Now showing items 20671-20690 of 49060

    • G-Cloud Monitor: A Cloud Monitoring System for Factory Automation for Sustainable Green Computing

      Hwa-Young Jeong; Young-Sik Jeong; Jong Hyuk Park (MDPI AG, 2014-11-01)
      Green and cloud computing (G-cloud) are new trends in all areas of computing. The G-cloud provides an efficient function, which enables users to access their programs, systems and platforms at anytime and anyplace. Green computing can also yield greener technology by reducing power consumption for sustainable environments. Furthermore, in order to apply user needs to the system development, the user characteristics are regarded as some of the most important factors to be considered in product industries. In this paper, we propose a cloud monitoring system to observe and manage the manufacturing system/factory automation for sustainable green computing. For monitoring systems, we utilized the resources in the G-cloud environments, and hence, it can reduce the amount of system resources and devices, such as system power and processes. In addition, we propose adding a user profile to the monitoring system in order to provide a user-friendly function. That is, this function allows system configurations to be automatically matched to the individual’s requirements, thus increasing efficiency.
    • G-Donic Happiness: An Alternative to Hedonic and Eudemonic Happiness for Sustainable Consumption

      Necati Aydin; Hayat Khan (MDPI AG, 2021-05-01)
      This paper provides a spiritual perspective on happiness referred to as the G-donic approach to happiness which is fundamentally different from the hedonic and eudemonic approaches. The G-donic approach identifies the importance of the spiritual self and argues that it embodies the technology that converts physical resources into happiness. We argue that with G-donic preferences, it is possible to achieve a higher level of happiness with moderate consumption. The G-donic approach encourages living a virtuous life by fulfilling the biological, social, emotional, intellectual, moral, and spiritual needs in a balanced manner. It urges spiritual people to go beyond phenomenal reality to perceive transcendental reality in pursuit of authentic happiness. We use a multi-dimensional human nature model to highlight the relevance and importance of this approach, and modify standard utility models to show how it might result in higher happiness with lower consumption and compare and contrast it with outcomes under hedonic and eudemonic approaches to happiness. The G-donic approach contends that resources and spirituality are substitutes, as well as complements and that a reasonable approach to happiness should seek an optimal mix of both. Unlike popular convention, this deviation from hedonic pleasure due to lower consumption does not result in lower happiness. In fact, we show that, theoretically, it results in an overall increase in happiness as any loss in hedonic is compensated by greater eudemonic and G-donic rewards which increases utility.
    • Gaetano Vinaccia’s (1881–1971) Theoretical Work on the Relationship between Microclimate and Urban Design

      Giovanni Chiri; Ilaria Giovagnorio (MDPI AG, 2015-04-01)
      Because of his classification as a minor architect, Gaetano Vinaccia’s (1881–1971) role in the history of architecture has not been studied in depth. Despite the fact that his impact on the debate about rational architecture was limited, the depth and scientific accuracy of his theoretical contribution to the field of microclimatology in relation to urban design issues deserve to be highlighted, especially today when environmental and bioclimatic questions arise strongly in architecture and planning. Thus, this work aims to reconsider this figure by describing the—unfavorable—context in which his work evolved, by bringing to light his most brilliant statements, by reading his scientific productions, and by starting to consider the validity of some of Vinaccia’s intuitions and their actual correspondence with contemporary research. The question of whether Vinaccia can be considered as an innovator (or not) largely derives from the point of view of architectural criticism and the fact that he did not have a well-defined discipline in which to be classified. Despite the fact that his The City of Tomorrow (1943–1952), which is the first complete treatise on the subject, reveals that he was an absolute pioneer, he has had no chance to influence architecture and urbanism until today.
    • Gaining and Maintaining a Competitive Edge: Evidence from CSA Members and Farmers on Local Food Marketing Strategies

      Emily H. Morgan; Michelle M. Severs; Karla L. Hanson; Jared McGuirt; Florence Becot; Weiwei Wang; Jane Kolodinsky; Marilyn Sitaker; Stephanie B. Jilcott Pitts; Alice Ammerman (MDPI AG, 2018-06-01)
      Community-supported agriculture (CSA) is a widely-used approach for farmers to sell directly to consumers. We used the product, place, price, and promotion (4P) marketing mix framework to examine characteristics that help farms offering CSA maintain member satisfaction and thus competitiveness. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 20 CSA members and 24 CSA farmers in four states. CSA members additionally completed a modified choice experiment. Qualitative data were coded iteratively, and choice experiment data were summarized and compared across scenarios. CSA members and farmers were motivated by a range of personal, social, environmental, and economic objectives. Members favored high-quality staple vegetables (e.g., lettuce, green beans), ideally produced organically. Trust and a sense of personal connection with the farmer comprised part of the “value added” of CSA participation. Time and location of share pick-up were very important; thus, farmers tried to offer convenient sites or an enriched pick-up experience. Small changes in price appeared unlikely to impact participation among current members. Social networks and word-of-mouth were powerful for marketing, but may limit the ability to reach diverse populations. Future research should examine the ability of CSAs to meet the needs of those who do not currently participate.
    • Gaining Flexibility and Innovation through Offshore Outsourcing

      Michela Pellicelli (MDPI AG, 2018-05-01)
      Recently, offshore outsourcing has become extremely important for companies that compete worldwide. In many industries, only companies that manage to be competitive globally can aspire to attain sustainable competitive advantages. Therefore, offshore outsourcing has become essential for many companies and recently has become more and more a vital part of the long-term strategies of the leading firms. The rapidly shifting conditions in the marketplace is forcing management to constantly review and defend its core competencies. Management is now confronted with a higher level of complexity and disruptions brought about in particular by the new waves of globalization and the irresistible march of technological changes. For these reasons, offshore outsourcing is transforming the functions of the traditional firms into a network of competencies. The tendency to offshore most of the productive and economic activities and processes can lead companies to transform themselves into virtual organizations, where all the functions could be outsourced through the formation of flexible networks and agile organizational structures.
    • Gaining Insight into Violence from Gender Stereotypes and Sexist Attitudes in the Context of Tourism

      Gonzalo Díaz-Meneses; Neringa Vilkaitė-Vaitonė; Miriam Estupiñan-Ojeda (MDPI AG, 2020-11-01)
      It is difficult to identify, but there is a type of harassment grounded in gender stereotyping in the context of tourism. It would be useful to discover the hidden relationships between gender harassment and certain beliefs about women as travellers, tourism professionals and sex objects in the field of hospitality. Methodologically, a survey was carried out reaching a sample of ±684 units by means of a convenience sampling procedure. The measuring instruments consisted of a structured questionnaire divided into two kinds of Likert beliefs scales comprising general statements and statements related to tourism. The survey respondent data were also gathered as regards sociodemographic characteristics. This paper presents empirical evidence to identify the causal factors of gender violence by considering general and particular stereotyping in tourism. Firstly, by performing three exploratory factor analyses, three female stereotyping dimensions were labelled in the field of tourism (occupational sexism, ambivalent sexist discrimination, and sex as a commodity), as well as three general prejudices about women (dysfunctional romantic relationships, ethically challenged presumptions, and aesthetical manners conventions) and the gender harassment factor. Secondly, a linear regression analysis was carried out to demonstrate that both general stereotyping related to a broader “life” framework and sectorial prejudices in tourism cause gender harassment. Finally, this research proves that general stereotyping determines sectorial prejudices in the field of tourism. The practical implications could be to enhance gender equality and combat gender harassment by revealing unintentional and unobserved prejudices that occur in a general life setting and in the tourism sphere against women as neglected professionals, under the subtle and ambivalent condition of travellers, and even as objects of consumption.
    • Gaining Trust in the Digital Age: The Potential of Social Media for Increasing the Competitiveness of Small and Medium Enterprises

      Borislav Rajković; Ivan Đurić; Vlade Zarić; Thomas Glauben (MDPI AG, 2021-02-01)
      Trust in information originating from a company is becoming essential, as consumer preferences are increasingly versatile and oriented towards credence attributes. Social media, which emerged as a dominant means of online communication, might help increase consumers’ trust in companies. The paper empirically investigates a conceptual trust-building mechanism that could occur on companies’ social media pages. A survey was conducted among social media users in Belgrade (Serbia). The collected data were analyzed using covariance-based structural equation modeling. It confirmed that in an interactive environment of companies’ social media pages, trust can be built towards two objects. The first one is trust among consumers, and the second one is trust towards a company. The results also confirm a connection between trust and an intention to purchase, both being also related to a consumer’s willingness to obtain information. Therefore, the result can serve as a basis for creating more effective marketing campaigns where a company is the source of information regarding credence (added-value) attributes of its products.
    • Gait Speed as a Biomarker of Cognitive Vulnerability: A Population-Based Study with Cognitively Normal Older Adults

      Marcelo de Maio Nascimento; Élvio Rúbio Gouveia; Adilson Marques; Bruna R. Gouveia; Priscila Marconcin; Andreas Ihle (MDPI AG, 2022-06-01)
      We aimed to examine associations between cognitive vulnerability and gait speed (GS) in a large older sample. A cross-sectional study analyzed data from the “Health, Lifestyle and Fitness in Adults and Seniors in Amazonas” (SEVAAI) project. In total, 697 participants were included (mean age 70.35 ± 6.86 years). Usual and fast GS were evaluated, and cognitive performance was examined by the COGTEL test battery. There was a positive and large correlation between cognition (COGTEL score) and usual GS (r = 0.510; p < 0.001) and fast GS (r = 0.503; p < 0.001). The usual GS, as a continuous variable, indicated a chance of improved cognitive performance by up to 55%, and fast GS by up to 82%. After controlling for potential confounders (i.e., sex, age, MMSE and years of education), usual and fast GS indicated a chance of improving cognition, respectively, in 57% and 85%. Analysis of GS in quartiles (Q) showed high and significant associations between usual and fast GS and cognitive vulnerability. GS classified as Q1 (slower), Q2 and Q3 represented a greater chance of presenting cognitive deficits, respectively, than in participants with both GS classified as Q4 (highest). Cognitive vulnerability was associated with low GS. Usual and fast GS can be used as complementary measures for the evaluation of cognitively normal Brazilian older adults.
    • Galactomannans for Entrapment of &lt;i&gt;Gliomastix murorum&lt;/i&gt; Laccase and Their Use in Reactive Blue 2 Decolorization

      Itzel C. Romero-Soto; Raúl B. Martínez-Pérez; Jorge A. Rodríguez; Rosa M. Camacho-Ruiz; Alejandra Barbachano-Torres; Martha Martín del Campo; Juan Napoles-Armenta; Jorge E. Pliego-Sandoval; María O. Concha-Guzmán; María Angeles Camacho-Ruiz (MDPI AG, 2021-08-01)
      In the present study, a novel laccase from ascomycete &lt;i&gt;Gliomastix murorum&lt;/i&gt; was produced in agro-industrial wastes and entrapped in galactomannan beads for Reactive Blue 2 (Rb-2) decolorization. The maximum laccase production in agave bagasse-based medium occurred at 72 h (1798.6 UL&lt;sup&gt;−1&lt;/sup&gt;). Entrapped laccase decolorized ˃80% of 0.5 mM Rb-2 in 2 h without the addition of redox mediator. &lt;i&gt;K&lt;/i&gt;&lt;sub&gt;m&lt;/sub&gt; for Rb-2 substrate was 1.42 mM, with a V&lt;sub&gt;max&lt;/sub&gt; of 1.19 µmol min&lt;sup&gt;−1&lt;/sup&gt; for entrapped laccase. Galactomannan matrices produce stability to acid pH (2–5) and temperatures from 20–70 °C. Reusability assays showed that entrapped laccase could retain efficient Rb-2 decolorization of ˃80% six times. In general, galactomannan used for entrapment of laccase provides economic advantages in large-scale wastewater treatment due to its natural origin and efficient results.
    • Game Analysis and Coordination of a Closed-Loop Supply Chain: Perspective of Components Reuse Strategy

      Xiaomin Zhao; Xueli Bai; Zhihui Fan; Ting Liu (MDPI AG, 2020-11-01)
      This paper studies a closed-loop supply chain that covers three key members: Manufacturer, new components supplier, and recycled-components supplier. Considering the power of each member in the chain, we use game theory to analyze the optimal decision and coordination, particularly investigating the economic value of components reuse strategy. The results show that, in a decentralized setting, the value of components reuse highly depends on the attributes of the products. For the products with low price elasticity, reuse strategy is only beneficial to the recycled-components suppliers. Further investigation shows the manufacturer can use wholesale price contracts to coordinate and improve the supply chain’s performance.
    • Game Analysis and Simulation of the River Basin Sustainable Development Strategy Integrating Water Emission Trading

      Liang Liu; Cong Feng; Hongwei Zhang; Xuehua Zhang (MDPI AG, 2015-04-01)
      Water emission trading (WET) is promising in sustainable development strategy. However, low participation impedes its development. We develop an evolutionary game model of two enterprise populations’ dynamics and stability in the decision-making behavior process. Due to the different perceived value of certain permits, enterprises choose H strategy (bidding for permit) or D strategy (not bidding). External factors are simplified according to three categories: rH-bidding related cost, G-price and F-penalty. Participation increase equals reaching point (H,H) in the model and is treated as an evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS). We build a system dynamics model on AnyLogic 7.1.1 to simulate the aforementioned game and draw four conclusions: (1) to reach ESS more quickly, we need to minimize the bidding related cost rH and price G, but regulate the heavy penalty F; (2) an ESS can be significantly transformed, such as from (D,D) to (H,H) by regulating rH, G and F accordingly; (3) the initial choice of strategy is essential to the final result; (4) if participation seems stable but unsatisfying, it is important to check whether it is a saddle point and adjust external factors accordingly. The findings benefit both water management practice and further research.
    • Game Analysis of Determinants of Stability of Semiconductor Modular Production Networks

      Wei He; Si-Hua Chen (MDPI AG, 2014-07-01)
      In today’s rapidly changing environment, semiconductor manufacturers compete more in the area of modular production networks. However, the instability of semiconductor modular production networks can to a large extent lead to the failure of these networks. The aim of this paper is to discuss the significance and explore the maintenance of the stability of these semiconductor modular production networks. Firstly, this paper qualitatively and quantitatively defines the stability of semiconductor modular production networks. Based on this, by establishing game models, this paper analyzes the influence mechanism of the main factors: external market fluctuation, the internal benefit allocation mechanism, and opportunism, which can jeopardize the stability of these networks. We find that: the greater the benefits a member enterprise derives from the common benefits, the more likely it is the member enterprise will not exit the modular production network; the adaptive ability of the networks to the external environment is closely related to the stability of the modular production networks; the supervision and punishment in networks can be substituted for each other and the level of supervision, punishment and trust can exert great influence on the stability of semiconductor modular production networks. Lastly, we propose some specific suggestions.
    • Game Analysis of the Open-Source Innovation Benefits of Two Enterprises from the Perspective of Product Homogenization and the Enterprise Strength Gap

      Aiping Tao; Qi Qi; Yi Li; Dan Da; Valentina Boamah; Decai Tang (MDPI AG, 2022-05-01)
      Revenue is one of the hottest topics in the field of open-source innovation. Can open-source innovation really bring more revenue to firms? What affects the revenue from open-source innovation? Based on the perspective of product homogenization and the enterprise-strength gap, these questions are answered in this study using theoretical analyses and the construction of a game model to explore the influence of product homogeneity and the strength gap between firms regarding the revenue from open-source innovation. The results show that enterprise homogeneity and the revenue from open-source innovation are not linearly related. High homogeneity does harm the revenue from open-source innovation, while the revenue is relatively high when the homogeneity is moderate. Additionally, it was also identified that the strength gap between firms has a negative influence on the revenue from open-source innovation. The wider the strength gap is, the greater the revenue loss of the weaker firms and, thus, the lower the total revenue of the two firms will be. This paper provides a reference for research on enterprise revenue from open-source innovation and the selection of participants in open-source activities.
    • Game Behavior Analysis between the Local Government and Land-Lost Peasants in the Urbanization Process

      Lu Zhang; Hongru Du; Yannan Zhao (MDPI AG, 2016-11-01)
      China is entering a period of rapid urban development. With the rapid expansion of cities, a large number of peasants have lost their land as a result. Given the development of urbanization, safeguarding the rights and interests of land-lost peasants in the process of urbanization has become a new topic of interest in China. In this study, based on game theory, we analyze the interests of the local government and land-lost peasants in several rounds of the citizenization process. The result demonstrated the following: (1) this paper proposed that overall interest declines in the entire game, in which the peasant can obtain a greater share of benefits from bargaining with the local government; (2) However, a long bargaining process would lead to the diminishment of peasants’ rights and benefits. In contrast, the local government would obtain greater share of benefits than the peasant and would obtain fewer benefits than at the beginning of the process. Therefore, both sides expect to end the game process early; (3) Under the “rational economic man” process, this process will always tend to be one in which one party struggles while the other compromises. Therefore, in the game, the game process will not reach a game equilibrium state and both sides will be at a stalemate; (4) The local government, as the power owner, is expected to surrender its interests as the “rational economic man” for the Pareto optimality; (5) Finally, we proposed policy recommendations for the sustainability of citizenization. Increasing the public service benefits, establishing the system of subsistence allowances and raising the minimum living allowance of citizenization, improving the training and employment service system for the peasant can improve land-lost peasants’ acceptance in the game.
    • Game for Complete Care: A Means of Connecting ‘User-Centered Design’ with Sustainability

      Ying Jiang; Timothy Joseph Jachna; Hua Dong (MDPI AG, 2020-12-01)
      This paper addresses sustainability and gaming from an interior design education perspective, emphasizing the importance of understanding the meaning of ‘complete care’ and raising the awareness of care among design students. The four-step inquiry was adopted as a methodological framework. The theoretical model of ‘complete care’ was proposed and the interactive game ‘Ideal Home’ was developed to raise the awareness of care in design. The game imitated a conversation activity between the interior designer and the client at the early stage of the design process and assisted ‘designers’ to ask meaningful questions from ‘clients’ so as to develop a better understanding of their care needs. Six postgraduate students with interior design backgrounds played the game, and they were observed and interviewed. The results suggested that the participants’ understanding of care improved after they played the game and they were able to identify more issues and detailed needs through the conversations. The significance of the research is that it proposes a theoretical framework to explain the meaning of ‘complete care’ in the design process, and also develops a practical tool (i.e., the game) to educate designers about care.
    • Game Modelling and Strategy Research on the System Dynamics–based Quadruplicate Evolution for High–speed Railway Operational Safety Supervision System

      Kehong Li; Wenke Wang; Yadong Zhang; Tao Zheng; Jin Guo (MDPI AG, 2019-03-01)
      In view of the entrusted transportation management model (ETMM) of China&amp;rsquo;s high&amp;ndash;speed railway (HSR), the supervision strategy of an HSR company for its multiple agents plays a very important role in ensuring the safety and sustainable development of HSR. Due to the existence of multiple agents in ETMM, the supervision strategy for these agents is usually difficult to formulate. In this study, a quadruplicate HSR safety supervision system evolutionary game model composed of an HSR company and three agents was established through the analysis of the complex game relationship existing in the system. The behavioral characteristics and the steady state of decision&amp;ndash;making of all stakeholders involved in the system are proved by evolutionary game theory and system dynamics simulation. The results show that there will be long&amp;ndash;term fluctuations in the strategies selected by the four stakeholders in the static reward&amp;ndash;penalty control scenario (RPCS), which indicates that an evolutionary stable strategy does not exist. With increases in the reward&amp;ndash;penalty coefficient, the fluctuations are intensified. Therefore, the dynamic RPCS was proposed to control the fluctuations, and the simulation was repeated. The results show that the fluctuations can be effectively restrained by adopting the dynamic RPCS, but if the coefficients are the same, the static RPCS is better than the dynamic RPCS for increasing the safety investment rate of the three agents. This demonstrates that the HSR company should apply these two control scenarios flexibly according to the actual situation when formulating a supervision strategy in order to effectively control and enhance the safety level of HSR operations when multiple agents are involved.
    • Game Participation and Preservation of the Commons: An Experimental Approach

      Jens Rommel; Sergio Villamayor-tomas; Malte Müller; Christine Werthmann (MDPI AG, 2015-07-01)
      Framed field experiments are widely applied to study behavior in common pool resource dilemmas. Anecdotal evidence suggests that participation in such experiments improves cooperation in actual field settings. Yet, formal tests of such relationships are absent from the literature. We present results from a field experiment, investigating how participation in a two person prisoner’s dilemma game affects contributions to a global public good, as measured by donations to an environmental foundation. We find that subjects who participate in the prisoner’s dilemma game donate slightly more than subjects who do not participate in the game. Participants who are paired with a cooperative player in the prisoner’s dilemma also donate more. We further find that donations substantially increase with income and decrease with concern for environmental issues.
    • Game Theoretic Analysis of Carbon Emission Abatement in Fashion Supply Chains Considering Vertical Incentives and Channel Structures

      Longfei He; Daozhi Zhao; Liangjie Xia (MDPI AG, 2015-04-01)
      We study an emission-dependent dyadic fashion supply chain made up of a supplier and a manufacturer, both of which can reduce their own component/product emissions to serve the carbon-footprint sensitive consumers. With Carbon Tax regulation, we consider four scenarios resulting from two ways in form of adopting transfer price contract and/or introducing third-party emission-reduction service (TPERS) to enhance the efficiency of systematic emission reductions. We refine four models from these corresponding scenarios, which in turn constitute a decision-making framework composed of determining vertical incentives and choosing supply chain structures. By exploiting Stackelberg games in all models, we compare their emission reduction efficiencies and profitability for each pair of settings. Theoretic analysis and numerical studies show that adopting vertical transfer payment schemes can definitely benefit channel carbon footprint reduction and Pareto improvement of supply chain profitability, regardless of whether the emission-reduction service exists or not. However, whether introducing TPERS or not is heavily depending on systematic parameters when the transfer payment incentive is adopted there. We also provide insights on the sensitivity of carbon tax parameters with respect to the supply chain performance, overall carbon emission reduction, vertical incentive and TPERS adopting decision-makings.
    • Game Theoretic Analysis of Pricing and Cooperative Advertising in a Reverse Supply Chain for Unwanted Medications in Households

      Meina Hua; Huajun Tang; Ivan Ka Wai Lai (MDPI AG, 2017-10-01)
      Improper disposal of household unwanted medications (UMs) is an emergency problem around the world that adversely affects the sustainability of the environment and human’s health. However, the current disposal practices, mainly based on advertising and collecting status, are unsatisfactory in most countries and regions. Thus, some scholars proposed an alternative disposal practice that is to provide incentives to customers. This study aims to compare a Single Model (advertising only) with a Joint Model (advertising with take-back pricing) in a two-echelon reverse supply chain (RSC) that is composed of one disposer and one collector. In each model, four games (non-cooperative, collector as the Stackelberg leader, disposer as the Stackelberg leader, and cooperative) were established in order to identify the optimal pricing and advertising strategies for both members. The results of the study indicate that there is a Pareto dominant range for Joint Model compared to Single Model, whereas Single Model has no Pareto improvement in any games. Furthermore, in non-cooperative games of Joint Model, it is better to implement the leader-follower structure rather than simultaneous movement structure. Additionally, it is verified that the cooperative game is feasible, which leads to the cooperation between the disposer and the collector, and the extra profit from the cooperation can be shared based on the Nash bargaining game. However, in Single Model, it is better for the disposer to act as a channel leader and the collector figures the follower.
    • Game Theoretical Energy Management with Storage Capacity Optimization and Photo-Voltaic Cell Generated Power Forecasting in Micro Grid

      Aqdas Naz; Nadeem Javaid; Muhammad Babar Rasheed; Abdul Haseeb; Musaed Alhussein; Khursheed Aurangzeb (MDPI AG, 2019-05-01)
      In order to ensure optimal and secure functionality of Micro Grid (MG), energy management system plays vital role in managing multiple electrical load and distributed energy technologies. With the evolution of Smart Grids (SG), energy generation system that includes renewable resources is introduced in MG. This work focuses on coordinated energy management of traditional and renewable resources. Users and MG with storage capacity is taken into account to perform energy management efficiently. First of all, two stage Stackelberg game is formulated. Every player in game theory tries to increase its payoff and also ensures user comfort and system reliability. In the next step, two forecasting techniques are proposed in order to forecast Photo Voltaic Cell (PVC) generation for announcing optimal prices. Furthermore, existence and uniqueness of Nash Equilibrium (NE) of energy management algorithm are also proved. In simulation, results clearly show that proposed game theoretic approach along with storage capacity optimization and forecasting techniques give benefit to both players, i.e., users and MG. The proposed technique Gray wolf optimized Auto Regressive Integrated Moving Average (GARIMA) gives 40% better result and Cuckoo Search Auto Regressive Integrated Moving Average (CARIMA) gives 30% better results as compared to existing techniques.