Now showing items 26158-26177 of 49060

    • K-Means Clustering Approach for Intelligent Customer Segmentation Using Customer Purchase Behavior Data

      Kayalvily Tabianan; Shubashini Velu; Vinayakumar Ravi (MDPI AG, 2022-06-01)
      E-commerce system has become more popular and implemented in almost all business areas. E-commerce system is a platform for marketing and promoting the products to customer through online. Customer segmentation is known as a process of dividing the customers into groups which shares similar characteristics. The purpose of customer segmentation is to determine how to deal with customers in each category in order to increase the profit of each customer to the business. Segmenting the customers assist business to identify their profitable customer to satisfy their needs by optimizing the services and products. Therefore, customer segmentation helps E-commerce system to promote the right product to the right customer with the intention to increase profits. There are few types of customer segmentation factors which are demographic psychographic, behavioral, and geographic. In this study, customer behavioral factor has been focused. Therefore users will be analyzed using clustering algorithm in determining the purchase behavior of E-commerce system. The aim of clustering is to optimize the experimental similarity within the cluster and to maximize the dissimilarity in between clusters. In this study there are relationship between three clusters: event type, products, and categories. In this research, the proposed approach analyzed the groups that share similar criteria to help vendors to identify and focus on the high profitable segment to the least profitable segment. This type of analysis can play important role in improving the business. Grouping their customer according to their similar behavioral factor to sustain their customer for long-term and increase their business profit. It also enables high exposure of the e-offer to gain attention of potential customers. In order to process the collected data and segment the customers, an learning algorithm is used which is known as K-Means clustering. K-Means clustering is implemented to solve the clustering problems.
    • Kabul River Flow Prediction Using Automated ARIMA Forecasting: A Machine Learning Approach

      Muhammad Ali Musarat; Wesam Salah Alaloul; Muhammad Babar Ali Rabbani; Mujahid Ali; Muhammad Altaf; Roman Fediuk; Nikolai Vatin; Sergey Klyuev; Hamna Bukhari; Alishba Sadiq (MDPI AG, 2021-09-01)
      The water level in a river defines the nature of flow and is fundamental to flood analysis. Extreme fluctuation in water levels in rivers, such as floods and droughts, are catastrophic in every manner; therefore, forecasting at an early stage would prevent possible disasters and relief efforts could be set up on time. This study aims to digitally model the water level in the Kabul River to prevent and alleviate the effects of any change in water level in this river downstream. This study used a machine learning tool known as the automatic autoregressive integrated moving average for statistical methodological analysis for forecasting the river flow. Based on the hydrological data collected from the water level of Kabul River in Swat, the water levels from 2011–2030 were forecasted, which were based on the lowest value of Akaike Information Criterion as 9.216. It was concluded that the water flow started to increase from the year 2011 till it reached its peak value in the year 2019–2020, and then the water level will maintain its maximum level to 250 cumecs and minimum level to 10 cumecs till 2030. The need for this research is justified as it could prove helpful in establishing guidelines for hydrological designers, the planning and management of water, hydropower engineering projects, as an indicator for weather prediction, and for the people who are greatly dependent on the Kabul River for their survival.
    • Kahoot! as a Tool to Improve Student Academic Performance in Business Management Subjects

      Rocío Martínez-Jiménez; Cristina Pedrosa-Ortega; Ana Licerán-Gutiérrez; M. Carmen Ruiz-Jiménez; Elia García-Martí (MDPI AG, 2021-03-01)
      The new framework for learning requires the use of new technologies, such as m-learning or game-based learning programs. Gamification using this type of applications has been implemented in higher education contexts, enhancing students’ satisfaction, motivation, and class attendance. The present study refers to the introduction of new technologies and gamification through the use of the application Kahoot!, with the main objective being to analyze the relationship between the use of this gamification tool and the students’ learning results, which are measured by their academic marks. The results show a positive relationship between students’ results on the Kahoot! tests and the student’s final mark. Additionally, we demonstrate that students’ academic results improve when Kahoot! is used as an evaluation tool, taking into account improved student efficiency and a lower amount of failed grades.
    • Karren Habitat as the Key in Influencing Plant Distribution and Species Diversity in Shilin Geopark, Southwest China

      Kun Li; Mengyuan Zhang; Yilun Li; Xiaoyi Xing; Shuxin Fan; Yu Cao; Li Dong; Desheng Chen (MDPI AG, 2020-07-01)
      Karst rocky desertification (KRD) is one of the biggest challenges in the karst ecological restoration of Southwest China, and a thorough understanding of the plant community characteristics in various karren habitats provides a basis for mitigating KRD and restoring the degraded ecosystem. To improve our knowledge of the detailed characteristics and impact mechanisms of karren habitats on the species distribution and species diversity patterns of woody and herbaceous plants to benefit sustainable management and planting design for revegetation establishment in the karst region, a field investigation was carried out in the natural restoration vegetation of Shilin Geopark. The results indicated that karren habitats apparently determine the species diversity and composition. At the arbor layer, the habitat with the highest α diversity was solution corridor (SC), and at the shrub layer, grikes (GR) were the karren habitats with the most diverse communities. At the herb layer, solution rock debris (SRD) showed the highest richness of herbaceous species. The karren habitat features and topographic factors significantly influence plant α diversity and distribution. Soil area (SA) and canopy density (CD) were the dominant factors influencing plant diversity at the arbor, shrub and herb layers, soil thickness (ST) was significantly effective at the arbor and herb layers. Karren habitat height (KHH), litter thickness (LT), and slope gradient (SG) were significantly influential at the herb layer. The impacts of the karren habitat width (KHW), slope aspect (SAS), and SG on woody species distribution were significant. Knowledge obtained from this study will be helpful guidance for future sustainable restored vegetation design and management with high biodiversity and regional characteristics in the karst area of Southwest China and other fragile karst ecosystems in the world.
    • Karst Aquifer Vulnerability Assessment (KAVA) Method—A Novel GIS-Based Method for Deep Karst Aquifers

      Ranko Biondić; Hrvoje Meaški; Božidar Biondić; Jelena Loborec (MDPI AG, 2021-03-01)
      Karst aquifers in the Dinaric karst are very rich with groundwater and are a very important resource for public water supply. The characteristics of the Dinaric karst are the lack, or very thin layer, of covering deposits, large amounts of precipitations, high groundwater velocities, very deep groundwater flow with a lot of faults and fault zones, pits to groundwater, concentrated sinking and large karst springs, making them extremely vulnerable to all anthropogenic influences, which are very quickly transmitted to the aquifer. Numerous multiparameter methods have been developed in the last 20 years to determine the level of vulnerability of aquifers. Each of them has its own specifics and is well adapted to the climate and region for which it was developed. The Karst Aquifer Vulnerability Assessment (KAVA) method was developed in accordance with all the characteristics of the deep karst aquifers of the Dinaric karst and tested on several basins in the area. It was developed as a part of the Global Environment Facility United Nations Environmental Programme – the Mediterranean Action Plan Strategic Partnership for the Mediterranean Sea Large Marine Ecosystem (GEF UNEP/MAP MedPartnership Project). This paper presents the KAVA method and its application to two characteristic karst basins of the Dinaric karst: the Novljanska Žrnovnica spring catchment area and the Bakar Bay catchment area.
    • Karst Development Mechanism and Characteristics Based on Comprehensive Exploration along Jinan Metro, China

      Shangqu Sun; Liping Li; Jing Wang; Shaoshuai Shi; Shuguang Song; Zhongdong Fang; Xingzhi Ba; Hao Jin (MDPI AG, 2018-09-01)
      Jinan is the capital of Shandong Province and is famous for its spring water. Water conservation has become the consensus of Jinan citizens and the government and the community. The construction of metro engineering in Jinan has lagged behind other cities of the same scale for a long time. The key issue is the protection of spring water. When metro lines are constructed in Jinan karst area, the water-inrushing, quicksand, and piping hazards can easily occur, which can change the groundwater seepage environment and reduce spring discharge. Therefore, we try to reveal the development conditions, mechanism, and mode of karst area in Jinan. In addition, we propose the comprehensive optimizing method of “shallow-deep” and “region-target” suitable for exploration of karst areas along Jinan metro, and systematically study the development characteristics of the karst areas along Jinan metro, thus providing the basis for the shield tunnel to go through karst areas safely and protecting the springs in Jinan.
    • Keep on Rockin’ in a (Plastic-)Free World: Collective Efficacy and Pro-Environmental Intentions as a Function of Task Difficulty

      Gerhard Reese; Eva A. Junge (MDPI AG, 2017-02-01)
      Collective efficacy—the belief that one’s group is capable of affecting relevant aspects of its environment—has been highlighted as an important predictor of sustainable behavior. It increases people’s collective action tendencies, and is important for fostering environmental behavioral change beyond self-efficacy beliefs. The current study addresses two primary goals. First, we tested whether the difficulty of a task increased collective efficacy, and thereby environmental intentions. Second, we explored how collective and self-efficacy in concert predict such intentions. In a combined field-and-survey study, 165 voluntary participants took part in a plastic reduction challenge that was pretested as easy, moderate, or difficult. After being confronted with the task, participants completed an online questionnaire in which, among other variables, specific and general self-efficacy, collective efficacy, and pro-environmental intentions were measured—both general and plastic-reduction specific. Results revealed that (a) collective efficacy was significantly stronger when task difficulty was moderate rather than easy or difficult; and (b) that through specific collective and self-efficacy perceptions, sustainable intentions were gauged—even when controlling for attitudes and social norms. These findings suggest that collective efficacy beliefs are particularly relevant for attaining environmental goals that are neither too easy nor too difficult, and could thus be valuable for communication and policy strategies.
    • Keep Them Engaged: Romanian County Inspectorates for Emergency Situations’ Facebook Usage for Disaster Risk Communication and Beyond

      Monika Meltzer; Lucrina Ștefănescu; Alexandru Ozunu (MDPI AG, 2018-05-01)
      Nowadays, the use of social media by public institutions involved in disaster management is starting to become common practice. However, despite scientific interest in the effect of social media on disaster risk and crisis communication, data exploring emergency management agencies’ round-the-clock Facebook usage and the impact of their content and media choices on stakeholder engagement is limited. This study set out to investigate Romanian local emergency agencies’ Facebook usage patterns and stakeholders’ engagement with their content. The data is comprised of 7810 messages posted between the 1st January and 25th October 2017 by 32 County Inspectorates for Emergency Situations. First, using content analysis techniques, the topics of the posts were summarized to illustrate how these agencies use Facebook. Second, stakeholder engagement was investigated using social media marketing techniques. Third, messages related to natural hazards were analyzed in greater depth to reveal disaster risk communication patterns. The results suggest that Romanian emergency agencies mainly promote transparency and their institutional image on Facebook. Stakeholders were most likely to engage with brand-oriented posts, especially if these also offered rich multimedia feature. Meanwhile, stakeholders were less likely to interact with messages about natural hazards, particularly if they incorporated educational content. These observations suggest that, while at the moment Romanian local emergency management agencies take advantage of Facebook to create and maintain relationships with their stakeholders, they bypass opportunities to implement communication strategies for effective disaster risk reduction.
    • Keeping the Competitive Edge of a Convention and Exhibition Center in MICE Environment: Identification of Event Attributes for Long-Run Success

      Jaeyoung An; Hany Kim; Dongkeun Hur (MDPI AG, 2021-04-01)
      Understanding the weaknesses and strengths of event attributes plays a significant role in business survivability, specifically the meetings, incentives, conventions, and exhibitions (MICE) industry, in which the business environment is competitive. To be in business and survive long-term, service and product offerings must satisfy the needs of clients. In the case of the MICE industry, clients include event organizers, planners, and attendees. Thus, the IPA (importance-performance analysis) was conducted with hopes to provide valuable insight into the MICE industry to identify and evaluate their offering (attributes) that can assist Convention and Visitors Bureaus (CVBs) to establish better operational strategies that maintain their economic sustainability. Furthermore, this study also addressed the event planners and organizers’ perceptions toward the environment and social sustainability, measuring the importance and performance of ecofriendly venues and the availability of disabled access, which showed neither significant importance nor performance. However, as the main purpose of the research was to examine the essential venue selection criteria based on the perceptional lens of the event organizer and planners to MICE operators on achieving business sustainability, the findings of this study provide strategical direction to establish, maintain, and improve their facility, service, and products. The study also finds that there are different needs depending on the types of event organizers and planners.
    • Keeping Things as They Are: How Status Quo Biases and Traditions along with a Lack of Information Transparency in the Building Industry Slow Down the Adoption of Innovative Sustainable Technologies

      Björn Hofman; Gerdien de Vries; Geerten van de Kaa (MDPI AG, 2022-07-01)
      Climate change is one of the biggest challenges of this century. To contain its effects, the way we act would have to change significantly. Especially in the building sector, much progress can be made. Attempts have been made to stimulate sustainable behavior in the industry, for example, by implementing sustainable building measures in construction designs. However, adoption rates of these measures are low and behavioral change among building professionals is needed. Knowing why building professionals hold back in their use of these measures could support this behavioral change. This knowledge could, for example, inform energy policies or organizational strategies. That is why this study utilized the technology acceptance model and presents psychological factors as barriers to innovative sustainable building measure adoption in an organizational context. A survey among building professionals involved in real estate development (n = 109) was used to explore how conservatism within the building industry hinders adopting the building measures. To represent conservatism, we selected two cognitive biases that can be interpreted as a manifestation of status quo bias and confirmation bias, both fueled by information hassle (a micro-stressor caused by complex information). The effects of these variables on the adoption of sustainable building measures were tested using structural equation modeling, a methodology suitable for testing complex models and commonly used in behavioral research. Survey data indicate that conservatism is an essential barrier for building professionals to adopt sustainable building measures and that it increases when knowledge is low and information is complex. Based on these findings, we argue that policies and organizational strategies that attack these psychological barriers could promote the adoption of innovative sustainable building measures within the building sector.
    • Keeping Watch on Intangible Cultural Heritage: Live Transmission and Sustainable Development of Chinese Lacquer Art

      Xiaoting Song; Yongzhong Yang; Ruo Yang; Mohsin Shafi (MDPI AG, 2019-07-01)
      Countries all over the world have been constantly exploring ways to rescue and protect intangible cultural heritage. While learning from other countries’ protection measures, the Chinese government is also constantly exploring ways that conform to China’s national conditions. As China’s first batch of intangible cultural heritage, lacquer art boasts a brilliant history, but many people are not familiar with it today. Moreover, in the process of modernization, the lacquer art transmission is declining day by day, and it is facing unprecedented major crises such as loss and division of history into periods. Hence, it is essential to verify and reveal the challenges and dilemmas in the lacquer art transmission, and come up with corresponding protection measures around these problems. First of all, this research, through literature review, “horizontally” explores the current research status and the universal problems of lacquer art transmission from the macro level. With a view to make up for the deficiencies of the existing research and further supplement the empirical evidence, the current research, with the transmission of “Chengdu lacquer art” as an example and through in-depth interviews, tracks and investigates the whole process of transmission of Chengdu Lacquer Art Training Institute, and “vertically” analyzes the survival situation of lacquer art transmission and the core problems affecting transmission behaviors from the micro level. In the final conclusion, the research comes up with corresponding countermeasures and suggestions for the identified key problems, which is of significant reference value for facilitating the live transmission and sustainable development of Chinese lacquer art.
    • Kelp-Fed Beef, Swimming Caribou, Feral Reindeer, and Their Hunters: Island Mammals in a Marine Economy

      Katherine Reedy (MDPI AG, 2016-01-01)
      Aleutian Islands and Alaska Peninsula residents have selectively introduced land mammals to their primarily marine based economy over the past two centuries. This paper describes these many introductions, contexts, and the longer term roles of these cattle, sheep, reindeer, and other land mammals in discrete island settings and the regional food economy based upon interviews in ten communities and comprehensive household surveys in eight of these. Caribou are indigenous and traditionally hunted in other parts of the state but are legally “invasive” in island contexts now managed by the federal government. Access to land and natural resources by Alaska Natives and rural peoples is regulated by state and federal agencies, but Aleutian residents have shaped their environment and engineered food sources to support their communities. This paper demonstrates that hardline approaches to removing invasive land mammal species will have human consequences and an integrated management policy emphasizing food security and conservation that includes reducing the density of these introduced species is most appropriate.
    • Key Approaches, Risks, and Product Performance in Managing the Development Process of Complex Products Sustainably

      Salah Ahmed Mohamed Almoslehy; Mohammed Saad Alkahtani (MDPI AG, 2021-04-01)
      In the Industry 4.0 environment, being sustainably competitive is essential in global markets. In an endeavor to optimize the added value in the design process of complex products such as robots, managing the development process of such products is studied. The present study identifies the level of product performance that yields maximum return on product development in Industry 4.0. The study also identifies and reviews the key approaches to understanding and managing the design process of such complex products. It has been found that the hybrid approach is the most efficient approach. The study proposes an approach to effectively manage risk in the product design process that hybridizes attributes of both the lean and agile design paradigms. The proposed approach has been validated using five case studies with 99% level of statistical confidence. The results of this study enable efficient development of complex products such as robotic systems towards realizing sustainable competitiveness.
    • Key Aspects for IT-Services Integration in Urban Transit Service of Medium-Sized Cities: A Qualitative Exploratory Study in Colombia

      Tomas Ramirez-Guerrero; Mauricio Toro; Marta S. Tabares; Ricardo Salazar-Cabrera; Álvaro Pachón de la Cruz (MDPI AG, 2022-02-01)
      In the last ten years, approximately, urban transit systems of Latin American capital cities have evolved significantly. Colombia, specifically, has concentrated this development in its capital cities, consolidated through digital transformation programs in the transportation sector. However, the same phenomenon does not occur in medium-sized cities for different reasons that are important to analyze. This paper presents an exploratory qualitative study involving eight medium-sized cities in the implementation phase of their strategic urban transit systems. Three main aspects that drive this study were identified: technologies and their cost, functional requirements to implement information technology services in transit systems, and economy and administration associated with this type of implementation. Based on this, a semi-structured interview data collection instrument was designed, with the participation of 15 officials distributed in the eight target cities, and one expert from an intelligent transportation system in a capital city. With the information collected, an exploratory analysis was made contrasting the responses given by each interviewee. The most relevant results show that the interviewees prioritize technologies based on open standards to provide information to users; that the northern medium-sized cities of the country do not have strategies that regularize and motivate the use of public transportation; instead, the southern medium-sized cities of the country consider the use of transportation to be necessary. Finally, it was concluded that the information technology services to be included in the provision of transit services should promote these cities’ cultural and economic growth.
    • Key Aspects of Leisure Experiences in Protected Wildlife Areas: Notions of Nature, Senses of Place and Perceived Benefits

      Andrés Ried; María Jesús Monteagudo; Pelayo Benavides; Anne Le Bon; Stephanie Carmody; Rodrigo Santos (MDPI AG, 2020-04-01)
      The main objective of this research was to contribute to the understanding of leisure experiences in protected wilderness areas. This was pursued through the interpretation and analysis of three variables; the personal notion of “Nature”, perception of benefits, and senses of place put forward by resident and non-resident visitors to three protected wilderness areas in southern Chile. Through a post hoc qualitative, in-depth interview with 36 subjects, connections between the aforementioned variables were established. Among the results, the strength with which the romantic notion of Nature appears linked with leisure experiences was highlighted. With the latter, leisure experiences in protected wilderness areas were identified as the generators of “benefits” and “sense of place”. Finally, four key dimensions of leisure experiences in protected wilderness areas emerged: transcendence, perception of well-being, connection and environmental awareness.
    • Key Barriers of Digital Transformation of the High-Technology Manufacturing: An Evaluation Method

      Alexey Borovkov; Oleg Rozhdestvenskiy; Elizaveta Pavlova; Alexey Glazunov; Konstantin Savichev (MDPI AG, 2021-10-01)
      It is acknowledged that quality of life is related to economic development in a country or region. The impact of the ongoing transfer to the digital economy on economic growth, sustainable development, and quality of life has been a recent academic focus, finding that the development of digitalisation of the economy and society is happening at a comparable pace. Yet, despite the availability of governmental support and overall strategic orientation of top managers, there is evidence of low digital/advanced manufacturing technologies adoption readiness across economic sectors. Therefore, the object of the research is the digital/advanced manufacturing technologies adoption readiness, which can be assessed on both industrial and organisational levels. The authors carried out an expert poll that has shown low digital/advanced manufacturing technologies adoption readiness on the industrial level (average readiness of 2.18 across estimated industries). For this reason, the focus subject of the research is the evaluation method for determining barriers of digital transformation on organisational level. The review of the academic literature and available digital maturity assessment models has shown the lack of metrics for barrier evaluation. The objective of the research is to develop a method for digital-transformation barrier evaluation. An analytical research method is used to develop a ready-to-use method in a form of a questionnaire that can be applied to measure an overall digital-transformation barrier level and identify problem areas for a manufacturing enterprise. The developed method is approbated in two large industrial companies. The overall barrier equals 39.3% for a power engineering company, which is a deterrent barrier. The overall barrier equals 75.0% for a machine-building company, which is a limiting barrier. The results of approbation correspond with results of the expert poll: the power engineering company has a lower barrier level, which is in line with the engine building and turbine engineering industry showing higher levels of readiness to adopt digital technologies. This finding supports the hypothesis about the rationality of the author’s method.
    • Key Barriers to the Adoption of Biomass Gasification in Burkina Faso

      Fanta Barry; Marie Sawadogo; Maïmouna Bologo (Traoré); Igor W. K. Ouédraogo; Thomas Dogot (MDPI AG, 2021-06-01)
      The industrial sector in Burkina Faso faces two significant energy challenges access to efficient energy sources that are also renewable. Pyrolysis and gasification are emerging as conversion pathways that exploit available agricultural and industrial biomass. Pyrolysis has been adopted successfully, whereas gasification failed without getting beyond the experimental stage. This article assesses potential barriers to the adoption of gasification based on interviews with the stakeholders of the energy sector (users, NGOs, policy makers). We use pyrolysis as a benchmark to point out the barriers to adoption. The hierarchical analysis process (AHP) method was applied to identify the most significant barriers to the adoption of gasification. Twenty-seven barriers were identified and prioritized in two dimensions and five categories “technical”, “economic and financial”, “socio-cultural and organizational”, “political, governmental and institutional”, and “ecological and geographical” barriers. The category of socio-cultural and organizational barriers emerged as the most critical in the adoption of gasification. This category deserves special consideration to go past the pilot installation stage and adopting this technology.
    • Key Challenges and Opportunities for Recycling Electric Vehicle Battery Materials

      Alexandre Beaudet; François Larouche; Kamyab Amouzegar; Patrick Bouchard; Karim Zaghib (MDPI AG, 2020-07-01)
      The development and deployment of cost-effective and energy-efficient solutions for recycling end-of-life electric vehicle batteries is becoming increasingly urgent. Based on the existing literature, as well as original data from research and ongoing pilot projects in Canada, this paper discusses the following: (i) key economic and environmental drivers for recycling electric vehicle (EV) batteries; (ii) technical and financial challenges to large-scale deployment of recycling initiatives; and (iii) the main recycling process options currently under consideration. A number of policies and strategies are suggested to overcome these challenges, such as increasing the funding for both incremental innovation and breakthroughs on recycling technology, funding for pilot projects (particularly those contributing to fostering collaboration along the entire recycling value chain), and market-pull measures to support the creation of a favorable economic and regulatory environment for large-scale EV battery recycling.
    • Key Challenges in the Status Analysis for the Sustainable Urban Mobility Plan in Podgorica, Montenegro

      Radoje Vujadinović; Jelena Šaković Jovanović; Aljaž Plevnik; Luka Mladenovič; Tom Rye (MDPI AG, 2021-01-01)
      The paper presents the results of the application of a practical approach for collecting data, which provides a simple, cost efficient, and easily reproducible method that was applied to obtain the necessary data for the status analysis of the Sustainable Urban Mobility Plan (SUMP) for Podgorica, the capital of Montenegro. Important data for the estimation of the existing condition of the traffic system were collected through desk research from the appropriate institutions and organizations. Several surveys and focus group interviews were conducted, in which about 5000 residents of Podgorica participated. In addition to answering questions, residents made numerous suggestions, confirming the correctness of a participatory approach in the new traffic planning paradigm that provides the SUMP with crucial advantages. A manual cordon count of traffic on five bridges for the traffic of the motor vehicles, as well as on two pedestrian-only bridges, was performed by students from the study program Road Traffic, and there are plans to repeat this in the coming years in order to enable more reliable monitoring and evaluation of the obtained data. Contemporary quality management tools such as BYPAD and ParkPAD were also used to assess the status of cycling and parking policy, respectively. It is especially important to emphasize that Podgorica is the first city in the West Balkans, and the fourth city in Europe, in which the ParkPAD tool was applied. A wide range of negative phenomena and trends was identified, like a rapid increase in the number of registered vehicles, an increase in the motorization rate and the number of traffic accidents, increased non-compliance with traffic rules, excessive use of passenger cars and auto-taxi vehicles, insufficient use of unattractive public transport, walking and cycling, etc. Based on the data collected, key challenges in status analysis in Podgorica were identified, which the SUMP should try to overcome.
    • Key Challenges to Sustainable Humanitarian Supply Chains: Lessons from the COVID-19 Pandemic

      Koppiahraj Karuppiah; Bathrinath Sankaranarayanan; Syed Mithun Ali; Sanjoy Kumar Paul (MDPI AG, 2021-05-01)
      COVID-19 has had a major impact on health, economic, social, and industrial activities. It has disrupted supply chain management and affected the movement of essential supplies to a large extent. This study aims to identify and evaluate the challenges hampering sustainable humanitarian supply chain management (SHSCM). Twenty critical challenges to SHSCM are identified using a comprehensive literature review, and three strategies were developed. The challenges and strategies were verified using expert input. The challenges were evaluated using the neutrosophic analytic hierarchical process (AHP) method. The neutrosophic TODIM (an acronym in Portuguese for interactive multicriteria decision making) method was then used to select the best strategy. The findings reveal that facility location problems, short lead times for emergency supplies, spread of rumors, rapid emergence of new clusters, and doubt concerning the available remedy are five critical challenges in SHSCM during COVID-19. Public–private partnerships are identified as the best strategy in SHSCM. Finally, this paper discusses the implications to sustainable development goals in the post-COVID-19 pandemic era.