Now showing items 7898-7917 of 49060

    • C<i>u</i>R<i>ban</i>I<i>s</i>ME: A Photographic Self-Analysis to Evaluate the Likelihood of the Occurrence of Predatory Crimes in Downtown Hamburg

      Romina Fucà; Serena Cubico (MDPI AG, 2020-09-01)
      In this study, a triangulation of (a) spatial data, (b) self-awareness, and (c) behavioral self-analysis seeks to provide an explanation from an innovative perspective for the likelihood of the occurrence of predatory crimes in the city center. This study does not examine the circumstances in which criminal acts occur. Instead, it focuses on a broader concept that combines both the configurational factors and the behavioral interconnections in which criminal acts occur. We orient the occurrence probability of crime towards appropriate objectives in the presence or absence of attractors/detractors, with interesting variation in the behavior of the acting subject—in our case, a random walker (also called the Random Movement–displacement Agent, or RDMA, in the text), which is the key variable that triggers the occurrence probability of predatory crimes. The relationship between spatial and/or behavioral observations and the probability of the crimes that may result from such observations is limited in this text to “predatory crimes,” which are the most common and light forms of crimes that endanger both human quality of life and the related safety in the city. Such crimes include theft, damage (specifically crime against public property and all similar offensive acts, such as littering and incivility), physical attacks (restrained to attempted violence against defenseless people), robberies, and car thefts (i.e., the most frequent crimes in urban areas). The theory of complexity, specifically as illustrated by the in-depth work of the 20th century German sociologist Niklas Luhmann, also suggests the importance of self-analysis in specific contexts to construct a mosaic of social phenomena. We conducted both a behavioral self-survey and a metric-based self-analysis by measuring random walks (RWs) to achieve some common behaviors—for example, buying food, shopping, or just looking at shop windows—on the streets of downtown Hamburg, Germany. RWs are used in our article to indicate random walks in the city center and any activities that may arise from them, such as protecting oneself from potentially hostile contexts, seeking information, or conforming oneself to official signals and customs. The hundreds of images taken by us in October 2019 during their RWs in Hamburg form a reservoir of our pictures, with the aim of showing the acceptable patterns of random movements–displacements that emerge. This method was primarily discursive but based on the ongoing search for a transformative conduit of behaviors that were intuitively established and observable for us but actually involved a complex process of imaginative ideation that was impossible to promote and pass on to the reader.
    • C4I System Security Architecture: A Perspective on Big Data Lifecycle in a Military Environment

      Seungjin Baek; Young-Gab Kim (MDPI AG, 2021-12-01)
      Although the defense field is also one of the key areas that use big data for security reasons, there is a lack of study that designs system frameworks and presents security requirements to implement big data in defense. However, we overcome the security matters by examining the battlefield environment and the system through the flow of data in the battlefield. As such, this research was conducted to apply big data in the defense domain, which is a unique field. In particular, a three-layered system framework was designed to apply big data in the C4I system, which collects, manages, and analyzes data generated from the battlefield, and the security measures required for each layer were developed. First, to enhance the general understanding of big data and the military environment, an overview of the C4I system, the characteristics of the 6V’s, and the five-phase big data lifecycle were described. While presenting a framework that divides the C4I system into three layers, the roles and components of each layer are described in detail, considering the big data lifecycle and system framework. A security architecture is finally proposed by specifying security requirements for each field in the three-layered C4I system. The proposed system framework and security architecture more accurately explain the unique nature of the military domain than those studied in healthcare, smart grids, and smart cities; development directions requiring further research are described.
    • CA-Markov Analysis of Constrained Coastal Urban Growth Modeling: Hua Hin Seaside City, Thailand

      Rajendra Shrestha; Taravudh Tipdecho; Nitin Kumar Tripathi; Kritsana Kityuttachai (MDPI AG, 2013-04-01)
      Thailand, a developing country in Southeast Asia, is experiencing rapid development, particularly urban growth as a response to the expansion of the tourism industry. Hua Hin city provides an excellent example of an area where urbanization has flourished due to tourism. This study focuses on how the dynamic urban horizontal expansion of the seaside city of Hua Hin is constrained by the coast, thus making sustainability for this popular tourist destination—managing and planning for its local inhabitants, its visitors, and its sites—an issue. The study examines the association of land use type and land use change by integrating Geo-Information technology, a statistic model, and CA-Markov analysis for sustainable land use planning. The study identifies that the land use types and land use changes from the year 1999 to 2008 have changed as a result of increased mobility; this trend, in turn, has everything to do with urban horizontal expansion. The changing sequences of land use type have developed from forest area to agriculture, from agriculture to grassland, then to bare land and built-up areas. Coastal urban growth has, for a decade, been expanding horizontally from a downtown center along the beach to the western area around the golf course, the southern area along the beach, the southwest grassland area, and then the northern area near the airport.
    • Cactus Cladode Juice as Bioflocculant in the Flocculation-Thickening Process for Phosphate Washing Plant: A Comparative Study with Anionic Polyacrylamide

      Amine Ennawaoui; Khadija Lalam; Yasser Harmen; Abdelaziz El Morabit; Younes Chhiti; Ahmed Chebak; Mohammed Benssitel (MDPI AG, 2022-07-01)
      In the phosphate industry, the thickening process is vital to increasing the solid slurry concentration and to recovering water that is as clear as possible. The performance of the thickening process depends mainly on the coagulation–flocculation effect. The thickening process is based on flocculant agents to concentrate particles: flotation and washing plant rejects as large flocs, which accelerate their sedimentation velocity. The phosphate industry worldwide uses synthetical flocculants such as polyacrylamides. These flocculants are non-biodegradable, limiting the process efficiency regarding cost and harmful effects on the environment. This study proposes cactus cladodes juice as an eco-friendly alternative to industrial flocculants. The particle size of the phosphate samples ranges from 0 μm to 160 μm, with a solid concentration of 8%. This bioflocculant allowed for an increase in sedimentation velocity of 95% compared with the case without flocculant. The optimal amount of cactus bioflocculant for decanting 1 tonne of phosphate pulp at pH 7–8 is 1.12 kg. Special attention is paid to understanding the flocculation mechanism. The results of the physicochemical characterization show that the flocculant biopolymers have similar characteristics to anionic polyacrylamide. This work indicates the promising application of the cactus juice bioflocculant in phosphate washing plants.
    • Cadastral Land Value Modelling Based on Zoning by Prestige: A Case Study of a Resort Town

      Elena Bykowa; Maria Hełdak; Julia Sishchuk (MDPI AG, 2020-09-01)
      The article discusses cadastral land valuation in Russian resort towns, a procedure flawed by the fact that it does not take into account territorial prestige. Researchers in Russia and other countries state that it is essential to redistribute the land tax burden as the current situation creates tax injustice, which is reflected in the undervaluation of prestigious areas and the overvaluation of non-prestigious ones in resort towns. Competition for the most prestigious areas in such towns mainly stems from the opportunity for landowners to earn higher rental incomes during the high season. In view of this, the study aims to provide a method for cadastral land valuation in resort towns based on zoning by prestige. The application of the proposed method is demonstrated using the town of Anapa (a Russian resort town by the Black Sea) as a case study. The method is based on several research and analysis methods, including the following: the analytical method, which is used for a preliminary analysis of urban areas to identify the most attractive parts of resort towns; a modification of Saaty’s methodology combined with Pareto analysis, which is used to identify criteria for assessing how prestigious and important a part of the town is; cluster analysis, which is used for ranking areas in resort towns; correlation and regression analysis, which is used for land valuation modelling. The article describes the key criteria for ranking areas in resort towns by prestige, gives a definition of prestige applied to resort town districts, and proposes an equation for calculating the integral indicator of prestige and a method for assessing prestige. The validity of the prestige map that was created for the town of Anapa was proved by analyzing the average market prices for land plots located within the identified zones. The cadastral land valuation models describing land plots in Anapa that are intended for private housing construction can be correctly interpreted and are of acceptable quality.
    • Cadmium Hyperaccumulation and Translocation in <i>Impatiens</i> <i>Glandulifera</i>: From Foe to Friend?

      Stephanie Coakley; Gary Cahill; Anne-Marie Enright; Brian O’Rourke; Carloalberto Petti (MDPI AG, 2019-09-01)
      The use of phytoremediation to sustainably recover areas contaminated by toxic heavy metals such as cadmium (Cd) has been made feasible since the discovery of hyperaccumulator plants. This study examines the potential of the invasive <i>Impatiens</i> <i>glandulifera</i> for phytoremediation propensity of Cd. In these experiments, the plants were exposed to and tested for Cd accumulation; the propensity to accumulate other heavy metals, such as Zinc, was not investigated. The efficacy of phytoaccumulation was assessed over two trials (Cd concentrations of 20 mg/kg to 150 mg/kg) via examination of bioconcentration factor (BCF), translocation factor (TF), and total removal (TR). Exposure to Cd levels of up to 150 mg/kg in the trials did not affect the biomass of the plants compared to the control. <i>Impatiens</i> <i>glandulifera</i> accumulated cadmium at a rate of 276 to 1562 mg/kgin stems, with BCFs, TFs, and TRs of 64.6 to 236.4, 0.2 to 1.2, and 3.6 to 29.2 mg Cd, respectively. In vitro germination revealed unprecedented germination ability, demonstrating the remarkable hypertolerance of <i>I.</i> <i>glandulifera</i>, with no significant difference in the germination of seedlings exposed to 1000 mg/kg Cd compared to the control. This study also examined the localization of Cd in plant tissues via a histochemical assay using dithizone. The results presented herein suggest that <i>I.</i> <i>glandulifera</i> can act as a hyperaccumulator of Cd for phytoremediation.
    • Cadmium Uptake and Growth Responses of Seven Urban Flowering Plants: Hyperaccumulator or Bioindicator?

      Zhouli Liu; Mengdi Chen; Maosen Lin; Qinglin Chen; Qingxuan Lu; Jing Yao; Xingyuan He (MDPI AG, 2022-01-01)
      The application of flowering plants is the basis of urban forest construction. A newly-found flowering hyperaccumulator is crucial for remediating urban contaminated soil sustainably by cadmium (Cd). This study evaluated growth responses, Cd uptake and bioaccumulation characteristics of seven urban flowering plants. Based on growth responses of these plants, <i>Calendula officinalis</i> L. showed high tolerance to at least 100 mg kg<sup>−1</sup> Cd, in terms of significant increase in biomass and with no obvious changes in height. After 60 d exposure to 100 mg kg<sup>−1</sup> Cd, the accumulated Cd in shoots of the plant reached 279.51 ± 13.67 μg g<sup>−1</sup> DW, which is above the critical value defined for a hyperaccumulator (100 μg g<sup>−1</sup> DW for Cd). Meanwhile, the plant could accumulate Cd to as much as 926.68 ± 29.11 μg g<sup>−1</sup> DW in root and 1206.19 ± 23.06 μg g<sup>−1</sup> DW in plant, and had higher Cd uptake and bioaccumulation values. According to these traits, it is shown that <i>Calendula officinalis</i> L. can become a potential Cd-hyperaccumulator for phytoremediation. By contrast, <i>Dianthus caryophyllus</i> L. is very sensitive to Cd stress in terms of significantly decreased biomass, height and Cd uptake, indicating the plant is considered as a Cd-bioindicator.
    • Cadmium Uptake, In Vivo Metastasis and Subcellular Environmental Response of Five Wetland Plants Using DFT Method

      Zheng Zeng; Wei-Ge Luo; Fa-Cheng Yi; Zhe Wang (MDPI AG, 2021-07-01)
      The main purpose of this study is to analyze whether Cd<sup>2+</sup> affects the absorption of Ca<sup>2+</sup> and Fe<sup>2+</sup> by the roots of five wetland plants and the toxic mechanism of cadmium on the subcellular structure. Five wetland plant samples were collected from the constructed wetland in the upper reaches of the Yangtze River. Based on the experiment and density function theory (DFT), we measured the Cd<sup>2+</sup> content in the root, stem, and leaf, the morphological dimensions of plants, and in the subcellular structure the electronic activity of Cd compound was calculated to describe the stability and activity of the products. In general, <i>Zephyranthes candida</i><i>,</i><i>Cynodon dactylon, Arundo donax</i>, and <i>Pontederia cordata</i> have distinct cadmium uptake characteristics, while <i>Phragmites communis</i> does not. The results indicated tolerance to cadmium in all but <i>Phragmites communis,</i> which was due to cadmium distribution through the process of transpiration and a mechanical interception. The simulation results showed that Cd<sup>2+</sup> imposed no obvious inhibition on the absorption of Ca<sup>2+</sup> and Fe<sup>2+</sup> in plants, as the energy barrier of the process is about 1–3 eV. Cd<sup>2+</sup> could improve the amount of pyruvate and glucose by 30% via <i>spd</i> orbital hybridization, making them more chemically reactive. At the same time, Cd<sup>2+</sup> could replace Mg<sup>2+</sup> in chlorophyll through a copper substitution reaction, making the electron energy of chlorophyll more concentrated. As a result, the valence-band electron at −40 eV was vacant. In conclusion, we determined that Cd<sup>2+</sup> has no obvious inhibitory effect on Ca<sup>2+</sup> and Fe<sup>2+</sup> in root absorption and that Cd<sup>2+</sup> could affect the properties of compounds of the subcellular structure and thus produce physiological toxicity.
    • Cadmium-Tolerant Plant Growth-Promoting Bacteria Curtobacterium oceanosedimentum Improves Growth Attributes and Strengthens Antioxidant System in Chili (Capsicum frutescens)

      Mitesh Patel; Kartik Patel; Lamya Ahmed Al-Keridis; Nawaf Alshammari; Riadh Badraoui; Abdelbaset Mohamed Elasbali; Waleed Abu Al-Soud; Md Imtaiyaz Hassan; Dharmendra Kumar Yadav; Mohd Adnan (MDPI AG, 2022-04-01)
      The remediation of potentially toxic element-polluted soils can be accomplished through the use of microbial and plant-assisted bioremediation. A total of 32 bacteria were isolated from soil samples contaminated with potentially toxic elements. The isolated bacterial strain DG-20 showed high tolerance to cadmium (up to 18 mM) and also showed bioaccumulative Cd removal properties, as demonstrated by atomic absorption spectroscopy studies. By sequencing the 16S rRNA gene, this strain was identified as Curtobacterium oceanosedimentum. Under stress and normal conditions, isolate DG-20 also produced a wide range of plant growth promoting traits, including ammonia production (51–73 µg/mL) and IAA production (116–183 µg/mL), alongside siderophore production and phosphate solubilization. Additionally, pot experiments were conducted to determine whether the strain could promote Chili growth when Cd salts are present. Over the control, bacterial colonization increased root and shoot lengths significantly up to 58% and 60%, respectively. Following inoculation with the Cd-tolerant strain, the plants also increased in both fresh and dry weight. In both the control and inoculated plants, Cd was accumulated more in roots than in shoots, indicating that Chili was phytostabilizing Cd levels. Besides improving the plant attributes, Cd-tolerant bacteria were also found to increase the amount of total chlorophyll, proline, total phenol, and ascorbic acid in the soil when added to the soil. These results suggest that the inoculant provides protection to plants from negative effects. The results of the present study predict that the combined properties of the tested strain in terms of Cd tolerance and plant growth promotion can be exploited for the purpose of the bioremediation of Cd, and for the improvement of Chili cultivation in soils contaminated with Cd.
    • CAESAR II Tool: Complementary Analyses for Emergency Planning Based on Seismic Risks Impact Evaluations

      Giulio Zuccaro; Daniela De Gregorio; Mattia Federico Leone; Salvatore Sessa; Stefano Nardone; Francesca Linda Perelli (MDPI AG, 2021-09-01)
      Italy is a country with high seismic hazard, however since the delay in the seismic classification of the national territory, most of the existing building heritage does not comply with the current technical standards for buildings. The seismic events that have hit different Italian regions in recent years have highlighted the complexity of the challenge for the public bodies both in the emergency management and post-event reconstruction and in the planning of effective risk prevention and mitigation measures to be implemented in ‘peacetime’. These difficulties concern, in particular, the capacity to properly manage the financial and technical resources available and to identify the intervention priorities throughout the entire emergency cycle. For correct management, the priority is to quantify and localize, through simulations, the quantification of probable damages and to evaluate in terms of cost-benefits the possible alternative strategies for mitigation, also taking into account the potential, in terms of cost-effectiveness, of integrated measures for seismic and energy retrofitting. In this framework, the project CAESAR II (Complementary Analyses for Emergency planning based on Seismic Risks impact evaluations) has been developed as a Decision Support System for Public Authorities in charge of developing Disaster Risk Reduction plans, with the possibility of programming mid to long-term investments for public and private properties, as well as defining custom financial support mechanisms and tax incentives.
    • Caesium-133 Accumulation by Freshwater Macrophytes: Partitioning of Translocated Ions and Enzyme Activity in Plants and Microorganisms

      Laura Zorza; Maris Bertins; Kristine Saleniece; Gunta Kizane; Andrejs Grinbergs; Ugis Eismonts; Ingars Reinholds; Arturs Viksna; Olga Muter (MDPI AG, 2022-01-01)
      The potential of aquatic plants to accumulate Cs may be of notable importance in the environmental monitoring of radioactive wastes. This study aimed to evaluate the accumulation of Cs-133 by freshwater macrophytes <i>Bacopa amplexicaulis</i>, <i>Elodea densa</i>, <i>Ceratophyllum submersum</i>, and <i>Limnobium laevigantum</i> after a 10-day incubation period with CsCl (1–1000 μM). The partitioning of Cs and other elements, including 21 metals, such as P, B, and As, was analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry combined with principal component analysis (PCA). The enzymatic activity of plant crude extracts and aquatic microorganisms was characterized. The transfer factor (TF) reached the highest values of 0.13 and 0.10 for <i>C. submersum</i> and <i>L. laevigantum</i>, respectively, at 1000 μM Cs. The TFs in the other sets were below 0.1. In the presence of Cs-133, there was a significant increase in dehydrogenase activity (<i>p</i> < 0.05) and a decrease in the activity of the Folin–Ciocalteu assay. A three-fold decrease in culturable microorganisms was found in plants with 1000 μM Cs. PCA analysis revealed the species-specific elemental distribution in plant biomass and the aquatic phase. A negative correlation between Na, Ca (2.0–2.5, PC1) and Mg, K, and P (−2, PC1) was found. Certain enzyme groups can serve as bioindicators of Cs pollution in aquatic ecosystems.
    • Café and Restaurant under My Home: Predicting Urban Commercialization through Machine Learning

      Seung-Chul Noh; Jung-Ho Park (MDPI AG, 2021-05-01)
      The small commercial stores opening in housing structures in Seoul have been soaring since the beginning of this century. While commercialization generally increases urban vitality and achieves land use mix, cafés and restaurants in low-rise residential areas may attract numerous passenger populations, with increased noise and crimes, in the residential area. The urban commercialization is so fast and prevalent that neither urban researchers nor policymakers can respond to it timely without a practical prediction tool. Focusing on cafés and restaurants, we propose an XGBoost machine learning model that can predict commercial store openings in urban residential areas and further play the role of an early warning system. Our findings highlight a large degree of difference in the predictor importance between the variables used in our machine learning model. The most important predictor relates to land price, indicating that economic motivation leads to the conversion of urban housing to small cafés and restaurants. The Mapo neighborhood is predicted to be the most prone to the commercialization of urban housing, therefore, its urgency to be prepared against expected commercialization deserves underscoring. Overall, our results show that the machine learning approach can be applied to predict changes in land uses and contribute to timely policy designs in rapidly changing urban context.
    • Cairo’s Contested Garbage: Sustainable Solid Waste Management and the Zabaleen’s Right to the City

      Wael Fahmi; Keith Sutton (MDPI AG, 2010-06-01)
      Over the decades, the Zabaleen, the traditional waste (garbage) collectors of Cairo, have created what is arguably one of the world’s most efficient and sustainable resource-recovery and waste-recycling systems. Yet the continuation of this intricate relationship between community, environment and livelihood is jeopardized by the official privatization of municipal solid waste (MSW) services through contracts with technology-intensive multinational corporations which threatens the sustainability of the garbage collectors’ communities by removing access to their chief economic asset, waste or garbage. The situation is exacerbated by an official policy of moving the Zabaleen and their MSW sorting, recovery, trading and recycling activities further out of the city, on the grounds that this will turn their neighbourhoods into cleaner and healthier living environments. The consumption of Cairo’s sites of MSW collection and sorting open new socio-political spaces for conflict between multi-national companies and the Zabaleen’s traditional system. This is further indicated in the way Cairo’s waste materials have been subjected to new claims and conflict, as they are seen as a ‘commodity’ by global capital entrepreneurs and multi-national corporations, and as a source of ‘livelihood’ by the disadvantaged and marginalised Zabaleen population.
    • Calcium from Finger Millet—A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis on Calcium Retention, Bone Resorption, and In Vitro Bioavailability

      Seetha Anitha; David Ian Givens; Rosemary Botha; Joanna Kane-Potaka; Nur Liana Binti Sulaiman; Takuji W. Tsusaka; Kowsalya Subramaniam; Ananthan Rajendran; Devraj J. Parasannanavar; Raj Kumar Bhandari (MDPI AG, 2021-08-01)
      Calcium deficiency during child growth leads to osteoporosis in later stages of life. Finger millet is one of the calcium dense foods, with three times the level of calcium than milk, and the only cereal that contains high calcium content which is consistent across different varieties (364 ± 58 mg/100 g). Thus, finger millet has potential for addressing calcium deficiency naturally. This study aimed to determine the retention and impact of finger millet calcium on bone turnover through a systematic review and meta-analysis. Three human studies were eligible for systematic review. Of these, only two were eligible for meta-analysis to assess the retention of calcium in children of 9 to 12 years. One study on bone turnover markers was not used in the meta-analysis as at least two studies are required to conduct meta-analysis. Due to the lack of complete data only four studies were eligible for meta-analysis to assess the in vitro bioavailability of calcium from unprocessed and a range of different types of processed finger millet. The result shows that there was significant retention (<i>p</i> < 0.05) of 23.4 ± 2.9% calcium from finger-millet-based diet which could help bone accretion during child growth if finger-millet-based diet is consumed. The bone turnover marker study shows that the resorption of calcium reduced by 28% and 47% among peri and post-menopausal women respectively after feeding the nutria mixed grain ball. However, there is no significant change in bone formation marker. Depending on the type of processing, calcium bioavailability either increased or decreased. One in vitro study showed that calcium bioavailability from finger millet was 28.6% when boiled, whereas three studies on processing show that certain processing can double the calcium bioavailability to 61.4%. Irrespective of the type of processing, finger millets contribute to high calcium retention and extremely high bioavailable calcium and could be useful for healthy growth and in dealing with complications related to calcium deficiency.
    • Calcium-Rich Pigeonpea Seed Coat: A Potential Byproduct for Food and Pharmaceutical Industries

      Dhanapal Susmitha; Thiyagarajan Kalaimagal; Ramachandran Senthil; Mani Vetriventhan; Seetha Anitha; Swaminathan Manonmani; Prabhakaran Jeyakumar; Surender Reddymalla; Ovais Peerzada; Venkata Narayana Arveti (MDPI AG, 2022-04-01)
      Pigeonpea is a protein-rich legume which is consumed worldwide in a variety of forms (whole seed, dhal, and as a green vegetable). In India, pigeonpea is milled to yield dhal (cotyledon) and this process generates 25–35% waste byproducts. The hull (seed coat) which accounts for 10% of the byproduct is disposed of either as waste or low-cost cattle feed. To recycle the waste byproducts into the food value chain, this study was conducted with the objectives: (i) to estimate nutrient accumulation in the major seed fractions (cotyledon and seed coat), (ii) to estimate the percentage of nutrient contribution by major seed fractions, (iii) to assess the percentage of nutrient loss due to dehulling, and (iv) to determine the scope of seed coat in nutritional value addition. For this, a subset of 60 diverse pigeonpea accessions selected from 600 pigeonpea accessions raised during the 2019 and 2020 rainy seasons at ICRISAT, Patancheru, India, was subjected to a cotyledon and seed coat nutrient analysis. The three-way analysis of variance revealed the significant influence of cropping years, seed fractions, genotypes, and their interactions on nutrient accumulation. The nutrients, namely protein (32.28 ± 2.29%), P (476.51 ± 39.05 mg/100 g), K (1557.73 ± 66.82 mg/100 g), Fe (4.42 ± 0.41 mg/100 g), Zn (2.25 ± 0.21 mg/100 g), and Cu (0.95 ± 0.07 mg/100 g) were enriched in cotyledon. Mn was equally enriched in both the cotyledon and seed coat (1.02 ± 0.12 mg/100 g and 0.97 ± 0.34 mg/100 g, respectively). The seed coat had a high concentration of Ca (652.02 ± 114.82 mg/100 g), and Mg (249.19 ± 34.12 mg/100 g) with wide variability for Fe (2.74–5.61 mg/100 g), Zn (0.88–3.95 mg/100 g), Cu (0.38–1.44 mg/100 g), and Mn (0.58–2.18 mg/100 g). It is noteworthy that the protein and P contents in the cotyledon were 7 and 18 times higher than that in the seed coat, respectively, and the Ca content in the seed coat was 12 times higher than that in the cotyledon. A correlation study revealed that for overall nutrient improvement in dhal, selection for a small seed size was desirable. On an average, the percentage of nutrient contribution by major seed fractions revealed that the cotyledon portion contributed around 95% protein and P; 90% K and Zn; 85% Fe, Cu, and Mn; and 75% Mg, while the seed coat portion contributed nearly 65% Ca to the whole grain. The findings of high Fe and protein concentrations in the cotyledon and high Ca accumulation in the seed coat can serve as a new guide for improved technological fractionation of these components to serve as a novel functional food ingredient and as a dietary supplement that can address malnutrition.
    • Calculating a Drop in Carbon Emissions in the Strait of Gibraltar (Spain) from Domestic Shipping Traffic Caused by the COVID-19 Crisis

      Vanessa Durán-Grados; Yolanda Amado-Sánchez; Fátima Calderay-Cayetano; Rubén Rodríguez-Moreno; Emilio Pájaro-Velázquez; Antonio Ramírez-Sánchez; Sofia I. V. Sousa; Rafael A. O. Nunes; Maria C. M. Alvim-Ferraz; Juan Moreno-Gutiérrez (MDPI AG, 2020-12-01)
      As a consequence of the COVID-19 pandemic, the Spanish government declared a State of Emergency, and domestic passenger ship traffic was restricted in Spanish ports. This manuscript presents scenarios of emissions from domestic shipping traffic in the seas of the Strait of Gibraltar (Spain) over three months of the COVID-19 pandemic. Emissions were estimated for only 90 days of the pandemic, and two scenarios were studied: emissions while vessels were berthed at the Algeciras Port and emissions as a consequence of the interruption of passenger ship transportation in the Strait of Gibraltar. To this end, the authors’ own model was used, which has near zero uncertainties. This model was used for the first time in this study and takes into account both meteorological and sea condition parameters, as well as the efficiency of the propulsion system. The manuscript concentrates on the emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs), nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulphur oxides (SOx), carbon dioxide (CO<sub>2</sub>), and particulate matter (PM) from six Ro-Pax ships that ceased to operate. The main finding is that as a consequence of the pandemic, reductions of up to 12% were found in the Strait of Gibraltar in all the pollutants and GHGs when taking into account all international traffic, while the decrease in emissions from domestic traffic only reached 51%.
    • Calculating Economic Flood Damage through Microscale Risk Maps and Data Generalization: A Pilot Study in Southern Italy

      Gianna Ida Festa; Luigi Guerriero; Mariano Focareta; Giuseppe Meoli; Silvana Revellino; Francesco Maria Guadagno; Paola Revellino (MDPI AG, 2022-05-01)
      In recent decades, floods have caused significant loss of human life as well as interruptions in economic and social activities in affected areas. In order to identify effective flood mitigation measures and to suggest actions to be taken before and during flooding, microscale risk estimation methods are increasingly applied. In this context, an implemented methodology for microscale flood risk evaluation is presented, which considers direct and tangible damage as a function of hydrometric height and allows for quick estimates of the damage level caused by alluvial events. The method has been applied and tested on businesses and residential buildings of the town of Benevento (southern Italy), which has been hit by destructive floods several times in the past; the most recent flooding occurred in October 2015. The simplified methodology tries to overcome the limitation of the original method—the huge amounts of input data—by applying a simplified procedure in defining the data of the physical features of buildings (e.g., the number of floors, typology, and presence of a basement). Data collection for each building feature was initially carried out through careful field surveys (FAM, field analysis method) and subsequently obtained through generalization of data (DGM, data generalization method). The basic method (FAM) allows for estimating in great detail the potential losses for representative building categories in an urban context and involves a higher degree of resolution, but it is time-consuming; the simplified method (DGM) produces a damage value in a shorter time. By comparison, the two criteria show very similar results and minimal differences, making generalized data acquisition most efficient.
    • Calculating Puerto Rico’s Ecological Footprint (1970–2010) Using Freely Available Data

      Matthew E. Hopton; Adam Berland (MDPI AG, 2015-07-01)
      Ecological Footprint Analysis (EFA) is appealing as a metric of sustainability because it is straightforward in theory and easy to conceptualize. However, EFA is difficult to implement because it requires extensive data. A simplified approach to EFA that requires fewer data can serve as a perfunctory analysis allowing researchers to examine a system with relatively little cost and effort. We examined whether a simplified approach using freely available data could be applied to Puerto Rico, a densely populated island with limited land resources. Forty-one years of data were assembled to compute the ecological footprint from 1970 to 2010. According to EFA, individuals in Puerto Rico were moving toward sustainability over time, as the per capita ecological footprint decreased from 3.69 ha per capita (ha/ca) in 1970 to 3.05 ha/ca in 2010. However, due to population growth, the population’s footprint rose from 1.00 × 107 ha in 1970 to 1.14 × 107 ha in 2010, indicating Puerto Rico as a whole was moving away from sustainability. Our findings demonstrate the promise for conducting EFA using a simplified approach with freely available data, and we discuss potential limitations on data quality and availability that should be addressed to further improve the science.
    • Calculation and Expression of the Urban Heat Island Indices Based on GeoSOT Grid

      Jie JIANG; Yandi Zhou; Xian Guo; Tengteng Qu (MDPI AG, 2022-02-01)
      The urban heat island (UHI) effect accelerates the accumulation of atmospheric pollutants, which has a strong impact on the climate of cities, circulation of material, and health of citizens. Therefore, it is of great significance to conduct quantitative monitoring and accurate governance of UHI by calculating the index rapidly and expressing spatial distribution accurately. In this paper, we proposed a model that integrates UHI information with the GeoSOT (Geographic Coordinate Subdividing Grid with One-Dimension Integer Coding on 2n Tree) grid and subsequently designed the calculation method of UHI indices and expression method of UHI spatial distribution. The UHI indices were calculated on Dongcheng and Xicheng District, Beijing, in the Summer of 2014 to 2019. Experimental results showed that the proposed method has higher calculation efficiency, and achieved a more detailed description of the spatial distribution of the urban thermal environment compared with the Gaussian surface fitting method. This method can be used for large-scale and high-frequency monitoring the level of UHI and expressing complicated spatial distribution of UHI inside the city, thus supporting accurate governance of UHI.
    • Calculation Methods of Emission Factors and Emissions of Fugitive Particulate Matter in South Korean Construction Sites

      Hyunsik Kim; Sungho Tae; Jihwan Yang (MDPI AG, 2020-11-01)
      Recently, efforts to effectively reduce particulate matter by identifying its sources and trends have become necessary due to the sustained damage it has caused in East Asia. In the case of South Korea, damage due to fugitive dust generated at construction sites in densely populated downtown areas is significant, and particulate matter in such fugitive dust directly influences the health of nearby residents and construction workers. Accordingly, the purpose of the present study was to develop a method for calculating emission factors for PM<sub>10</sub> and PM<sub>2.5</sub> emission amounts in the fugitive dust generated in construction sites and to derive emission amount trends for major variables to predict the amounts of generated particulate matter. To this end, South Korean emission factors for PM<sub>10</sub> and PM<sub>2.5</sub> for different construction equipment and activities that generate fugitive dust were derived and a method for calculating the amount of particulate matter using the derived emission factors was proposed. In addition, the calculated total emissions using these factors were compared to those calculated using construction site fugitive dust equations developed for the United States, Europe, and South Korea, and the trend analysis of total emissions according to the major emission factor variables was conducted.