio-cultural setting. Because of the all-pervasive nature of culture; at first glance, the socio-cultural setting was not a major apparent cause. At almost all times examined throughout this research, certain cultural tendencies guided decisions and altered the course of events more so than any other single variable. Corruption, crony capitalism, patrimonialism, and irrational institutions all stem from the tendencies of Philippine culture must be addressed to find lasting peace in the country. A move toward rational legal institutions and liberal constitutionalism, will lead the way to the creation of a liberal democracy and break the cycle of violence occurring in the Philippines.
  • Konfesní výuka náboženství pro žáky přicházející ze sekulárního prostředí?

    Kohoutová, Alena (2013)
    The main topic of this work is an effort to answer the question, whether confessional teaching of religion is the right way to approach pupils from secular environment. In the first part of my work I follow up the definition of catechesis and its history. Next I compare confessional and unconfessional way of teaching religion, and as an alternative to it, I propose the teaching focused on cultural context. I also give attention to the term ?secular society? and consequences from that in religion teaching. I look for goals and contents of religion teaching in individual church documents with consideration to non-religious pupils. In the last section of this work I pay attention to developmental psychology, development of religious judgment and the character of educator. In the very end I try to find solutions to teachings focused on cultural context.
  • <!--dc.title-->The story of Dutch body donors

    Bolt, S.H.; Venbrux, H.J.M.; Eisinga, R.N.; Kuks, J.B.M.; Veening, J.G.; Altena, M.M.A.; Gerrits, P.O. (2012)
    Contains fulltext : 103029.pdf (publisher's version ) (Open Access)
  • <!--dc.title-->Anatomist on the dissecting table? Dutch anatomical professionals' views on body donation

    Bolt, S.H.; Venbrux, H.J.M.; Eisinga, R.N.; Gerrits, P.O. (2012)
    Contains fulltext : 102910.pdf (publisher's version ) (Closed access)
  • Landscape of identities in shared spaces of the borderlands

    Fuerst-Bjeliš, Borna; Vukosav, Branimir (DEU, 2020-03-16)
    The Early Modern Croatian borderlands area reflects many social and cultural divides, shared spaces and intersecting identities. It represents an area of multiple contacts of three different imperial traditions in the Early Modern period; Ottoman, Habsburg and Venetian. That was a meeting place of East and West, Christianity and Islam and maritime and continental traditions. Frequent border changes throughout several centuries were followed by migrations and introduction of new (other) social and cultural communities, building and rebuilding the landscapes of multiple identities. Research into past spatial perceptions and images from historical maps is of particular interest in contact and shared spaces, where diverse cultures, religious systems and complex ethnic structures meet. Investigating regional identities in the contact spaces of the borderlands was based primarily on deconstructing maps of the time; tracing a map rhetoric and its symbolic meaning. The westernmost border of the Ottoman Empire with the Habsburg Monarchy was primarily a border between Islam and Christianity. That fact notwithstanding, the Orthodox Christians were also perceived as Others among the dominant population of Roman Catholic affiliation in (Habsburgian) Croatia. The borderlands were more likely a shared space and not so much a divide of different intersecting cultural (religious) identities, that were appreciated and recognized. Landscapes of diverse identities were analyzed and discussed through a number of historical regional examples i.e. Morlacca, Minor Wallachia and Turkish Croatia.
  • Ekumenizam u sociološkoj perspektivi : društvenohistorijski horizont, teorijsko uokvirenje i (inter)konfesionalni izazovi

    Vukomanović, Milan, 1960-, 12563303; Blagojević, Mirko; Stanojević, Dragan; Vukomanović, Milan, 1960-, 12563303; Blagojević, Mirko; Pavlica, Dražen (Универзитет у Београду, Филозофски факултет, 2019-12-24)
    Ova doktorska disertacija istražuje ekumenizam iz jednog osobenog teorijskog i epistemološkog ugla. Uz pomoć cjelovitog obuhvata i međudisciplinarnog nadovezivanja težila se predočiti priroda i struktura ekumenizma, kao i poimanje njegovih zastupnika i privrženika. Istraživačka je pažnja posvećena i antiekumenizmu, kao i razlozima koji se navode u prilog takvog jednog stanovišta. U prvom dijelu rada predočavaju se kardinalni pojmovi (ekumena, ekumenizam, ekumeničnost) i historija samog ekumenizma. Povijest ekumenizma je razvrstana u tri vremenska isječka: paleoekumenizam, protoekumenizam, moderni ekumenizam. Nakon opojmovljenja i opovjesnjenja ekumenizma, dati su obrisi aksiologije ekumenizma. Ono što bi trebalo da odlikuje homo ecumenicusa čine tri krucijalna svojstva: dijalogičnost, irenizam i agapizam. Kako bi se ekumenizam što je moguće svestranije i nijansiranije istražio, on se umetnuo u izvjestan kategorijalni i teorijski okvir. U drugom dijelu rada ekumenizam je prelaman kroz tri teorijska pristupa: posvjetovljenje, globalizaciju i postmodernu. Pokazalo se da su navedeni teorijski obrasci bili saznajno plodonosni pri nastojanju da se objasni i razumije ekumenizam. U preostalom dijelu rada ekumenizam se sagledavao uzastopno s ove i one strane hrišćanstva. Trokonfesionalnost hrišćanstva je uslovila da se ekumenizam zasebno razmatra u okviru protestantizma, rimokatoličanstva i pravoslavlja. Dakako, to nije bila prepreka da se tri pomenute konfesije stave u višestrani uporedni okvir. Traganje za prihvatljivim granicama približavanja hrišćana odvelo je ovo istraživanje i s one strane hrišćanstva. Propitivalo se da li ekumenizam posjeduje svereligijske i opštečovječanske kapacitete. Najzad, u zaključnim se razmatranjima pravi bilans dosadašnjih ekumenističkih postignuća, kao što se oprezno nude i smjernice za stvaralačke proboje nekog budućeg ekumenizma. Ovako zamišljen rad zahtjevao je posebnu vrstu hermeneutičkih zahvata, ujedno kritičkih i uživljavajućih. Razlagan je ekumenizam iz historijskoidejne, fenomenološke, kritičkoideološke i teološkoantropološke tačke gledišta. Mimo konfiguracija i diskursa ekumenizma, velika pažnja je posvećena i znatnom broju njegovih poslenika
  • Allah Khe Qarz 20 01 2020 Single Page

    حکمت قرآن انسٹیٹیوٹ جامع مسجد ربانی، هائی وے ڪالونی، اسڪيم-33، نزد جمالی پُل، ڪراچی ايسٹ فون: 0313-2707097   کاروبار میں اسلام کی رہنمائی   ڈاکٹر محمد واسع ظفر (استادو سابق صدر، شعبہ تعلیم، پٹنہ یونیورسٹی، پٹنہ)     کون ہے جو   اللہ کو قرض دے؟ محمد (صہ) معمولات اور معاملات ترت یب و تدوین: ابوالفضل نور احمد   کیا آپ معرفتِ الٰہی کےعملی راستے جانتے ہیں؟ مولانا وحید الدین خان   دعوت الي الله مسلمانن جي بنيادي ذميواري دعوت جي اهميت، ضرورت   ۽ طريقن بابت لکيل ٻه اهم مضمون   ڪير   آهي جو الله کي قرض ڏئي؟   اللھ رحمٰن ۽ رحيم آهي   تاليف اسماءُ الحسنيٰ حضرت محمد راشد روضي ڌڻي ؓ   حاشيا، ترتيب ۽ تحقيق نور احمد ميمڻ   هڪ مسلمان جي لاءِ محبت ۽ دوستيءَ جو معيار   مسلمان جي حيثيت ۾ منهنجي ذميواري منهنجو قرآن تي عمل: پورو يا اڌورو؟ جامع مسجد رباني، هاءِ وي ڪالوني، اسڪيم-33، نزد جمالي پُل، ڪراچي ايسٽ فون: 0313-2707097
  • Néo-pentecôtisme et globalisation

    Centre Maurice Halbwachs (CMH) ; École des hautes études en sciences sociales (EHESS)-École normale supérieure - Paris (ENS Paris)-Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS); Laboratoire d'Excellence TEPSIS (TEPSIS) ; École des hautes études en sciences sociales (EHESS); García-Ruiz, Jesùs; Michel, Patrick (HAL CCSD, 2014-06)
    L'inauguration à São Paulo du "Temple de Salomon", édifice central du culte de l'Igreja Universal do Reino de Deus, fondée et dirigée par l'évêque Edir Macedo, interviendra le 31 juillet 2014, en présence de Dilma Rousseff, chef de l'État brésilien. D'une superficie équivalant à celle du Christ Rédempteur de Rio de Janeiro, ce qui sera la plus grande église de la ville pour recevoir 10 000 fidèles assis. Dotée de toutes les technologies de pointe, elle disposera en sous-sol d'un parking pouvant accueillir 1 200 véhicules.
  • Diasporas : développements et mondialisations

    Centre population et développement (CEPED - UMR_D 196); Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD)-Université Paris Descartes - Paris 5 (UPD5); Meyer, Jean-Baptiste; Fibbi, Rosita (HAL CCSD, 2002)
    International audience
  • Vliv církevního majetku na průběh pozemkových úprav

    NOVOTNÝ, Patrik (2015)
    Bachelor thesis is focused on the historical development of the ownership of church property and its influence on the progress of land consolidation in the context of the so-called church restitution in the Czech Republic. Former church property was not included, after the change of regime, in the general restitution law and in the following years, the topic of these restitutions became one of the most important disputes of Czech policy and public discussions. At the end is presented the solution of property settlement with churches and religious societies.
  • Matriční agenda v Čechách

    Černá, Kateřina (2008)
    The aim of this thesis is to describe the development of register records in Bohemia by comparing the recent records in registry books with those issuing from the oldest registry books. It also shows the importance of the register records today and in the past, as well as the changes of these specifications and data through out the centuries. The importance of this thesis is to highlight the fact that the records in the registry books were originally determined to be registers of received sacraments arising from the clerical regulations issued by the Roman Catholic Church. The Trident Council instructed to keep registers of christening and marriages. But the implementation into practise of these registers took longer than it was expected. The register agenda in the Czech lands was not uniform until the 18th century. The proper integration of the register agenda was stated after this period on the basis of state regulations. The Roman Catholic Church contributed actively to the origin of keeping such an agenda and was also entitled and entrusted to supervise the register record of all other Churches.

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