Now showing items 22739-22758 of 49060

    • I Am a Leader, I Am a Mother, I Can Do This! The Moderated Mediation of Psychological Capital, Work–Family Conflict, and Having Children on Well-Being of Women Leaders

      Laritza Machín-Rincón; Eva Cifre; Pilar Domínguez-Castillo; Mónica Segovia-Pérez (MDPI AG, 2020-03-01)
      Gender equality is one of the Sustainable Development Goals. Management is one of the jobs that more clearly needs a gender perspective. Women leaders have found a way around the labyrinth to get to the top, which might have developed their personal resources such as psychological capital. Women leaders experience an inter-role conflict when work and family demands are mutually incompatible, affecting negatively their well-being. This study aims to analyze the mediation role that work−family and family−work conflict plays between psychological capital and well-being (engagement and burnout) when moderated by the number of children. In total, 202 Spanish women leaders participated in the study. Results of the mediated moderation model using Model 14 of the macro PROCESS for SPSS software show that psychological capital buffers the negative effects that experiencing work−family conflict has on well-being when having children. The well-being of women leaders is not affected when dealing with family interfering work conflict and having children. As such, women leaders who have children rely on their psychological capital to successfully manage the family demands affecting their work and to reduce the negative effect of work−family conflict on their well-being. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed from the psychology of a sustainability perspective.
    • I Am Better Than Others: Waste Management Policies and Self-Enhancement Bias

      Yihan Zhao; Rong Chen; Mitsuyasu Yabe; Buxin Han; Pingping Liu (MDPI AG, 2021-11-01)
      Waste source separation has been a social dilemma globally with a low participation rate. This research attempted to solve this dilemma by exploring the effect of mandatory (versus voluntary) policies on waste separation from the perspective of the self-versus based on deterrence theory and self-enhancement motivation. Hypothetical scenarios were used to demonstrate the effectiveness of mandatory policies and self-enhancement bias for residents (<i>n</i> = 589) and adolescents (<i>n</i> = 121). Study 2 was performed to replicate the findings of Study 1 with a no-implementation policy condition, and Study 3 extended the findings to adolescents. We found robust self-enhancement bias, where participants perceived themselves to be better than others in both willingness to perform and attitudes toward waste separation behavior. Specifically, participants tended to perceive themselves to perform waste separation well when policy compliance was voluntary, but they tended to perceive others to perform well when policy compliance was mandatory with supervision. These findings highlight the impact of mandatory policy with supervision and self-enhancement bias in waste management. The present studies provide substantial evidence and implications for the necessity of supervision in mandatory policy implementation.
    • “I am Delighted!”: The Effect of Perceived Customer Value on Repurchase and Advocacy Intention in B2B Express Delivery Services

      Carlos Correa; David Alarcón; Ignacio Cepeda (MDPI AG, 2021-05-01)
      Express parcel delivery has increased significantly in recent years because of changes in technology and consumer habits, as has the number of express parcel delivery companies and the competitiveness among them. For an express parcel business to be sustainable, it must succeed in increasing customer perceived value (CPV). This study aims to investigate the business-to-business (B2B) performance between companies and their main express parcel service provider. The main objective was to analyze the impact of CPV on both the intention to repurchase services and the intention to recommend such services in the business-to-business (B2B) express parcel delivery sector. This study develops a research model that is analyzed in the express parcel sector in Spain using the variance-based structural equation technique, partial least squares (PLS-SEM), for data analysis. The findings reveal that with express parcel services in the B2B sector, perceived value was positively associated with the customer’s perceived satisfaction and trust, which in turn enhances the intention to repurchase and stimulates advocacy. In a market as competitive as the express parcel market in the B2B environment, customer perceived value is a critical factor in ensuring company sustainability.
    • I Believe I Can Fly—Conceptual Foundations for Behavioral Rebound Effects Related to Voluntary Carbon Offsetting of Air Travel

      Christoph Kerner; Thomas Brudermann (MDPI AG, 2021-04-01)
      Voluntary carbon offsets (VCO) have been introduced as a means of compensating personal carbon emissions related to travelling. Purchases of VCO have remained low in the past, but might increase in the future due to rising awareness about climate change. VCO have been assumed to increase the acceptability of flying among eco-minded people. Therefore, VCO might not only be a tool to offset emissions but also to compensate for “flight shame”. Much research has been carried out to detect VCO purchasers’ motives, but none has explored the potential behavioral rebound effects of VCO with regard to flying. This article contributes to the debate by presenting a conceptual framework that was developed to investigate these rebound effects. First, we present the motives that travelers have for offsetting their flight emissions. These motives already indicate the possibility of a rebound effect. Second, we discuss several conceptual ideas which should be considered for the design of empirical studies. Overall, we argue that the use of VCO might lead to unintended carbon emissions; however, isolating the specific role of VCO remains a difficult task. Nevertheless, research on behavioral rebound effects is needed to clarify whether VCO counteract sustainability in the transport sector.
    • I Can’t Go to Work Tomorrow! Work-Family Policies, Well-Being and Absenteeism

      José Aurelio Medina-Garrido; José María Biedma-Ferrer; Jaime Sánchez-Ortiz (MDPI AG, 2020-07-01)
      Among the main causes of absenteeism are health problems, emotional problems, and inadequate work-family policies (WFP). This paper analyses the impact of the existence and accessibility of WFP on work absenteeism, by considering the mediating role of the well-being, which includes emotional as well as physical or health problems, that is generated by these policies. We differentiate between the existence of the WFP and its accessibility, as the mere existence of the WFP in an organisation is not enough. Additionally, workers must be able to access these policies easily and without retaliation of any kind. The model includes the hierarchy and the gender as moderating variables. To test the proposed hypotheses, a structural equation model based on the partial least squares structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) approach is applied to a sample of employees in the service sector in Spain. On the one hand, the findings show that the existence of WFP has no direct effect on absenteeism; however, accessibility to these policies does have a direct effect on absenteeism. On the other hand, both the existence and accessibility of WFP have positive direct effects on emotional well-being. In addition, emotional well-being is positively related to physical well-being which, in turn, promotes a reduction in absenteeism. Finally, significant differences in the relationship between the existence of WFP and emotional well-being confirm the special difficulty of female managers in reconciling family life and work life.
    • “I Drive outside of Peak Time to Avoid Traffic Jams—Public Transport Is Not Attractive Here.” Challenging Discourses on Travel to the University Campus in Manila

      Robin Hickman; Neil Lopez; Mengqiu Cao; Beatriz Mella Lira; Jose Bienvenido Manuel Biona (MDPI AG, 2018-05-01)
      One of the major narratives in transport policy internationally concerns the promotion of private versus public modes. The Global North has many examples where public transport, walking and cycling networks are well developed, yet examples from the Global South are less evident. There is a historical failure of replicating policies and practices from the Global North, particularly in perpetuating the highway building model, often unsuitable to the cultural contexts in the Global South. This paper examines individual attitudes and discourses concerning travel to De La Salle University campus, in Metro Manila, the Philippines. 42 participants are surveyed using Q methodology. Four discourses are developed, reflecting attitudes to growing automobility in Manila, public transport service provision, the difficulties of travelling in the city and the aspiration for increased comfort whilst travelling. Manila provides an example of the complexities in moving towards greater sustainable travel in the southeast Asian context where levels of private car usage are already high. It is hoped that a greater awareness of the problems of the current travel experiences might lead to us to seek different narratives, where transport systems can be developed which better serve social equity and environmental goals.
    • I Have a Dream: Organic Movements Include Gene Manipulation to Improve Sustainable Farming

      Gerhart U. Ryffel (MDPI AG, 2017-03-01)
      Several papers in a Special Issue of Sustainability have recently discussed various aspects to evaluate whether organic farming and gene manipulation are compatible. A special emphasis was given to new plant breeding techniques (NPBTs). These new approaches allow the most predictable genetic alterations of crop plants in ways that the genetically modified plant is identical to a plant generated by conventional breeding. The articles of the Special Issue present the arguments pro and contra the inclusion of the plants generated by NPBTs in organic farming. Organic movements have not yet made a final decision whether some of these techniques should be accepted or banned. In my view these novel genetically manipulated (GM) crops could be used in such a way as to respect the requirements for genetically manipulated organisms (GMOs) formulated by the International Federation of Organic Movements (IFOAM). Reviewing the potential benefits of disease-resistant potatoes and bananas, it seems possible that these crops support organic farming. To this end, I propose specific requirements that the organic movements should proactively formulate as their standards to accept specific GM crops.
    • I Want to Teach Sustainable Development in My English Classroom: A Case Study of Incorporating Sustainable Development Goals in English Teaching

      Ching Ting Tany Kwee (MDPI AG, 2021-04-01)
      Previous studies indicated that K-12 teachers generally felt reluctant to incorporate sustainable development in their teaching due to a lack of skills, knowledge and interest, particularly language teachers. This qualitative case study, grounded in the Social Cognitive Career Theory, aims to identify the significant factors influencing English teachers’ motivation of incorporating the United Nation’s Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) into their teaching. Data were collected from multiple sources including semi-structured interviews and classroom observations. By examining how teachers’ self-efficacy develops in relation to outcome expectations and performance goals, the findings showed that teachers’ personal beliefs, attainment of teaching goals and supportive school management can positively influence their self-efficacy and boost their motivation in incorporating SDGs in their English teaching. Such findings can be useful for educators, school management, educational institutes, universities and policy-makers to develop strategies to facilitate teachers’ active roles in ESD by fostering greater collaboration across disciplines and providing relevant professional development and goal-relevant supports.
    • “I Wanted a Profession That Makes a Difference”—An Online Survey of First-Year Students’ Study Choice Motives and Sustainability-Related Attributes

      Anna Oberrauch; Helga Mayr; Ivan Nikitin; Tanja Bügler; Thorsten Kosler; Christian Vollmer (MDPI AG, 2021-07-01)
      Higher education institutions are obligated to facilitate students in the development of sustainability competencies, which enable them to act as “change agents” in their future profession-specific environment. Therefore, students’ study motives, prior knowledge, attitudes, and experiences regarding sustainability should be considered when designing Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) programmes. The present study compares first-year students in teacher training with first-year students in other study programmes and explores their study choice motives as well as sustainability-related conceptions, engagement and self-efficacy beliefs using a semi-standardised online questionnaire. Results show that the choice of study is dominated by intrinsic factors and the relevance of extrinsic factors differs by degree programmes with lower extrinsic values for the teacher training students. Regarding sustainability, we find simple and often unelaborated concepts. Teacher training students show significantly higher scores than non-teacher training students regarding the sustainability-related behavioural domain and self-efficacy beliefs. In addition, a gender gap increasing with age and with lower sustainability scores for older males could be identified but only for teacher training students. In conclusion, the results show valuable starting points as well as challenges that should be considered when designing target-oriented learning processes in (inter)disciplinary sustainability courses at higher education institutions.
    • “I Will Start Saving Natural Resources, Only When You Show Me the Planet as a Person in Danger”: The Effects of Message Framing and Anthropomorphism on Pro-Environmental Behaviors that Are Viewed as Effortful

      Malgorzata Karpinska-Krakowiak; Łukasz Skowron; Lachezar Ivanov (MDPI AG, 2020-07-01)
      Little is known on how to encourage effortful (rather than effortless) conservation behaviors, and prior research investigated only single (rather than multiple) message appeals in terms of their persuasive power in promoting pro-environmental intentions. The current study uses a framework from evolutionary psychology to propose and test a blend of message appeals that is most likely to drive green behaviors perceived as effortful. An experiment with a 2 (yes versus no anthropomorphic cue) x 2 (negative versus positive message frame) between-subjects design was run, and effort was included as a measured factor. The findings reveal that negatively framed messages are most effective in prompting effortful (but not effortless) pro-environmental intentions only when they are coupled with anthropomorphic cues (no differences between loss and gain messages were found when no anthropomorphism was used). These effects were replicated across two types of behaviors: water conservation and waste reduction.
    • Iberian Halophytes as Agroecological Solutions for Degraded Lands and Biosaline Agriculture

      Bernardo Duarte; Isabel Caçador (MDPI AG, 2021-01-01)
      Research on biosaline agriculture has been increasing worldwide in recent years. In this respect, the Iberian halophyte diversity present a high-value ecological solution to be implemented for biosaline-based agroecosystems. The research on these halophytic species has been increasing worldwide and, in the recent years, especially in terms saline agriculture adaptation, osmophysiology and nutraceutical potential, highlighting the importance and potential of these species in terms of agrosolutions. The Mediterranean area has high biodiversity in terms of endemic halophytic vegetation (ca. 62 species), providing an alternative pool of potential new agricultural products to be cultivated in adverse conditions. Besides being highly diverse, most of these species are endemic and present a perennial life cycle with several applications in terms of food, forage, nutraceutical, feedstock and remediation. More specifically, the Iberian halophytic flora shows potential as resources of essential fatty acids, minerals and antioxidants—all very important for human and animal nutrition. Alongside the establishment of halophyte agroecological solutions is the provision of key ecosystem services, such as carbon sequestration and soil rehabilitation. Moreover, halophyte-based ecosystems provide additional recognized ecosystem services, beyond the final product production, by improving soil health, ecosystem biodiversity and storing large amounts of carbon, thereby increasing the ecosystem resilience to climate change and offering a green solution against climate change.
    • IC-Health Project: Development of MOOCs to Promote Digital Health Literacy: First Results and Future Challenges

      Lilisbeth Perestelo-Perez; Alezandra Torres-Castaño; Carina González-González; Yolanda Alvarez-Perez; Ana Toledo-Chavarri; Ana Wagner; Michelle Perello; Stephan Van Der Broucke; Gonzalo Díaz-Meneses; Barbara Piccini (MDPI AG, 2020-08-01)
      Digital health literacy (DHL) is the ability to search, understand and evaluate information from digital media and apply that knowledge to solve health problems. However, currently many citizens have not developed these skills, and this compromises not only the self-management of their health, but the possibility that health services are socially sustainable. The objective of this article was to present the objectives, activities and results of the IC-Health project whose objective was to develop a series of massive open online courses (MOOCs) to improve the DHL skills of European citizens. An exploratory report on DHL’s current evidence was developed. Furthermore, a survey, focus groups and group interviews were conducted to determine DHL levels and the needs of population cohorts (children; adolescents; pregnant and lactating women; the elderly; and people affected by type 1 and type 2 diabetes). A participation strategy with end users was designed through a community of practice for the creation of MOOCs with the seven European countries that participated in the consortium. Thirty-five MOOCs were developed in eight different languages and a descriptive and exploratory assessment of MOOCs was conducted with new participants. This first evaluation indicated that MOOCs can be an effective educational resource for DHL and a facilitator of shared decision-making processes. The process of co-creation of MOOCs, the components, the challenges and the opportunities identified in this European project could be useful for other developers of MOOCs who want to co-create interventions with beneficiaries in similar settings. Further longer-term actions are still needed to improve citizens’ DHL.
    • Ice-Breaking Fleets of the United States and Canada: Assessing the Current State of Affairs and Future Plans

      Megan Drewniak; Dimitrios Dalaklis; Anastasia Christodoulou; Rebecca Sheehan (MDPI AG, 2021-01-01)
      In recent years, a continuous decline of ice-coverage in the Arctic has been recorded, but these high latitudes are still dominated by earth’s polar ice cap. Therefore, safe and sustainable shipping operations in this still frozen region have as a precondition the availability of ice-breaking support. The analysis in hand provides an assessment of the United States’ and Canada’s polar ice-breaking program with the purpose of examining to what extent these countries’ relevant resources are able to meet the facilitated growth of industrial interests in the High North. This assessment will specifically focus on the maritime transportation sector along the Northwest Passage and consists of four main sections. The first provides a very brief description of the main Arctic passages. The second section specifically explores the current situation of the Northwest Passage, including the relevant navigational challenges, lack of infrastructure, available routes that may be used for transit, potential choke points, and current state of vessel activity along these routes. The third one examines the economic viability of the Northwest Passage compared to that of the Panama Canal; the fourth and final section is investigating the current and future capabilities of the United States’ and Canada’s ice-breaking fleet. Unfortunately, both countries were found to be lacking the necessary assets with ice-breaking capabilities and will need to accelerate their efforts in order to effectively respond to the growing needs of the Arctic. The total number of available ice-breaking assets is impacting negatively the level of support by the marine transportation system of both the United States and Canada; these two countries are facing the possibility to be unable to effectively meet the expected future needs because of the lengthy acquisition and production process required for new ice-breaking fleets.
    • Iceberg Indicators for Sow and Piglet Welfare

      Lena Friedrich; Joachim Krieter; Nicole Kemper; Irena Czycholl (MDPI AG, 2020-10-01)
      This study identifies iceberg indicators for welfare assessment in sows and piglets to enhance feasibility and sustainability of available protocols. Indicators of the Welfare Quality<sup>®</sup> protocol and of a German protocol were collected over 65 farm visits to 13 farms in Germany between September 2016 and April 2018. Data were analysed using partial least square structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM). A hierarchical component model was built (animal welfare = higher-order, Welfare Quality<sup>®</sup> principles = lower-order components). In sows, welfare was revealed to be most influenced by the principles good housing, good health and appropriate behaviour (path coefficients = 0.77, 0.86, 0.91). High coefficients of determination R² indicated a large amount of explained variance (good housing R² = 0.59, good health R² = 0.75, appropriate behaviour R² = 0.83). Stereotypies was the indicator most valuable to assess sow welfare. Additionally, the final model included the indicators panting, shoulder sores, metritis, mortality and an indicator assessing stereotypies in resting animals (indicator reliabilities 0.54–0.88). However, the model did not include the indicators lameness and body condition, which may be due to the farm sample. Welfare of piglets was most explained by the indicators carpal joint lesions, mortality, sneezing and undersized animals (indicator reliabilities 0.48–0.86).
    • Icebergs of Expertise-Based Leadership: The Role of Expert Leaders in Public Administration

      Sadia Hanif; Ali Ahsan; Graham Wise (MDPI AG, 2020-06-01)
      There is a pressing need for public administration leaders to exhibit expertise-based intuitive leadership traits for developing countries to respond to sustainability challenges. While the importance of explicit and tacit knowledge to underpin expertise-based intuitive decision-making is known, public service leaders of developing countries can lack these traits. It is necessary to explore the reasons for leadership skills gaps in order to define remedial actions, such as better executive development training. This study conducts 28 in-depth interviews with public administration leaders, managers, and executive training professionals in Pakistan to address the challenge of how to build expertise-based intuitive leadership traits in public administration leaders. The main findings highlight deficiencies in domain-specific knowledge and soft skills. Deficits in the formal training of leaders and the negative contribution of cultural preconditions both result in explicit and tacit knowledge gaps that undermine expertise-based intuitive decision-making. An “iceberg of expertise-based leadership” model is conceptualized, extending on previous models, to describe the intangible role that explicit and tacit knowledge play in the visible expression of leadership skills. The relevance of this model for the success of public sector-led initiatives for sustainable development is highlighted.
    • ICT and Environmental Sustainability: A Comparative Study

      Samin Shaaban-Nejad; Farid Shirazi (MDPI AG, 2022-07-01)
      This study investigates the role of information and communication technology (ICT), political instability and violence, and international protocols on global carbon emissions. Our empirical analysis used archival data for 146 economies from 1996 to 2019. The study’s estimates are also based on subsamples from the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development member countries. The study found that ICT has statistically significant impacts on reducing CO2 emissions globally, but the extension of the impact for OECD member countries is considerably more substantial. Therefore, the subject of study is considered to be among the first few studies to measure the effects of violence and regional conflicts on global warming—a notable result for conflict regions around the world. Additionally, the authors narrowed down the findings to a micro level and conducted a comparative study between Canada and the United Kingdom to evaluate the countries’ performances concerning climate mitigation initiatives.
    • ICT and the Sustainability of World Heritage Sites. Analysis of Senior Citizens’ Use of Tourism Apps

      Irene Ramos-Soler; Alba-María Martínez-Sala; Concepción Campillo-Alhama (MDPI AG, 2019-06-01)
      Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) and applications (apps) for tourists are key tools for the sustainability of World Cultural Heritage Sites (WCHS). Their integration into tourism marketing strategies poses challenges regarding the satisfaction of the expectations of the target stakeholders, particularly senior tourists, people aged 60 and over. This paper adopts an exploratory and descriptive approach that combines qualitative techniques (focus groups), to study the use senior citizens make of ICT and tourism apps, with quantitative ones. In this sense, content analysis has been performed on a sample of tourism apps. The results reveal that ICT are essential tools for senior tourists and positively influence tourists’ final perception of the travel experience. The analysis of these mobile apps shows that they meet the expectations of senior tourists, who constitute a relevant generation for cultural tourism and are of special interest for the sustainability of WCHS. The configuration and development of these tools must be adapted to this generation, which we call Generation W.
    • ICT and the UN’s Sustainable Development Goal for Education: Using ICT to Boost the Math Performance of Immigrant Youths in the US

      Sunha Kim (MDPI AG, 2018-12-01)
      In the context of the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goal for education, this study examines the potential of information, communication, and technology (ICT) as a way to provide quality education for all, with a focus on immigrant youth in the United States. The study uses structural equation models (SEM) to analyze data from a nationally representative data set, Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS)-USA. Focusing on mathematics achievement among immigrant youth (with non-immigrant youth as a reference group), this study explores the effects of ICT access and two types of ICT use for educational purposes: generic and specific. The results indicate that ICT access and specific ICT use both have positive direct, indirect, and total effects on math performance for immigrant youths, while generic ICT use has only a nonsignificant negative effect. In nonimmigrant youths, these ICT variables showed a different pattern, with the effects of ICT access and specific ICT use being less pronounced, but generic ICT use exhibiting a significant negative effect. These findings show the potential role of ICT-mediated education in narrowing the achievement gap between immigrant and nonimmigrant students, thereby helping immigrants better integrate into their destination countries.
    • ICT Development and Sustainable Energy Consumption: A Perspective of Energy Productivity

      Zheming Yan; Rui Shi; Zhiming Yang (MDPI AG, 2018-07-01)
      The information and communication technology (ICT) is closely related to the future of global energy consumption, not only because the ICT equipment itself increasingly consumes energy, but also because it is a general-purpose technology which may affect energy use of almost all sectors. Given the controversy over the net energy-saving effect of ICT, this paper focuses on a new perspective, i.e., energy productivity, to investigate the relationship between ICT development and energy consumption. Using a data panel of 50 economies over the period of 1995 to 2013, results of the Malmquist energy productivity index generally indicate an unbalanced development of energy productivity across the globe, while results of the patent-based ICT knowledge stock indicate a huge gap of ICT development comparing the high-income economies with the others. Furthermore, regression results indicate that ICT development is significantly related to energy productivity improvement. Finally, this paper suggests accelerating ICT development in underdeveloped economies, given the global common task of sustainable energy consumption.
    • ICT Implementation and Its Effect on Public Organizations: The Case of Digital Customs and Risk Management in Korea

      Sung-Bou Kim; Dongwook Kim (MDPI AG, 2020-04-01)
      Technological advancement and globalization have led modern economic growth and social development in many parts of the world. Governments are also increasingly adopting new technology to uphold public safety and to protect its citizens. In particular, customs administrations have been adopting digital customs and risk management frameworks to promote free trade and traveling while preventing cross-border transport of dangerous goods and individuals. This study proposes an up-to-date dynamic information and communications technology (ICT) implementation stage model that accounts for new modern technology and transformative public organizations. An in-depth case study approach is employed by using the example of the customs services in South Korea. Specifically, this study describes how the Korea Customs Service developed its digital customs system in tandem with risk management guidelines and practices and presents quantitative data on customs and risk management outcomes.