Now showing items 26106-26125 of 49060

    • Japanese View of Nature: Discursive Tradition, Its Problems and Implications for Food Studies

      Haruka Ueda (MDPI AG, 2022-07-01)
      Revisiting one’s view of nature is essential if one is to construct a sustainable food system. In particular, the Japanese view of nature has been widely recognised as the philosophy of coexistence between humans and nature, with some optimism and over-simplification. In this article, a wide range of literature regarding the Japanese view of nature is carefully analysed, and three discursive traditions of such views—ancient thought, Buddhism and neo-Confucianism—are discussed. Although it is true that the harmonious philosophy between humans and nature has always existed in Japan as a cultural device, some major problems—namely, the confusion of history and ideology, the composite of traditional and modern natural views within contemporary eaters and the inevitable conflict between humans (the killers) and nature (the killed)—should be resolved to ultimately activate such an aesthetic natural view in encouraging favourable eating behaviours for sustainable natural food environments.
    • Jatropha Developments in Mozambique: Analysis of Structural Conditions Influencing Niche-Regime Interactions

      Maja Slingerland; Marc Schut (MDPI AG, 2014-10-01)
      This article investigates the transition dynamics related to Jatropha developments in Mozambique. The analysis focuses on how structural conditions (infrastructure, institutions, interaction and collaboration and capabilities and resources) enable or constrain interactions between niche-level Jatropha experiments and incumbent energy, agriculture and rural development regimes in Mozambique. Investors in agro-industrial Jatropha projects focused on establishing projects in areas with relatively good infrastructure, rather than in remote rural areas. Furthermore, they predominantly focused on Jatropha production instead of investing in the entire Jatropha value chain, which turned out to be a challenge in itself, as growing a productive Jatropha crop was much more complex than initially anticipated. The development of institutions that could nurture and protect Jatropha projects from the prevailing regimes lagged behind Jatropha project establishment, leading to an insecure investment climate. Strong inter-ministerial collaboration and organized civil society interaction and representation contrasted with non-organized private sector and rather isolated smallholder Jatropha projects. The global financial crisis and limited adaptive capacity reduced the time and space for experimentation and learning to overcome disappointing crop performance. Together, this hampered Jatropha’s potential to challenge the energy, agricultural and rural development regimes. Nevertheless, the Jatropha experience did initiate the development of policy and regulation and stimulated interaction and collaboration between specific groups of stakeholders, which could provide the basis to capture future biofuel momentum in Mozambique.
    • Jatropha Suppliers as Contributors to the Sustainability of the Production of Bioelectricity in Ecuador

      Marilyn A. Muñoz Mayorga; Eva Iglesias Martínez; Natalia Caldés Gómez (MDPI AG, 2017-10-01)
      The “Jatropha for Galápagos” (JFG) project in Ecuador aims to progressively replace diesel with jatropha oil in the generation of electricity in The Galápagos Islands. Thus, understanding and motivating the participation of jatropha suppliers is a priority for the sustainability of JFG. For this reason, the factors influencing their decision-making to participate in the project have been identified and analyzed using a binomial logit model. The results show that factors found to positively influence the likelihood of participation include, amongst others, the supplier’s experience within the project, their participation in local organizations, and the degree of satisfaction with the price of jatropha oil. In addition, children from producer families’ collaboration in the harvest of jatropha increases the overall likelihood of participation within the project. Similarly, the distance to the collection center positively influences the chances of participation. Conversely, those suppliers with higher wages and those who declared that jatropha harvest starts in April have a reduced likelihood of participating in the project. The findings obtained from this project can help decision-makers develop new measures to improve the sustainability of the project through initiatives to motivate the participation of jatropha suppliers in the program.
    • Jellyfish Search Optimization Algorithm for MPP Tracking of PV System

      Afroz Alam; Preeti Verma; Mohd Tariq; Adil Sarwar; Basem Alamri; Noore Zahra; Shabana Urooj (MDPI AG, 2021-10-01)
      Because of the rapid increase in the depletion rate of conventional energy sources, the energy crisis has become a central problem in the contemporary world. This issue opens the gateway for exploring and developing renewable energy sources to fulfill the exigent energy demand. Solar energy is an abundant source of sustainable energy and hence, nowadays, solar photovoltaic (PV) systems are employed to extract energy from solar irradiation. However, the PV systems need to work at the maximum power point (MPP) to exploit the highest accessible power during varying operating conditions. For this reason, maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithms are used to track the optimum power point. Furthermore, the efficient utilization of PV systems is hindered by renowned partial shading conditions (PSC), which generate multiple peaks in the power-voltage characteristic of the PV array. Thus, this article addresses the performance of the newly developed jellyfish search optimization (JSO) strategy in the PV frameworks to follow the global maximum power point (GMPP) under PSC.
    • Jellyfishing in Europe: Current Status, Knowledge Gaps, and Future Directions towards a Sustainable Practice

      Dori Edelist; Dror L. Angel; João Canning-Clode; Sonia K. M. Gueroun; Nicole Aberle; Jamileh Javidpour; Carlos Andrade (MDPI AG, 2021-11-01)
      Jellyfish are often described as a nuisance species, but as our understanding shifts to more ecosystem-based conceptions, they are also recognized as both important components of marine ecosystems and a resource for humans. Here, we describe global jellyfish fisheries and review production, fishing methods, and applications based on the existing literature. We then focus on future development of a European jellyfish fishery based on current and recent EU research initiatives. Jellyfish have been a staple food in East Asia for eons and now show a potential for non-food applications as well. The main fishing methods are mostly traditional, with set-nets, driftnets, hand-nets, and scoop-nets utilizing small crafts or beach-seines. All require a lot of manual labor, thus providing vital, albeit seasonal, occupation to weaker populations. Larger commercial vessels such as purse seines and trawlers are newly introduced métiers which may enable a larger catch per unit effort and total catch, but pose questions of selectivity, bycatch, vessel stability, and transshipment. Social concerns arising from the seasonality of jellyfish fisheries must be met in SE Asia, Latin America, and in any location where new fisheries are established. In the EU, we recognize at least 15 species showing potential for commercial harvesting, but as of 2021, a commercial fishery has yet to be developed; as in finfish fisheries, we advise caution and recognition of the role of jellyfish in marine ecosystems in doing so. Sustainable harvesting techniques and practices must be developed and implemented for a viable practice to emerge, and social and ecological needs must also be incorporated into the management plan. Once established, the catch, effort, and stock status must be monitored, regulated, and properly reported to FAO by countries seeking a viable jellyfish fishery. In the near future, novel applications for jellyfish will offer added value and new markets for this traditional resource.
    • Jet Impingement Heat Transfer of Confined Single and Double Jets with Non-Newtonian Power Law Nanofluid under the Inclined Magnetic Field Effects for a Partly Curved Heated Wall

      Fatih Selimefendigil; Hakan F. Oztop; Ali J. Chamkha (MDPI AG, 2021-05-01)
      Single and double impinging jets heat transfer of non-Newtonian power law nanofluid on a partly curved surface under the inclined magnetic field effects is analyzed with finite element method. The numerical work is performed for various values of Reynolds number (Re, between 100 and 300), Hartmann number (Ha, between 0 and 10), magnetic field inclination (<inline-formula><math xmlns="" display="inline"><semantics><mi>γ</mi></semantics></math></inline-formula>, between 0 and 90), curved wall aspect ratio (<inline-formula><math xmlns="" display="inline"><semantics><mrow><mi>A</mi><mi>R</mi></mrow></semantics></math></inline-formula>, between 01. and 1.2), power law index (<i>n</i>, between 0.8 and 1.2), nanoparticle volume fraction (<inline-formula><math xmlns="" display="inline"><semantics><mi>ϕ</mi></semantics></math></inline-formula>, between 0 and 0.04) and particle size in nm (<inline-formula><math xmlns="" display="inline"><semantics><mrow><mi>d</mi><mi>p</mi></mrow></semantics></math></inline-formula>, between 20 and 80). The amount of rise in average Nusselt (Nu) number with Re number depends upon the power law index while the discrepancy between the Newtonian fluid case becomes higher with higher values of power law indices. As compared to case with <i>n</i> = 1, discrepancy in the average Nu number are obtained as <inline-formula><math xmlns="" display="inline"><semantics><mrow><mo>−</mo><mn>38</mn><mo>%</mo></mrow></semantics></math></inline-formula> and 71.5% for cases with <i>n</i> = 0.8 and <i>n</i> = 1.2. The magnetic field strength and inclination can be used to control the size and number or vortices. As magnetic field is imposed at the higher strength, the average Nu reduces by about 26.6% and 7.5% for single and double jets with n greater than 1 while it increases by about 4.78% and 12.58% with n less than 1. The inclination of magnetic field also plays an important role on the amount of enhancement in the average Nu number for different n values. The aspect ratio of the curved wall affects the flow field slightly while the average Nu variation becomes 5%. Average Nu number increases with higher solid particle volume fraction and with smaller particle size. At the highest particle size, it is increased by about 14%. There is 7% variation in the average Nu number when cases with lowest and highest particle size are compared. Finally, convective heat transfer performance modeling with four inputs and one output is successfully obtained by using Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Interface System (ANFIS) which provides fast and accurate prediction results.
    • Job Adjustment Strategy for Predictive Maintenance in Semi-Fully Flexible Systems Based on Machine Health Status

      Thirupathi Samala; Vijaya Kumar Manupati; Bethalam Brahma Sai Nikhilesh; Maria Leonilde Rocha Varela; Goran Putnik (MDPI AG, 2021-05-01)
      Complex systems consist of multiple machines that are designed with a certain extent of redundancy to control any unanticipated events. The productivity of complex systems is highly affected by unexpected simultaneous machine failures due to overrunning of machines, improper maintenance, and natural characteristics. We proposed realistic configurations with multiple machines having several flexibilities to handle the above issues. The objectives of the proposed model are to reduce simultaneous machine failures by slowing down the pace of degradation of machines, to improve the average occurrence of the first failure time of machines, and to decrease the loss of production. An approach has been developed using each machine’s degradation information to predict the machine’s residual life based on which the job adjustment strategy where machines with a lower health status will be given a high number of jobs to perform is proposed. This approach is validated by applying it in a fabric weaving industry as a real-world case study under different scenarios and the performance is compared with two other key benchmark strategies.
    • Job Demands and Negative Outcomes after the Lockdown: The Moderating Role of Stigma towards Italian Supermarket Workers

      Tiziana Ramaci; Stefano Pagliaro; Manuel Teresi; Massimiliano Barattucci (MDPI AG, 2021-07-01)
      The Job Demands-Resources model hypothesises that some variables (especially personal and social resources/threats) moderate the relationship between job demands and work outcomes. Based on this model, in this study we examine the role of stigma towards customers as a moderator of the relationship between job demands and a series of work outcomes: that is, fatigue, burnout, and satisfaction. We advance that the relationships between work demands and outcomes should be influenced by the employee’s perceptions regarding resources and constraint. In particular, we hypothesised that social stigma towards customers can represent a reliable moderating variable. Hypotheses were tested among 308 Italian supermarket workers in five supermarkets in the same chain, just after the end of the Italian lockdown caused by COVID-19. Results showed that stigma towards customers moderates the relationship between job demands and the consequences on the professional quality of life. The implications of these findings for the JD-R model are discussed.
    • Job Design to Extend Working Time: Work Characteristics to Enable Sustainable Employment of Older Employees in Different Job Types

      Hiske den Boer; Tinka van Vuuren; Jeroen de Jong (MDPI AG, 2021-04-01)
      Due to an aging workforce and an increasing structural labor shortage across Western economies, it is important to design jobs for older workers that support their continued employability. The aim of this qualitative study was to investigate how job type (operational, professional and managerial jobs) influences work characteristics older workers need to continue working. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 21 older (55+) Dutch employees working in the health and education sector. A full thematic analysis of interview transcripts was performed, and work characteristics were identified, coded, categorized and compared to discover patterns of similarities and differences between job types. The results show that job types have a number of work characteristics in common: operational job types share autonomy with managers and client interaction with professionals, and professionals and managers share mentorship. Unique work characteristics for operational roles are supervisor support and comfortable workspace. Professionals especially want to use their expertise and flexible working hours, and managers are different because they value personal development and contact with colleagues. In conclusion, the results show that certain work characteristics have a different impact on the design of future jobs for older workers, depending on the type of job of the employee.
    • Job Insecurity and Employee Engagement: A Moderated Dual Path Model

      Shengxian Yu; Xiaoxiao Gong; Na WU (MDPI AG, 2020-12-01)
      In a new stage of booming platform economy, improving the employees’ job security is the key factor to ensure the sustainable development of a platform organization. Based on the cognitive behavior theory, this study introduces the perceived insider status as the moderator variable, and constructs the process mechanism model of job insecurity on employee engagement. The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between job insecurity, emotional response and employee engagement, and provide suggestions for reducing job insecurity and improving employee engagement. Using a 2-wave time-lagged survey data of 341 workers in China firms, data were collected with a self-report questionnaire and analyzed with the statistical package for the social science (AMOS, SPSS). The research result found a negative relationship between job insecurity and employee engagement, and that this negative relationship was mediated by negative emotion or positive emotion. Furthermore, perceived insider status moderated the relationship between job insecurity and positive emotion or negative emotion; the higher the perceived insider status is, the weaker the negative impact of job insecurity on positive emotion and the weaker the positive impact on negative emotion. The research results provide theoretical guidance for organizations to improve employee engagement and help to strengthen the importance of organizations to employees’ job insecurity.
    • Job Loss in a Group of Older Canadian Workers: Challenges in the Sustainable Labour Market Reintegration Process

      Geneviève Fournier; Hélène Zimmermann; Jonas Masdonati; Christine Gauthier (MDPI AG, 2018-06-01)
      In Western countries, the loss of jobs among older workers is a highly worrisome situation, since it can be synonymous with long-term employment precariousness and definitive exclusion from the labour market. This precariousness is occurring while the labour force in these countries is aging, and governments are looking to extend people’s working lives. It is therefore particularly relevant to study different labour market reintegration processes and to understand their sustainability from a psychological perspective. The present article is examining these processes using a longitudinal study over an 18-month period with 61 older Canadian workers. Time 1 and Final Time were documented with semi-structured individual interviews. These data allowed us to qualitatively construct three reintegration processes (blocked, downgrading, and sustainable) that describe a large spectrum of workers’ experiences regarding occupational repositioning. Quantitative analyses likewise suggest moderate statistical links between the reintegration process and changes in subjective variables associated with the relationship to work and identity representations. Altogether, the results underline the importance of returning to the labour market in qualified, decent, sustainable work that allows people to have a decent and meaningful personal life. The results also suggest, in keeping with the psychology of sustainability, that interventions should promote occupational and personal enrichment, both at the individual and organizational levels.
    • Job Performance Model Based on Employees’ Dynamic Capabilities (EDC)

      Agnieszka Bieńkowska; Katarzyna Tworek (MDPI AG, 2020-03-01)
      This article concerns the newly developed construct—EDC (Employees’ Dynamic Capabilities)—and the mechanism of its influence on the job performance of contemporary employees aiming to contribute to the sustainable development of organizations. EDC seems to be especially important in a modern, dynamically changing work environment, in which obtaining sustainability is not possible without dynamic capabilities, and EDC should be included as the element of organizational dynamic capabilities. The paper aims to define and characterize EDC and then develop a mediation model of EDC influence on job performance, introducing the person−job fit, work motivation, job satisfaction, work engagement and organizational commitment as potential mediators related to sustainable development. The model is empirically verified based on the sample of 550 employees from Poland and USA (research carried out in December 2018) using factors analysis for verification of EDC as a new construct and then regression analysis with mediators for the verification of the proposed model. The results confirmed the role of person−job fit, work motivation, job satisfaction and work engagement as mediators of the analyzed relation, underlining the mechanism of the EDC influence on job performance. The empirical research confirms that EDC influences job performance in a way that is crucial for achieving sustainable development of organizations.
    • Job Satisfaction and Implications for Organizational Sustainability: A Resource Efficiency Perspective

      Thomas Lange (MDPI AG, 2021-03-01)
      This study contributes to the organizational sustainability literature by exploring a methodology for defining and making the notion of employee flourishing at work operational. It applies stochastic frontier methods on British longitudinal data to estimate the maximum job satisfaction that employees can achieve should they utilize their resources efficiently. It offers a new perspective on the notion of social comparisons and extends the literature by demonstrating the scope for organizational intervention in the context of commonly assumed, time invariant variables, which are often thought to be beyond interventionist possibilities. Findings suggest that many British employees fail to reach their job satisfaction potential, reporting satisfaction scores below those of their peers with similar resource endowments. This inefficiency correlates strongly with personality traits. Implications for organizational sustainability policy and practice are discussed.
    • Job Satisfaction and Problems among Academic Staff in Higher Education

      Adam R. Szromek; Radosław Wolniak (MDPI AG, 2020-06-01)
      The role of a scientist in society is undoubtedly extremely important. This thesis was particularly confirmed by the global events of the beginning of the third decade of the 21st century, when the spread of the COVID-19 virus revealed the helplessness of humanity in the face of a pandemic. Only intensive scientific work, having an interdisciplinary character, gives hope to stop the development of the spread of the virus. It turned out that it is scientists who are necessary to reduce mortality and morbidity, as well as the negative effects of a pandemic on the economy and public health. In this regard, it is worth discussing whether the scientific work of scientists is satisfying for them? Nowadays, the scientist is demanded for immediate effects of scientific research, implementation of inventions tailored to the emerging needs, and quick solutions to the problems of a dynamically changing society. However, along with the growing social expectations towards researchers, is their work increasingly appreciated? The aim of this article is getting to assess the level of satisfaction with scientific work among researchers and to identify the factors that influence its level. The article presents the results of research conducted on a random sample of 763 academics from Poland. The conducted scientific studies have established that: (1) The level of satisfaction of researchers concerning their own scientific work depends on employment conditions, as well as the social significance of the research carried out, (2) the level of satisfaction from work is closely correlated with the scientific opportunities of researchers (that is, the possibility of academic and didactic work, contact with students and co-workers) and negatively correlated with the necessity to carry out administrative work, and (3) the majority of Polish researchers are proud of their scientific achievements and treat their profession as a passion or vocation.
    • Job Satisfaction as a Driver for Sustainable Development in the Hospitality Industry? Evidence from the Alpine Region

      Peter Heimerl; Marco Haid; Urban Perkmann; Martin Rabensteiner (MDPI AG, 2020-08-01)
      This study investigated the drivers of job satisfaction in the Alpine tourism industry. Intention to work in the profession in the future and training satisfaction were also examined. A total of 316 employees in two Alpine tourism regions were interviewed by means of a questionnaire and asked about the factors influencing their job satisfaction, their intention to remain in the sector, and their satisfaction with training. The results reveal significant differences between the two regions in the dimensions of appreciation, international job opportunities, compatibility of family life and career, workplace climate, working hours, and remuneration. The findings also highlight differences in training satisfaction and intention to remain in the job. These regional differences provide important insights into job satisfaction and the influences upon it, from which various approaches to pursuing sustainable development potential can be derived, including personnel management, reduction of employee turnover, and appreciative corporate culture towards guests and employees as well as image cultivation among the general public.
    • Job Stress and Burnout among Social Workers in the VUCA World of COVID-19 Pandemic

      Gabriela Dima; Luiza Meseșan Schmitz; Marinela-Cristina Șimon (MDPI AG, 2021-06-01)
      This paper aimed to explore the changes posed by the new COVID-19 pandemic to the field of social work and its impact on social workers in terms of job stress and burnout in Romania. Two conceptual models were used to frame the discussion: the theoretical framework of VUCA (volatility, uncertainty, complexity, and ambiguity) to discuss the challenges that the unprecedented context of the COVID-19 pandemic has created for social workers; and the Job Demands and Resources model (JD-R) to understand job demands perceived as stressors and burnout. Based on convergent mixed methods, the study sample consisted of 83 social workers employed in statutory and private social services in Romania, from different areas of intervention. Results showed that social workers perceived a high level of job stress related to work during the pandemic, which was associated with higher levels of burnout in the areas of personal burnout (average score 55.9) and work-related burnout (average score 52.5). Client-related burnout was lower (average score 38.4), indicating that stress was generated mainly by organisational factors and work-related factors (workload, aligning to new legislative rules and decisions, inconsistency, instability, ambiguity of managerial decisions, and lack of clarity of working procedures) and less by client-related stressors (lack of direct contact with clients, risk of contamination, managing beneficiaries’ fears, and difficulties related to technology). High job demands and limited job resources (managerial and supervisory support, financial resources, and recognition and reward) led to a high to very high level of work-related burnout for 15.7% and an upper-medium level for 44.2% of respondents. A group of 27.7% reported lower to medium levels of work-related burnout, while 14.5% had very low levels, managing to handle stress factors in a healthy manner. Study results pointed to the importance of organisational support and the development of a self-care plan that help to protect against job stress and burnout. Recommendations were made, putting forward the voice of fieldworkers and managers fostering initiatives and the application of sustainability-based measures and activities designed to deal with the challenges of the VUCA environment.
    • Jockey Career Length and Risk Factors for Loss from Thoroughbred Race Riding

      Kylie Legg; Darryl Cochrane; Erica Gee; Chris Rogers (MDPI AG, 2020-09-01)
      Professional thoroughbred racing jockeys repeatedly work close to physiological capacity during races, whilst maintaining low body weights, on a daily basis with no off-season. The effects of this on their career length is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the career lengths and reasons for loss from the industry of 674 jockeys and apprentices who rode over 14 racing seasons and 421,596 race day starts in New Zealand. Descriptors were compared between jockeys in short (1–2 years), middle (3–9 years) and long (>10 years) career cohorts with descriptive statistics and Kaplan–Meier survival curves. The median career length for jockeys was 2 years (IQR 1–6). Long career cohort jockeys (11%) had lower carried weights (IQR 56–57 kg, <i>p</i> = 0.03), 40 times the median number of rides per season (248, IQR 61–434, <i>p</i> < 0.001), half the rate per 1000 rides of falling (1.1, 95% CI 1.0–1.2, <i>p</i> = 0.009) and 1.3 times the rate of winning (100, 95% CI 99–101, <i>p</i> < 0.01) than jockeys in the short career cohort. Jockeys who rode over 200 races per season had careers three times longer than jockeys with fewer races per season (<i>p</i> < 0.001). Half of the 40% of jockeys who failed to complete their apprenticeship were lost from the industry in their first year of race riding. In conclusion, most jockeys had short careers where the workload of a jockey and their ability to obtain rides had greater impact on career longevity than their performance.
    • Joining Historic Cities to the Global World: Feasibility or Fantasy?

      Ahmadreza Shirvani Dastgerdi; Giuseppe De Luca (MDPI AG, 2019-05-01)
      Given the globalisation and free movement of capital and people, global cities compete with others not only as tourist destinations but also for the attraction of investors, skilled labour and well-educated citizens. In this research, the image of the historic city of Florence is investigated from the perspective of tourists and residents to assess the feasibility of joining historic cities to the global world. The sample size included 384 people who were randomly selected in the historic centre of Florence and answered the research questionnaire. The data was then analysed by descriptive statistics and logistic regression test. The findings show that although appropriate environmental qualities have made Florence highly successful in attracting tourists, what can promote the sustainability level of this historic city in the globalisation era is the organisation of urban planning in order to gain a part of global economic and human capital by creating the precise and unique image of the city.
    • Joining Sustainable Design and Internet of Things Technologies on Campus: The IPVC Smartbottle Practical Case

      Ana Filomena Curralo; Sérgio Ivan Lopes; João Mendes; António Curado (MDPI AG, 2022-05-01)
      Higher education institutions (HEIs) are favored environments for the implementation of technological solutions that accelerate the generation of smart campi, given the dynamic ecosystem they create based on the involvement of inspired and motivated human resources (students, professors, and researchers), moving around in an atmosphere of advanced digital infrastructures and services. Moreover, HEIs have, in their mission, not only the creation of integrated knowledge through Research and Development (R&D) activities but also solving societal problems that address the academic community expectations concerning environmental issues, contributing, therefore, towards a greener society embodied within the United Nations (UN) Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). This article addresses the design and implementation of a Smartbottle Ecosystem in which an interactive and reusable water bottle communicates with an intelligent water refill station, both integrated by the Internet of Things (IoT) and Information and Communications Technologies (ICT), to eliminate the use of single-use plastic water bottles in the premises of the Polytechnical Institute of Viana do Castelo (IPVC), an HEI with nearly 6000 students. Three main contributions were identified in this research: (i) the proposal of a novel methodology based on the association of Design Thinking and Participatory Design as the basis for Sustainable Design; (ii) the design and development of an IoT-enabled smartbottle prototype; and (iii) the usability evaluation of the proposed prototype. The adopted methodology is rooted in Design Thinking and mixes it with a Participatory Design approach, including the end-user opinion throughout the Smartbottle Ecosystem design process, not only for the product design requirements but also for its specification. By promoting a participatory solution tailored to the IPVC academic community, recycled plastic has been identified as the preferential material and a marine mammal was selected for the smartbottle shape, in the process of developing a solution to replace the single-use plastic bottles.
    • Joining the Dots—Understanding the Value Generation of Creative Networks for Sustainability in Local Creative Ecosystems

      Marlen Komorowski; Ruxandra Lupu; Sara Pepper; Justin Lewis (MDPI AG, 2021-11-01)
      In recent years, the ecological shift from an economically driven model of arts and culture to that of an ecosystem in the creative industries determined the emergence of a range of new bottom-up, place-based networks herewith referred to as “creative networks”. This article explores how these networks can generate sustainability for local creative ecosystems through a value network approach. Building on the quadruple helix model to identify the actors in these networks, this study explores the relationships and value flows between the actors of 22 identified creative networks across the UK. It then maps these relationships using data gathered through a mixed methodology that includes survey data and focus group research. Our findings show that creative networks operate as central nodes of the local creative ecosystem, functioning as a ‘glue’ inside the otherwise very heterogenous creative industries. From this position, creative networks can act as catalysts for sustainability. However, the economic, cultural, and social value created by creative networks is often overshadowed by other challenges including a lack of funding and a lack of understanding from policy makers or the public.