• A <i>p</i>-Robust Green Supply Chain Network Design Model under Uncertain Carbon Price and Demand

      Ruozhen Qiu; Shunpeng Shi; Yue Sun (MDPI AG, 2019-10-01)
      The problem of designing a multi-product, multi-period green supply chain network under uncertainties in carbon price and customer demand is studied in this paper. The purpose of this study is to develop a robust green supply chain network design model to minimize the total cost and to effectively cope with uncertainties. A scenario tree method is applied to model the uncertainty, and a green supply chain network design model is developed under the <i>p</i>-robustness criterion. Furthermore, the solution method for determining the lower and upper bounds of the relative regret limit is introduced, which is convenient for decision-makers to choose the corresponding supply chain network structure through the tradeoff between risk and cost performance. In particular, to overcome the large scale of the model caused by a high number of uncertain scenarios and reduce the computational difficulty, a scenario reduction technique is applied to filter the scenarios. Numerical calculations are executed to analyze the influence of relevant parameters on the performance of the designed green supply chain network. The results show that the proposed <i>p</i>-robust green supply chain network design model can effectively deal with carbon and demand uncertainties while ensuring cost performance, and can offer more choices for decision-makers with different risk preferences.
    • A 10-year Analysis on the Reduction of Particulate Matter at the Green Buffer of the Sihwa Industrial Complex

      Sin-Yee Yoo; Sumin Choi; Namin Koo; Taehee Kim; Chan-Ryul Park; Wan-Hyeok Park (MDPI AG, 2021-05-01)
      Green buffer (GB) zones are designed to prevent the spread of air pollutants and odors from industrial complexes (ICs) to residential areas (RAs). We analyzed changes in the concentration of particulate matter (PM) and the number of high PM pollution days for 10 years after the GB was implemented, using the National Atmospheric Environmental Research Stations 2001–2018 dataset. We also performed field measurements of PM<sub>10</sub> and PM<sub>2.5</sub> from February 2018 to January 2019 to analyze the PM concentrations at human breathing height throughout the GB. Before GB implementation (2001–2006), PM<sub>10</sub> in the RA was 9% higher than that in the IC. After GB zone implementation (2013–2018), PM<sub>10</sub> in the RA was 11% lower than that of the IC. Furthermore, the PM concentration in the RA (slope = ∆Concentration/∆Time, −2.09) rapidly decreased compared to that in the IC (slope = −1.02) and the western coastal area (WCA) (slope = −1.55) over the 10-year period. At PM concentrations at human breathing height, PM<sub>10</sub> and PM<sub>2.5</sub> in the RA were lower than those in the IC by 27% and 26%, respectively. After GB implementation, the wind speed was positively correlated but SOx was negatively correlated with the PM reduction rate at a local scale. These results show that there was a reduction of PM during and after GB implementation, implying the need for proper management of GBs and continuous measure of pollutant sources at the green buffers of industrial complexes.
    • A 10-Year Statistical Analysis of Heavy Metals in River and Sediment in Hengyang Segment, Xiangjiang River Basin, China

      Jingwen Tang; Liyuan Chai; Huan Li; Zhihui Yang; Weichun Yang (MDPI AG, 2018-04-01)
      Heavy metal elements in water and surface sediments were characterized in Hengyang river segment in Xiangjiang River basin, one of China’s most important heavy metal control and treatment region. Data of heavy metal monitoring results in water and sediment for 10 years were acquired from an environmental monitoring program in the main channel of the studied area. Descriptive and exploratory statistical procedures were performed to reveal the characteristics of the sample distributions of heavy metal elements. The sample distributions of heavy metal elements were largely skewed right. Data censoring and too severe rounding in the water monitoring data were identified to have caused discretization in the sample distributions. Temporal and spatial characteristics of the data sets were addressed. The chromium (Cr) in the sediment possessed unique behavior, and this could be caused by a rapid deposition and releasing process.
    • A 3D-FE Model for the Rutting Prediction in Geogrid Reinforced Flexible Pavements

      Giovanni Leonardi; Federica Suraci (MDPI AG, 2022-03-01)
      Permanent deformation (rutting) is an important disturbing failure on flexible road pavements. This phenomenon appears on the flexible pavement as longitudinal depressions, and it is a consequence of the degradation of materials under high traffic loading based on consolidation/densification, surface wear, plastic/shear flow, and mechanical deformation. Hence, the rutting phenomenon depends on the accumulation of permanent deformations on pavement surfaces subjected to repeated wheel loads. In recent years, several studies have confirmed that the service life of asphalt pavements can be increased by using geosynthetics between or within layers because of the improved mechanical properties. The aim of this paper is to present the results of the 3D-finite element (FE) simulations and the development of the rutting phenomenon in a traditional flexible pavement and a reinforced one, both subjected to a cyclic load. Through Abaqus/CAE software, a road section reinforced by a geogrid was analyzed and compared with a traditional road section to investigate the advantages given by the geosynthetic completely embedded at two-thirds of the asphalt concrete layer (AC) in terms of permanent deformations. The results show the capability of the proposed FE study, that uses the plasticity model of Drucker-Prager for unbound materials combined with the simple creep law to model HMA layers to predict the permanent deformation distribution.
    • A 5S Lean Strategy for a Sustainable Welding Process

      Carlos Manzanares-Cañizares; Alberto Sánchez-Lite; Víctor F. Rosales-Prieto; José Luis Fuentes-Bargues; Cristina González-Gaya (MDPI AG, 2022-05-01)
      The correct performance of the welding processes used to join metal parts or structural elements is considered to be of vital importance to guarantee the reliability of these products during their useful lives. Adequate workstation design ensures a safe environment in which an operator can perform these processes correctly. In order to guarantee the quality of welding seams, which are used to join metal parts and structural elements, a series of standards have been developed; these standards establish requirements to guarantee the correct performance of welding processes, and the inspection of the metal welds obtained. The 5S methodology has proven to be a valid tool for improving workplaces in industrial and service activities; it is a capstone methodology when companies implement lean production approaches. This work presents a framework for applying the 5S methodology in metal welding workplaces. It defines an index to evaluate the degree of implementation of the 5S methodology, and the application of the important performance analysis methodology (IPA). Fuzzy logic is used to treat the uncertainty in evaluating the different evaluation indicators proposed. This framework is applied to a real practical case, to provide an example of its use in establishing good manufacturing practices that guarantee compliance with the requirements of welding standards, and guaranteeing the correct handling and storage of the materials and tools used in welding processes for the manufacture of welded parts and structural elements.
    • A Balancing Method of Mixed-model Disassembly Line in Random Working Environment

      Xuhui Xia; Wei Liu; Zelin Zhang; Lei Wang; Jianhua Cao; Xiang Liu (MDPI AG, 2019-04-01)
      Disassembly is a necessary link in reverse supply chain and plays a significant role in green manufacturing and sustainable development. However, the mixed-model disassembly of multiple types of retired mechanical products is hard to be implemented by random influence factors such as service time of retired products, degree of wear and tear, proficiency level of workers and structural differences between products in the actual production process. Therefore, this paper presented a balancing method of mixed-model disassembly line in a random working environment. The random influence of structure similarity of multiple products on the disassembly line balance was considered and the workstation number, load balancing index, prior disassembly of high demand parts and cost minimization of invalid operations were taken as targets for the balancing model establishment of the mixed-model disassembly line. An improved algorithm, adaptive simulated annealing genetic algorithm (ASAGA), was adopted to solve the balancing model and the local and global optimization ability were enhanced obviously. Finally, we took the mixed-model disassembly of multi-engine products as an example and verified the practicability and effectiveness of the proposed model and algorithm through comparison with genetic algorithm (GA) and simulated annealing algorithm (SA).
    • A Bamboo Treatment Procedure: Effects on the Durability and Mechanical Performance

      Quoc-Bao Bui; Anne-Cécile Grillet; Hoang-Duy Tran (MDPI AG, 2017-08-01)
      Bamboo is a natural material having a fast reproduction and high mechanical strengths. However, when a bio-based material in general, and bamboo in particular are expected to be a construction material, their sensitivity to moisture and their durability are usually questionable. Indeed, it is well known that these materials do not possess the same performance in the long-term, when compared to industrial materials. Sustainable solutions for the bamboo treatment still need to be investigated. The present study explores the oil-heated treatment with different types of oils, like flax or sunflower oils. The present investigation concentrates on mechanical properties and durability of treated bamboos to assess the effectiveness of these kinds of treatment. First, bamboo specimens were treated to decrease their sensitivity to moisture and improve their durability. Different conditions of treatment were tested: treatment at 100 °C or 180 °C; with flax oil, sunflower oil, or without oil; treatment durations of 1 h, 2 h, or 3 h; and, different cooling methods and cooling durations. Then, mechanical and durability tests were carried out on untreated and treated bamboos: uniaxial compression tests, 3 points bending tests, water immersion tests, and humidity tests. The results showed that some tested treatment methods could increase both the durability and the compressive strength of treated specimens, compared to untreated bamboo. The best results were observed on specimens treated at 180 °C during 1 h or 2 h without oil, and then cooled in 20 °C sunflower oil.
    • A Basic Study on a Rectangular Plane Space Sound Absorber Using Permeable Membranes

      Kimihiro Sakagami; Takeshi Okuzono; Yu Somatomo; Kota Funahashi; Masahiro Toyoda (MDPI AG, 2019-04-01)
      In this communication, the sound absorption characteristics of rectangular-shaped plane space sound absorbers without any backing structure using permeable membranes (PMs) are measured by reverberation room method. First, three types of PMs, in this study woven fabrics, are selected with different flow resistances and surface densities. They are prepared in the plane rectangular-shaped space absorbers of two different sizes. The measured results are discussed through comparison with the existing theoretical and measured results for absorbers of the other shapes or configurations. The present results and discussion demonstrate that the reverberation absorption coefficients of the proposed absorbers are low at low frequencies and converge to a moderately high value at high frequencies. Especially, ones with higher flow resistance than the air impedance converge to a value greater than 0.5, which is a theoretically estimated maximum absorption coefficient of infinite single-leaf PM. This is inferred to be attributed mainly to area effect. From these results the proposed absorbers can be used effectively despite of their very simple structure. Also it is found that the proposed absorber can offer higher sound absorption than permeable membrane absorbers of other shapes or configuration. Regarding the effect of the size, the absorbers of smaller size offer higher absorption coefficients regardless of material properties of the PMs used in the experiments.
    • A Battery of Soil and Plant Indicators of NBS Environmental Performance in the Context of Global Change

      Pilar Andrés; Enrique Doblas-Miranda; Stefania Mattana; Roberto Molowny-Horas; Jordi Vayreda; Moisès Guardiola; Joan Pino; Javier Gordillo (MDPI AG, 2021-02-01)
      Nature-based solutions (NBSs) for risk reduction produce environmental effects that must be assessed to evaluate their performance. In a context of climate change and growing concern about the loss of biodiversity, indicators informing about ecosystem complexity, resilience and stability are required. NBS projects hardly ever include environmental monitoring programs and, at best, NBS performance is evaluated based on elementary indicators that provide poor information about ecosystem functions and services. Within the framework of the PHUSICOS (EU, H2020) project, a NBS approach is being applied to reduce the hydrometeorological risks (rock falls and snow avalanches) that threaten a transnational road and a very populated town in the Pyrenees range. In both cases, the planned actions are modifying soil and vegetation structure and functioning as well as the environmental services they provide. Here we present a set of soil and plant indicators designed to be included in the postoperation monitoring plan of both NBS projects. We provide a description and information about the range of values of every indicator measured in the study sites together with indications about analytical methods and sampling calendar. We discuss the trade-offs between monetary cost, expertise requirements and meaningfulness of the indicators.
    • A Battery-Free Sustainable Powertrain Solution for Hydrogen Fuel Cell City Transit Bus Application

      Giuseppe Fabri; Antonio Ometto; Marco Villani; Gino D’Ovidio (MDPI AG, 2022-04-01)
      The paper presents a sustainable electric powertrain for a transit city bus featuring an electrochemical battery-free power unit consisting of a hydrogen fuel cell stack and a kinetic energy storage system based on high-speed flywheels. A rare-earth free high-efficiency motor technology is adopted to pursue a more sustainable vehicle architecture by limiting the use of critical raw materials. A suitable dynamic energetic model of the full vehicle powertrain has been developed to investigate the feasibility of the traction system and the related energy management control strategy. The model includes losses characterisation, as a function of the load, of the main components of the powertrain by using experimental tests and literature data. The performance of the proposed solution is evaluated by simulating a vehicle mission on an urban path in real traffic conditions. Considerations about the effectiveness of the traction system are discussed.
    • A Bayesian Network-Based Integrated for Flood Risk Assessment (InFRA)

      Hongjun Joo; Changhyun Choi; Jungwook Kim; Deokhwan Kim; Soojun Kim; Hung Soo Kim (MDPI AG, 2019-07-01)
      Floods are natural disasters that should be considered a top priority in disaster management, and various methods have been developed to evaluate the risks. However, each method has different results and may confuse decision-makers in disaster management. In this study, a flood risk assessment method is proposed to integrate various methods to overcome these problems. Using factor analysis and principal component analysis (PCA), the leading indicators that affect flood damage were selected and weighted using three methods: the analytic hierarchy process (AHP), constant sum scale (CSS), and entropy. However, each method has flaws due to inconsistent weights. Therefore, a Bayesian network was used to present the integrated weights that reflect the characteristics of each method. Moreover, a relationship is proposed between the elements and the indicators based on the weights called the Integrated Index for Flood Risk Assessment (InFRA). InFRA and other assessment methods were compared by receiver operating characteristics (ROC)-area under curve (AUC) analysis. As a result, InFRA showed better applicability since InFRA was 0.67 and other methods were less than 0.5.
    • A Behavioral Change Intervention System to Support the Hydration Habits of Nurses in Hospital Wards

      Owen Purvis; Richard Evans (MDPI AG, 2020-11-01)
      This paper reports on the design and development of a Behavior Change Intervention (BCI) device and service provision aimed at supporting the personal hydration habits of the UK’s National Health Service (NHS) ward-based nurses. A conceptual solution is proposed that has been developed using an iterative design process, following an adapted version of the double-diamond approach, over a seven-month time period from 11 October 2019–13 May 2020. The research was completed in collaboration with the Guy’s and St Thomas’ NHS Foundation Trust, United Kingdom. A thematic review of related literature was completed to identify key research questions. Consultation with a senior long-serving NHS nurse and a real-time observation study was completed in an NHS ward to answer these questions within the research scope. Collected data were analyzed and insights into the behaviors of nurses and the contextual factors influencing them were provided. Reusable BCI devices and a habit formation program, incorporating a smart fob watch and water station, are proposed inside of a cradle-to-cradle system. Finally, the parameters of the developed solution are defined, and the device and user experience are visualized using computer renders and storyboards. Aspects of the device functionality and feasibility have been proven and visualized using graphic devices, and their use for data collection to inform healthcare management and improvements is discussed.
    • A Behavioral Model of Managerial Perspectives Regarding Technology Acceptance in Building Energy Management Systems

      Jacky Chin; Shu-Chiang Lin (MDPI AG, 2016-07-01)
      The Building Energy Management System (BEMS), a well-known system that has been implemented in some energy corporations, has become attractive to many companies seeking to better monitor their energy consumption efficiency. This study investigated the external factors that influence acceptance of the BEMS from managerial perspectives. An extended model based on the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) was created to evaluate the implementation of the BEMS in the manufacturing industries. A structural equation modeling (SEM) approach was used to analyze the model by adopting compatibility, features, technology complexity, and perceived risk as the external variables, and integrating the five dimensions of perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, attitude, user satisfaction, and behavioral intention. The analysis results indicated that the external factors positively influenced users’ behavioral intention to use the BEMS through expected satisfaction, perceived ease of use, and perceived usefulness. Suggestions for BEMS developers are provided as well.
    • A Behavioral Perspective on Community Resilience during the COVID-19 Pandemic: The Case of Paraisópolis in São Paulo, Brazil

      Fabio Bento; Kalliu Carvalho Couto (MDPI AG, 2021-01-01)
      The present article discusses the emergence and dynamics of community resilience by empirically investigating the case of the favela of Paraisópolis in São Paulo, Brazil. The emergence of innovative practices that initially contributed to significantly lower rates of COVID-19 infection and mortality when compared to the city average is described. The analytical framework combines two conceptual perspectives in the study of complex systems. First, resilience in socio-ecological systems highlights the adaptation processes characterized by an interplay of previous experience and emerging new knowledge. Second, the metacontingency framework describes the interplay between a cultural milieu, as a context for cultural practices; an aggregate product; and a selecting environment that embed the acquisition and continuity of interlocking behavioral contingencies. Research methods that combine elements of the descriptive analysis and an exploratory basic qualitative study are employed to understand how the community has self-organized during this period. The findings demonstrate how previous experience with social challenges facilitated self-organization and the emergence of innovative practices in the context of uncoordinated public health measures during the pandemic in Brazil. Furthermore, findings from interviews indicate the existence of positive feedback loops at the community level that facilitated the emergence of innovative practices. This study aims at contributing to the understanding of community resilience by identifying the geographic, psychological, and ecological factors (contextual variables) that facilitate responses to the pandemic.
    • A Behavioural Analysis of Outdoor Thermal Comfort: A Comparative Analysis between Formal and Informal Shading Practices in Urban Sites

      Mohamed H. Elnabawi; Neveen Hamza (MDPI AG, 2020-10-01)
      This study calls for the integration of context-based socio-cultural habits and learning from local practices in providing outdoor thermal comfort in conservation areas. These parameters have direct impacts on outdoor activities, especially in hot arid climates. The study took place in two nearby locations one renovated and all external shadings removed to provide visual vistas to monuments while on the same street, no more than 1500 m apart, local shading practices were left in places. Sun-exposed as opposed to shaded sites were compared for subjective thermal comfort and outdoor activity, via structured interviews, observations, and wide-ranging micrometeorological measurements. The aim was to investigate psychological factors, including overall thermal comfort and perception, in addition to environmental parameters, such as solar radiation intensity and thermal adaptation. The analysis illustrates the importance of shading as a dominant factor in achieving thermal comfort on the urban scale, with a neutral temperature in summer of 29.9 °C and 29.2 °C for shaded and sun-exposed locations, respectively. The results suggest people may be more willing to tolerate higher temperatures in shaded rather than sun-exposed locations. Moreover, cultural constraints and context-based behaviour proved to have some influences on people’s levels of adaptation and their thermal behaviour.
    • A Benchmarking System for Domestic Water Use

      Dexter V. L. Hunt; Christopher D. F. Rogers (MDPI AG, 2014-05-01)
      The national demand for water in the UK is predicted to increase, exacerbated by a growing UK population, and home-grown demands for energy and food. When set against the context of overstretched existing supply sources vulnerable to droughts, particularly in increasingly dense city centres, the delicate balance of matching minimal demands with resource secure supplies becomes critical. When making changes to "internal" demands the role of technological efficiency and user behaviour cannot be ignored, yet existing benchmarking systems traditionally do not consider the latter. This paper investigates the practicalities of adopting a domestic benchmarking system (using a band rating) that allows individual users to assess their current water use performance against what is possible. The benchmarking system allows users to achieve higher benchmarks through any approach that reduces water consumption. The sensitivity of water use benchmarks are investigated by making changes to user behaviour and technology. The impact of adopting localised supplies (i.e., Rainwater harvesting—RWH and Grey water—GW) and including "external" gardening demands are investigated. This includes the impacts (in isolation and combination) of the following: occupancy rates (1 to 4); roof size (12.5 m2 to 100 m2); garden size (25 m2 to 100 m2) and geographical location (North West, Midlands and South East, UK) with yearly temporal effects (i.e., rainfall and temperature). Lessons learnt from analysis of the proposed benchmarking system are made throughout this paper, in particular its compatibility with the existing Code for Sustainable Homes (CSH) accreditation system. Conclusions are subsequently drawn for the robustness of the proposed system.
    • A Benefit–Cost Analysis of Food and Biodegradable Waste Treatment Alternatives: The Case of Oita City, Japan

      Micky A. Babalola (MDPI AG, 2020-03-01)
      As the generation of food scrap, kitchen, and biodegradable wastes increases, the proper handling of these wastes is becoming an increasingly significant concern for most cities in Japan. A substantial fraction of food and biodegradable waste (FBW) ends up in the incinerator. Therefore, an analytic hierarchy process (AHP) benefit−cost analysis technique was employed in this study to compare different FBW treatment technologies and select the most appropriate FBW disposal technology for Oita City. The four FBW treatment options considered were those recommended by the Japanese Food Waste Recycling Law: anaerobic digestion, compost, landfill, and incineration, which is currently in use. The fundamental AHP was separated into two hierarchy structures for benefit analysis and cost analysis. The criteria used in these two analyses were value added, safety, efficiency, and social benefits for benefit analysis, and cost of energy, cost of operation and maintenance, environmental constraints, and disamenity for cost analysis. The results showed that anaerobic digestion had the highest overall benefit while composting had the least cost overall. The benefit−cost ratio result showed that anaerobic digestion is the most suitable treatment alternative, followed by composting and incineration, with landfill being the least favored. The study recommends that composting could be combined with anaerobic digestion as an optimal FBW management option in Oita City.
    • A Benthic Zonation System as a Fundamental Tool for Natural Capital Assessment in a Marine Environment: A Case Study in the Northern Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy

      Marco Marcelli; Sergio Scanu; Francesco Manfredi Frattarelli; Emanuele Mancini; Filippo Maria Carli (MDPI AG, 2018-10-01)
      Coastal marine areas are characterized by the highest values of ecosystem services and by multiple uses that are often in conflict with each other. Natural capital analysis is claimed to be a valid tool to support space planning. In the context of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) of the European Union (EU), the EU Joint Research Centre (JRC) Scientific and Policy Report 2014 defines the monitoring of specific descriptors and their possible use, based on an ecosystem-services approach. Mediterranean marine ecosystems are characterized by high biodiversity and the presence of relevant benthic biocenosis that can be used as a tool to support coastal planning, conservation, and monitoring programs. In this study, we considered the Mediterranean benthic biocenosis, as classified by Pérès and Picard, as a working tool and propose a basic spatial unit for the assessment of marine ecosystem services. Focusing on a high-resolution local-scale analysis, this work presents an accurate identification of the different biocenoses for the coastal area of Civitavecchia in the Northern Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy, and ecosystem services, as well as a benefits assessment, of the Posidonia oceanica meadows.
    • A BERT-Based Multi-Criteria Recommender System for Hotel Promotion Management

      Yuanyuan Zhuang; Jaekyeong Kim (MDPI AG, 2021-07-01)
      Numerous reviews are posted every day on travel information sharing platforms and sites. Hotels want to develop a customer recommender system to quickly and effectively identify potential target customers. TripAdvisor, the travel website that provided the data used in this study, allows customers to rate the hotel based on six criteria: Value, Service, Location, Room, Cleanliness, and Sleep Quality. Existing studies classify reviews into positive, negative, and neutral by extracting sentiment terms through simple sentimental analysis. However, this method has limitations in that it does not consider various aspects of hotels well. Therefore, this study performs fine-tuning the BERT (Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformers) model using review data with rating labels on the TripAdvisor site. This study suggests a multi-criteria recommender system to recommend a suitable target customers for the hotel. As the rating values of six criteria of TripAdvisor are insufficient, the proposed recommender system uses fine-tuned BERT to predict six criteria ratings. Based on this predicted ratings, a multi-criteria recommender system recommends personalized Top-N customers for each hotel. The performance of the multi-criteria recommender system suggested in this study is better than that of the benchmark system, a single-criteria recommender system using overall ratings.
    • A Bi-Band Binary Mask Based Land-Use Change Detection Using Landsat 8 OLI Imagery

      Xian Li; Shuhe Zhao; Hong Yang; Dianmin Cong; Zhaohua Zhang (MDPI AG, 2017-03-01)
      Land use and cover change (LUCC) is important for the global biogeochemical cycle and ecosystem. This paper introduced a change detection method based on a bi-band binary mask and an improved fuzzy c-means algorithm to research the LUCC. First, the bi-band binary mask approach with the core concept being the correlation coefficients between bands from different images are used to locate target areas with a likelihood of having changed areas. Second, the improved fuzzy c-means (FCM) algorithm was used to execute classification on the target areas. This improved algorithm used distances to the Voronoi cell of the cluster instead of the Euclidean distance to the cluster center in the calculation of membership, and some other improvements were also used to decrease the loops and save time. Third, the post classification comparison was executed to get more accurate change information. As references, change detection using univariate band binary mask and NDVI binary mask were executed. The change detection methods were applied to Landsat 8 OLI images acquired in 2013 and 2015 to map LUCC in Chengwu, north China. The accuracy assessment was executed on classification results and change detection results. The overall accuracy of classification results of the improved FCM is 95.70% and the standard FCM is 84.40%. The average accuracy of change detection results using bi-band mask is 88.92%, using NDVI mask is 81.95%, and using univariate band binary mask is 56.01%. The result of the bi-band mask change detection shows that the change from farmland to built land is the main change type in the study area: total area is 9.03 km2. The developed method in the current study can be an effective approach to evaluate the LUCC and the results helpful for the land policy makers.