Now showing items 21531-21550 of 49060

    • H2O2 Based Oxidation Processes for the Treatment of Real High Strength Aqueous Wastes

      Maria Cristina Collivignarelli; Roberta Pedrazzani; Sabrina Sorlini; Alessandro Abbà; Giorgio Bertanza (MDPI AG, 2017-02-01)
      This work was aimed at studying the applicability of H2O2-based oxidation processes (namely H2O2/UV, photo-Fenton, and Fenton) for the treatment of six real aqueous wastes. These wastes derived from chemical, pharmaceutical, and detergent production, and were characterised by high COD (chemical oxygen demand) and, in four cases, surfactant concentrations: overall, about 100 tests were conducted. The H2O2/UV and photo-Fenton processes proved to be very effective in COD removal, the efficiency being greater than 70%. The optimal treatment conditions for the H2O2/UV process were: 120 min reaction, H2O2/CODinitial dosage ratio = 1/2; the radiation intensity (up to 2000 W·L−1) revealed to be a crucial factor, especially in the earlier stage of the process (about 40 min): this aspect can be exploited to reduce the costs related to energy consumption. For the photo-Fenton process the following conditions were chosen: Fe2+/H2O2 ratio = 1/30; specific power input = 125 W·L−1; H2O2/CODinitial = 1/2; reaction time = 240 min. Photolytic reactions and the presence of dissolved oxygen revealed to be crucial factors for COD removal. The Fenton process, while showing a moderate efficiency (25% COD removal) in the treatment of high loaded wastewaters, provided excellent results in the treatment of aqueous wastes with high content of surfactants. An average yield removal of 70% for non-ionic surfactants (TAS) and 95% for anionic surfactants (MBAS) was obtained, under the following optimal conditions: Fe2+/H2O2 = 1/4, H2O2/CODinitial ratio = 1, and contact time = 30 min.
    • Habitat Analysis of Endangered Korean Long-Tailed Goral (<i>Naemorhedus caudatus raddeanus</i>) with Weather Forecasting Model

      Sanghun Lee; Baek-Jun Kim; Kon Joon Bhang (MDPI AG, 2019-11-01)
      Climate simulation is often used for evaluation of the sustainability of a species in global scale but not applicable for our study because the global data is too coarse to be used in small and fragmented habitat areas. We examined a weather forecasting model for the habitat analysis of the endangered species of the Korean long-tailed goral (<i>Naemorhedus caudatus raddeanus</i>). The weather research forecasting (WRF) model is implemented to downscale global climate data for a small fragmented habitat of the goral. The coordinates of goral fecal samples were collected during winter 2005 and summer 2006 using GPS and the goral habitat was set with the elevations of fecal samples mostly found. The atmospheric parameters of the habitat were then simulated by WRF and defined as the atmospheric signature of the goral suitable habitat. A series of temperature changes was then projected for the period from 2010s to 2090s to evaluate the change of the habitat for summer (June) and winter (December) seasons. As a result, the suitable habitat of the Korean long-tailed goral would be significantly declined and almost disappeared in the 2070s for summer or 2050s for winter under the climate scenarios of RCP 8.5 by IPCC.
    • Habitat Banking and Its Challenges in a Densely Populated Country: The Case of the Netherlands

      Mechtilde M. J. Gorissen; C. Martijn van der Heide; Johannes H.J. Schaminée (MDPI AG, 2020-05-01)
      Due to a growing population, urbanization, industrialization and agriculture, the quality of nature and biodiversity globally has decreased enormously. This also applies to the Netherlands. Habitat banking is a market-based instrument for nature conservation and sustainable development to counteract this decrease. We analyze under which conditions habitat banking can indeed offer possibilities and opportunities for improving biodiversity, nature conservation and sustainable development in the Netherlands. For this, we first identify the shortcomings of mandatory nature compensation in the Netherlands and link them to current innovations in Dutch nature policy. In addition, we investigate three necessary instruments for a successful habitat banking system: (1) a system for nature valuation, (2) a method for creating ecological opportunity maps, and (3) the institutional setting in which habitat banking can be operationalized. We conclude that habitat banking contributes to solving the problems for nature and biodiversity and to sustainable development in the Netherlands, provided that this is primarily addressed (i) in the domain of voluntary nature compensation, (ii) in bottom-up pilots for integrated area development (in this article shortly referred to as area pilots) where the widest possible range of owners and users of these areas is involved, (iii) in a context of participatory decision-making and (iv) learning and experiment en route to social-ecological systems (SESs). To actually realize the added value of habitat banking for the Netherlands, further scientific research is required to collect and analyze empirical data from relevant stakeholders.
    • Habitat Effect on Urban Roof Vegetation

      Emrah Yalcinalp; Selva Ozveren; Alperen Meral; Muberra Pulatkan; Sefa Akbulut (MDPI AG, 2017-10-01)
      Urban growth has been fast for decades. Because money is very important in this urban-based world, humanity focuses on economic development, and is often too busy to deal with sustainability. Therefore, in a world that is constantly changing, creating sustainable cities that contain a diverse range of habitats supporting plant establishment is essential. Some surprising urban habitats in which plants can grow, such as cracks on pavements and walls, rocky areas, abandoned places and roofs might be extremely important for sustainability, while urban spaces are under artificial pressure. In this study, which suggesting a method to create more sustainable green roofs for urban areas, and considering roof vegetation is already important for supporting the ecology of urban areas, we surveyed 37 roofs in an urban part of Trabzon city focusing on the habitat effect. We found 51 plant species growing on these 37 roofs, and determined five different roof vegetation typologies in the research area. The main goal in any artificial green roof is to cover roof surfaces with vegetation, and success is considered a perfect coverage rate. We found roof surface size, species richness, size of the sunlit part, daily sunlight duration, and depth of the substrate are the most effective habitat attributes on vegetation coverage on rooftops in the research area.
    • Habitat Mapping of the Leopard Cat (Prionailurus bengalensis) in South Korea Using GIS

      Moung-Jin Lee; Wonkyong Song; Saro Lee (MDPI AG, 2015-04-01)
      The purpose of this study was to create maps of potentially sustainable leopard cat (Prionailurus bengalensis) habitats for all of South Korea. The leopard cat, which is on the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List, is the only member of the Felidae family in Korea. To create habitat potential maps, we selected various environmental factors potentially affecting the species’ distribution from a spatial database derived from geographic information system (GIS) data: elevation, slope, distance from a forest stand, road, or drainage, timber type, age, and land cover. We analyzed the spatial relationships between the distribution of the leopard cat and the environmental factors using a frequency ratio model and a logistic regression model. We then overlaid these relationships to produce a habitat potential map with a species potential index (SPI) value. Of the total number of known leopard cat locations, we used 50% for mapping and the remaining 50% for model validation. Our models were relatively successful and showed a high level of accuracy during model validation with existing locations (frequency ratio model 82.15%; logistic regression model 81.48%). The maps can be used to manage and monitor the habitat of mammal species and top predators.
    • Habitat Quality and Social Behavioral Association Network in a Wintering Waterbirds Community

      Muhammad Awais Rasool; Muhammad Azher Hassan; Xiaobo Zhang; Qing Zeng; Yifei Jia; Li Wen; Guangchun Lei (MDPI AG, 2021-05-01)
      Migratory waterbirds concentrated in freshwater ecosystems in mosaic environments rely on quality habitats for overwintering. At West Dongting Lake National Nature Reserve (WDLNNR), China, land-use change and hydrology alternation are compounding factors that have affected important wintering areas for migratory waterbirds. Presently, changes in the hydrology and landscape have reshaped natural wintering habitats and their availability, though the impact of hydrological management on habitat selection of wintering waterbirds is largely unknown. In this study, we classified differentially managed habitats and calculated their area using the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) to evaluate suitable habitat availability over the study period (2016–2017 and 2017–2018 wintering periods). We then used social behavioral association network (SBAN) model to compare habitat quality through species-species social interactions and species-habitat associations in lakes with different hydrological management. The results indicated that social interactions between and within species structured wintering waterbirds communities, which could be dominated by one or more species, while dominant species control the activities of other co-existing species. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests indicated significant differences in SBAN metrics between lakes (<i>p</i> = 0.0237) and habitat (<i>p</i> < 0.0001) levels. Specifically, lakes with managed hydrology were preferred by more species. The managed lakes had better habitat quality in terms of significantly higher habitat areas (<i>p</i> < 0.0001) and lower habitat transitions (<i>p</i> = 0.0113). Collectively, our findings suggest that proper hydrological management can provide continuous availability of quality habitats, especially mudflats and shallow waters, for a stable SBAN to ensure a wintering waterbirds community with more sympatric species in a dynamic environment.
    • Habitat Suitability for Small Mammals in Mediterranean Landscapes: How and Why Shrubs Matter

      Ignasi Torre; Carlos Jaime-González; Mario Díaz (MDPI AG, 2022-01-01)
      Fires are usually seen as a threat for biodiversity conservation in the Mediterranean, but natural afforestation after abandonment of traditional land uses is leading to the disappearance of open spaces that benefit many species of conservation interest. Fires create open habitats in which small mammals can live under more favourable conditions, such as lower predation, interspecific competition, and higher food availability. We analysed the role of changes in shrub cover and shrub preference by small mammals along the Mediterranean post-fire succession. We used data (period 2008–2018) from 17 plots woodlands and post-fire shrublands present in the study area (Barcelona’s Natural Parks, Catalonia, NE Spain), and vegetation structure was assessed by LiDAR technology for modelling ground-dwelling small mammal preferences. The diversity, abundance, and stability of Mediterranean small mammal communities negatively responded to vegetation structural complexity, which resulted from the combined effects of land abandonment and recovery after wildfires. We suggest that biotic factors such as vegetation profiles (providing food and shelter) and their interaction with predators and competitors could be responsible for the observed patterns. Considering the keystone role of small mammals in the sustainability of Mediterranean forest, our results could be useful for management under the current global change conditions.
    • Half of the Ancient Trees in Hungary Stand in Human-Altered Environments

      Márton Takács; Ákos Malatinszky (MDPI AG, 2021-11-01)
      Big trees contribute to various ecosystem functions and spiritual values are given to them by local people, yet they are endangered. We compiled the health status, accessibility, and local habitat categories of the 2000 biggest (considering girth) trees in Hungary in 531 settlements. A total of 1550 specimens belong to 29 indigenous species, while 450 are non-indigenous (43 species). Most of them stand in a forest or park (not as a solitary tree), in the North Hungarian Range. Altogether, half of the ancient trees in Hungary stand in human-altered environments. Three-quarters are in a fair health condition. However, only 10.3% of the biggest white willows and 24.5% of the biggest sweet chestnuts are in good or excellent condition. A number of 121 big trees should no longer be listed in the nationwide online database because they died, or no longer reach the girth criteria (e.g., due to breakage). This number proves that any kind of documentation is important. More than half of the trees are easily accessible, while 9% are very difficult to reach. Only a very few big trees receive legal protection at the local or national level, on their own or in the habitat where they stand.
    • Half Open Multi-Depot Heterogeneous Vehicle Routing Problem for Hazardous Materials Transportation

      Zhongxin Zhou; Minghu Ha; Hao Hu; Hongguang Ma (MDPI AG, 2021-01-01)
      How to reduce the accidents of hazardous materials has become an important and urgent research topic in the safety management of hazardous materials. In this study, we focus on the half open multi-depot heterogeneous vehicle routing problem for hazardous materials transportation. The goal is to determine the vehicle allocation and the optimal route with minimum risk and cost for hazardous materials transportation. A novel transportation risk model is presented considering the variation of vehicle loading, vehicle types, and hazardous materials category. In order to balance the transportation risk and the transportation cost, we propose a bi-objective mixed integer programming model. A hybrid intelligent algorithm is developed based on the ε-constraint method and genetic algorithm to obtain the Pareto optimal solutions. Numerical experiments are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed model. Compared with the close multi-depot heterogeneous vehicle routing problem, the average risk and cost obtained by the proposed bi-objective mixed integer programming model can be reduced by 3.99% and 2.01%, respectively. In addition, compared with the half open multi-depot homogeneous vehicle routing problem, the cost is significantly reduced with the acceptable risk.
    • Hallmark Sporting Events as a Vehicle for Promoting the Sustainable Development of Regional Tourism: Strategic Perspectives from Stakeholders

      Huei-Fu Lu (MDPI AG, 2021-03-01)
      Although hosting sporting events has received considerable attention and the important connection between sporting events and urban development has been highlighted, most studies have focused on mega sporting events, and the controversy around the benefits of hosting mega sporting events is also increasing. To promote regional sport tourism, this study explores the strategic perspectives of stakeholders on hosting hallmark sporting events for the regional development of sport tourism. In-depth interviews were conducted with 11 representatives from stakeholder groups to discuss the role and essence of hallmark sporting events in promoting regional tourism. Archival material, including event organizing documents and information, was used to enhance the reliability of the qualitative analysis. Four strategic perspectives are proposed to illustrate the inter-relationships between hallmark sporting events and the sustainable development of regional tourism. These perspectives can be used as a management procedure to improve event operations for event managers. This study’s main contribution is the proposal of development goals and proper execution processes for hosting hallmark sporting events for the sustainable development of regional tourism, and the cultivation of effective synergy between local business activities and stakeholders.
    • Halophyte Common Ice Plants: A Future Solution to Arable Land Salinization

      Danilo Loconsole; Bernardo Murillo-Amador; Giuseppe Cristiano; Barbara De Lucia (MDPI AG, 2019-11-01)
      The problems associated with the salinization of soils and water bodies and the increasing competition for scarce freshwater resources are increasing. Current attempts to adapt to these conditions through sustainable agriculture involves searching for new highly salt-tolerant crops, and wild species that have potential as saline crops are particularly suitable. The common ice plant (<i>Mesembryanthemum crystallinum</i> L.) is an edible halophyte member of the <i>Aizoaceae</i> family, which switches from C3 photosynthesis to crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) when exposed to salinity or water stress. The aim of this review was to examine the potential of using the ice plant in both the wild and as a crop, and to describe its ecology and morphology, environmental and agronomic requirements, and physiology. The antioxidant properties and mineral composition of the ice plant are also beneficial to human health and have been extensively examined.
    • Halotolerant Microbial Consortia for Sustainable Mitigation of Salinity Stress, Growth Promotion, and Mineral Uptake in Tomato Plants and Soil Nutrient Enrichment

      Chintan Kapadia; R. Z. Sayyed; Hesham Ali El Enshasy; Harihar Vaidya; Deepshika Sharma; Nafisa Patel; Roslinda Abd Malek; Asad Syed; Abdallah M. Elgorban; Khurshid Ahmad (MDPI AG, 2021-07-01)
      Salinity significantly impacts the growth, development, and reproductive biology of various crops such as vegetables. The cultivable area is reduced due to the accumulation of salts and chemicals currently in use and is not amenable to a large extent to avoid such abiotic stress factors. The addition of microbes enriches the soil without any adverse effects. The effects of microbial consortia comprising <i>Bacillus</i> sp., <i>Delftia</i> sp., <i>Enterobacter</i> sp., <i>Achromobacter</i> sp., was evaluated on the growth and mineral uptake in tomatoes (<i>Solanum Lycopersicum</i> L.) under salt stress and normal soil conditions. Salinity treatments comprising Ec 0, 2, 5, and 8 dS/m were established by mixing soil with seawater until the desired Ec was achieved. The seedlings were transplanted in the pots of the respective pH and were inoculated with microbial consortia. After sufficient growth, these seedlings were transplanted in soil seedling trays. The measurement of soil minerals such as Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cu, Mn, and pH and the Ec were evaluated and compared with the control 0 days, 15 days, and 35 days after inoculation. The results were found to be non-significant for the soil parameters. In the uninoculated seedlings’ (control) seedling trays, salt treatment significantly affected leaf, shoot, root dry weight, shoot height, number of secondary roots, chlorophyll, and mineral contents. While bacterized seedlings sown under saline soil significantly increased leaf (105.17%), shoot (105.62%), root (109.06%) dry weight, leaf number (75.68%), shoot length (92.95%), root length (146.14%), secondary roots (91.23%), and chlorophyll content (−61.49%) as compared to the control (without consortia). The Na and K intake were higher even in the presence of the microbes, but the beneficial effect of the microbe helps plants sustain in the saline environment. The inoculation of microbial consortia produced more secondary roots, which accumulate more minerals and transport substances to the different parts of the plant; thus, it produced higher biomass and growth. Results of the present study revealed that the treatment with microbial consortia could alleviate the deleterious effects of salinity stress and improve the growth of tomato plants under salinity stress. Microbial consortia appear to be the best alternative and cost-effective and sustainable approach for managing soil salinity and improving plant growth under salt stress conditions.
    • Halotolerant Rhizobacteria for Salinity-Stress Mitigation: Diversity, Mechanisms and Molecular Approaches

      Alka Sagar; Shalini Rai; Noshin Ilyas; R. Z. Sayyed; Ahmad I. Al-Turki; Hesham Ali El Enshasy; Tualar Simarmata (MDPI AG, 2022-01-01)
      Agriculture is the best foundation for human livelihoods, and, in this respect, crop production has been forced to adopt sustainable farming practices. However, soil salinity severely affects crop growth, the degradation of soil quality, and fertility in many countries of the world. This results in the loss of profitability, the growth of agricultural yields, and the step-by-step decline of the soil nutrient content. Thus, researchers have focused on searching for halotolerant and plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) to increase soil fertility and productivity. The beneficial bacteria are frequently connected with the plant rhizosphere and can alleviate plant growth under salinity stress through direct or indirect mechanisms. In this context, PGPB have attained a unique position. The responses include an increased rate of photosynthesis, high production of antioxidants, osmolyte accumulation, decreased Na<sup>+</sup> ions, maintenance of the water balance, a high germination rate, and well-developed root and shoot elongation under salt-stress conditions. Therefore, the use of PGPB as bioformulations under salinity stress has been an emerging research avenue for the last few years, and applications of biopesticides and biofertilizers are being considered as alternative tools for sustainable agriculture, as they are ecofriendly and minimize all kinds of stresses. Halotolerant PGPB possess greater potential for use in salinity-affected soil as sustainable bioinoculants and for the bioremediation of salt-affected soil.
    • Hand Gesture Recognition Based on Auto-Landmark Localization and Reweighted Genetic Algorithm for Healthcare Muscle Activities

      Hira Ansar; Ahmad Jalal; Munkhjargal Gochoo; Kibum Kim (MDPI AG, 2021-03-01)
      Due to the constantly increasing demand for the automatic localization of landmarks in hand gesture recognition, there is a need for a more sustainable, intelligent, and reliable system for hand gesture recognition. The main purpose of this study was to develop an accurate hand gesture recognition system that is capable of error-free auto-landmark localization of any gesture dateable in an RGB image. In this paper, we propose a system based on landmark extraction from RGB images regardless of the environment. The extraction of gestures is performed via two methods, namely, fused and directional image methods. The fused method produced greater extracted gesture recognition accuracy. In the proposed system, hand gesture recognition (HGR) is done via several different methods, namely, (1) HGR via point-based features, which consist of (i) distance features, (ii) angular features, and (iii) geometric features; (2) HGR via full hand features, which are composed of (i) SONG mesh geometry and (ii) active model. To optimize these features, we applied gray wolf optimization. After optimization, a reweighted genetic algorithm was used for classification and gesture recognition. Experimentation was performed on five challenging datasets: Sign Word, Dexter1, Dexter + Object, STB, and NYU. Experimental results proved that auto landmark localization with the proposed feature extraction technique is an efficient approach towards developing a robust HGR system. The classification results of the reweighted genetic algorithm were compared with Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and decision tree. The developed system plays a significant role in healthcare muscle exercise.
    • Handle with Care—Microplastic Particles in Intestine Samples of Seals from German Waters

      Carolin Philipp; Bianca Unger; Elke K. Fischer; Joseph G. Schnitzler; Ursula Siebert (MDPI AG, 2020-12-01)
      The Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) aims to reduce the marine debris burden in the marine environment by 2020. This requires an assessment of the actual situation, which includes the occurrence as well as the caused impacts. Information on both is scarce when it comes to top predators like marine mammals and the burden of microplastic. This is hampered by the limited access to free ranging marine mammals for collecting samples, as well as sample handling. The present study investigated gastrointestinal tracts and faecal samples of harbour seals (<i>Phoca vitulina</i>) and grey seals (<i>Halichoerus grypus</i>) regularly occurring in the German North Sea and Baltic Sea with the aim of gaining information on the occurrence of microplastics. In total, 255 particles ≥100 µm (70 fibres, 185 fragments) were found in exemplary ten intestine and nine faecal samples. The findings ranged from zero fibres and six fragments, up to 35 fibres and 55 fragments per sample. Additionally, this study established a protocol for sample handling, microplastic isolation (≥100 µm) and quantification of gastrointestinal tracts and faecal samples of marine mammals with a low share of contamination. This approach helps to quantify the presence of microplastics in free-ranging marine mammals and is therefore applicable to assess the real burden of microplastic presence in the marine environment.
    • Handling and Treatment of Poultry Hatchery Waste: A Review

      Belinda Rodda; Zhihong Miao; Phil Glatz (MDPI AG, 2011-01-01)
      A literature review was undertaken to identify methods being used to handle and treat hatchery waste. Hatchery waste can be separated into solid waste and liquid waste by centrifuging or by using screens. Potential methods for treating hatchery waste on site include use of a furnace to heat the waste to produce steam to run a turbine generator or to use an in line composter to stabilise the waste. There is also potential to use anaerobic digestion at hatcheries to produce methane and fertilisers. Hatcheries disposing wastewater into lagoons could establish a series of ponds where algae, zooplankton and fish utilise the nutrients using integrated aquaculture which cleans the water making it more suitable for irrigation. The ideal system to establish in a hatchery would be to incorporate separation and handling equipment to separate waste into its various components for further treatment. This would save disposal costs, produce biogas to reduce power costs at plants and produce a range of value added products. However the scale of operations at many hatcheries is too small and development of treatment systems may not be viable.
    • Handling Diversity of Visions and Priorities in Food Chain Sustainability Assessment

      Francesca Galli; Fabio Bartolini; Gianluca Brunori (MDPI AG, 2016-03-01)
      Food chain sustainability assessment is challenging on several grounds. Handling knowledge and information on sustainability performance and coping with the diversity of visions around “what counts as sustainable food” are two key issues addressed by this study. By developing a comparative case study on local, regional and global wheat-to-bread chains, and confronting the multidimensionality of sustainability, this work focuses on the differing visions and perspectives of stakeholders. We integrate qualitative and quantitative data, stakeholder consultation and multi-criteria analysis to align the visions and the multiple meanings of sustainability. Because of the complexity and the dynamicity of the food system, the multidimensionality of the sustainability concept and its pliability to stakeholders priorities, sustainability is an object of competition for firms in the agro-food sector and has major implications in the governance of food chains. Results identify key propositions in relation to: (i) the value of combining science-led evidence with socio-cultural values; (ii) multidimensional sustainability assessment as a self diagnosis tool; and (iii) the need to identify shared assessment criteria by communities of reference.
    • Handrails through the Swamp? A Pilot to Test the Integration and Implementation Science Framework in Complex Real-World Research

      Melissa Robson-Williams; Bruce Small; Roger Robson-Williams; Nick Kirk (MDPI AG, 2021-05-01)
      The socio-environmental challenges the world faces are ‘swamps’: situations that are messy, complex, and uncertain. The aim of this paper is to help disciplinary scientists navigate these swamps. To achieve this, the paper evaluates an integrative framework designed for researching complex real-world problems, the Integration and Implementation Science (i2S) framework. As a pilot study, we examine seven inter and transdisciplinary agri-environmental case studies against the concepts presented in the i2S framework, and we hypothesise that considering concepts in the i2S framework during the planning and delivery of agri-environmental research will increase the usefulness of the research for next users. We found that for the types of complex, real-world research done in the case studies, increasing attention to the i2S dimensions correlated with increased usefulness for the end users. We conclude that using the i2S framework could provide handrails for researchers, to help them navigate the swamps when engaging with the complexity of socio-environmental problems.
    • Happiness and Cultural Tourism: The Perspective of Civil Participation

      M. Victoria Sanagustín-Fons; Luis B. Tobar-Pesántez; Rafael Ravina-Ripoll (MDPI AG, 2020-04-01)
      In this research we analyze links between happiness and cultural tourism, taking the European Holy Grail Route in Spain as a cultural tourist product. Questions that arise are, among others, can cultural tourism generate understanding and social cohesion? Consequently, can it also mean increasing the happiness of both tourists and the host population? How and what can be learned from cultural tourism as a peaceful social process? Specifically, a qualitative approach was made in which we conducted semi-structured interviews with people belonging to civil society associations linked to the route. An analysis of the narratives (from the interviews) through the grounded theory was carried out. Improved individual reasons for happiness and social cohesion as a result of positive significant experiences are observed in the first step of results, and an exportable Decalogue of social behavior in cultural tourism experiences is presented and evaluated by the interviewees and shown as a research proposal.
    • Happiness at Work and Motivation for a Sustainable Workforce: Evidence from Female Hotel Employees

      Arzu Atan; Hale Ozgit; Fatos Silman (MDPI AG, 2021-07-01)
      Employment practices that support happiness at work are critical tools for developing a sustainable workforce. In today’s challenging environment, both economically and environmentally, the contribution of a sustainable workforce, which is the most critical asset for hospitality businesses to survive and succeed, cannot be ignored. This study explores the effects of motivational dimensions on happiness at work. These relationships were evaluated using the SPSS for Windows 25.0 and AMOS 23.0 programs. For this purpose, data were collected from 271 female employees in various four- and five-star hotels in North Cyprus. As predicted, the results revealed that motivational dimensions affect the dimensions of happiness at work. This study confirmed that a better understanding of employees’ needs and demands would encourage motivation and result in happier employees. The findings offer important implications for hospitality industry organizations seeking to maximize employee happiness in the workplace and strive for the sustainability of their workforce.