Now showing items 33812-33831 of 49888

    • q-Rung Orthopair Fuzzy TOPSIS Method for Green Supplier Selection Problem

      Adem Pınar; Babak Daneshvar Rouyendegh Babek Erdebilli; Yavuz Selim Özdemir (MDPI AG, 2021-01-01)
      Supply chain management is to improve competitive stress. In today’s world, competitive terms and customer sense have altered in favor of an environmentalist manner. As a result of this, green supplier selection has become a very important topic. In the green supplier selection approach, agility, lean process, sustainability, environmental sensitivity, and durability are pointed. Like the classical supplier selection problems, environmental criteria generally emphasize green supplier selection. However, these two problem approaches are different from each other in terms of carbon footprint, water consumption, environmental and recycling applications. Due to the problem structure, a resolution is defined that includes an algorithm based on q-Rung Orthopair Fuzzy (q-ROF) TOPSIS method. Brief information about q-ROF sets is given before the methodology of the q-ROF model is introduced. By using the proposed method and q-ROF sets, an application was made with today’s uncertain conditions. In the conclusion part, a comparison is made with classical TOPSIS, Intuitionistic Fuzzy TOPSIS and q-ROF TOPSIS methodology. As a result, more stable and accurate results are obtained with q-ROF TOPSIS.
    • Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau Greening and Human Well-Being Improving: The Role of Ecological Policies

      Shijin Wang; Yanqiang Wei (MDPI AG, 2022-01-01)
      Appropriate human activities can have significantly positive effects on vegetation dynamics. In the past 50 years, various ecological policies have improved both ecological change and human well-being in the Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau (QTP), efficiently achieving multiple Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) of the United Nations’ 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. During 1981–2017, the annual mean normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) of the protected areas (PAs) tended to increase significantly at a rate of 2.93 × 10<sup>−4</sup>/a (<i>p</i> < 0.01), while non-PAs only increased by 0.6 × 10<sup>−4</sup>/a (<i>p</i> < 0.5). Improvement in the NDVI of the PAs is more obvious than that of non-PAs. Specifically, the earlier the establishment of the Pas is, the more significant the greening effect will be. Moreover, ecological protection has not slowed improvements in human welfare; on the contrary, the Human Development Index (HDI) has nearly doubled in the past 40 years. In terms of global ecological construction, the Chinese government has demonstrated the responsibilities of a large country in global ecological governance. Chinese initiatives can guide other nations in contributing to the global sustainability aspirations embodied in the 2030 SDGs Agenda. This study can be used as a reference for other countries in the world to coordinate the development of ecological protection and well-being.
    • “Qualifying Peripheries” or “Repolarizing the Center”: A Comparison of Gentrification Processes in Europe

      Samaneh Sadat Nickayin; Rares Halbac-Cotoara-Zanfir; Matteo Clemente; Francesco Maria Chelli; Luca Salvati; Federico Benassi; Antonio Gimenez Morera (MDPI AG, 2020-10-01)
      Reflecting a broader form of neo-liberal urban policy underlying the progressive return of capital investment, gentrification is a key issue in urban studies. Although earlier definitions of “gentrification” focused mostly on socio-cultural processes, recent works have qualified gentrification as a mixed political–economic issue. Clarifying whether inner city gentrification should be supported, controlled, constricted, or prevented is a key debate in urban sustainability and metabolism, contributing to managing and, possibly, enhancing metropolitan resilience. To define the causes and consequences of gentrification, understanding the intrinsic linkage with different social contexts is crucial. There are no universal and comprehensive gentrification processes, displaying similarities and differences at the same time. A comparative analysis of different forms of gentrification and urban change provides basic knowledge to delineate complex, non-linear paths of socioeconomic development in cities, shedding light on the increased socioeconomic complexity and the most appropriate policies to fuel metropolitan sustainability in a broader context of global change. From this perspective, our commentary focuses on the main issues at the base of gentrification in Europe, starting from basic definitions and providing a regional vision distinguishing three “gentrification ideal-types” (northern, eastern, and Mediterranean). The implications of these different socioeconomic processes for the policy and governance of sustainable and resilient cities were discussed, evidencing new lines of investigation to frame (or re-frame) the increasing complexity of urbanization patterns and processes.
    • Qualifying the Sustainability of Novel Designs and Existing Solutions for Post-Disaster and Post-Conflict Sheltering

      Lara Alshawawreh; Francesco Pomponi; Bernardino D’Amico; Susan Snaddon; Peter Guthrie (MDPI AG, 2020-01-01)
      During the course of 2018, 70.8 million people globally were forcibly displaced due to natural disasters and conflicts—a staggering increase of 2.9 million people compared to the previous year’s figure. Displaced people cluster in refugee camps which have very often the scale of a medium-sized city. Post-disaster and post-conflict (PDPC) sheltering therefore represents a vitally important element for both the short- and long-term wellbeing of the displaced. However, the constrained environment which dominates PDPC sheltering often results in a lack of consideration of sustainability dimensions. Neglecting sustainability has severe practical consequences on both people and the environment, and in the long run it also incurs higher costs. It is therefore imperative to quickly transfer to PDPC sheltering where sustainability considerations are a key element of the design and decision-making processes. To facilitate such transition, this article reviews both ‘existing solutions’ and ‘novel designs’ for PDPC sheltering against the three pillars of sustainability. Both clusters are systematically categorized, and pros and cons of solutions and designs are identified. This provides an overview of the attempts made so far in different contexts, and it highlights what worked and what did not. This article represents a stepping-stone for future work in this area, to both facilitate and accelerate the transition to sustainable sheltering.
    • Qualitative Analysis of Risks Affecting the Delivery of Land Surveying Project Activities

      Usama Issa; Muwaffaq Alqurashi; Ibrahim Salama (MDPI AG, 2021-11-01)
      Land surveying projects (LSPs) suffer from the effects of many risk factors on the time and accuracy of these projects. Using field surveys, the main objective of this study was identifying the major activities and risk factors associated with LSPs’ execution, as well as assessing and analyzing the effects of the risk factors on the LSPs’ time and accuracy. Furthermore, the study aimed to classify and determine the responsibility of each risk factor and evaluate the responsibilities. Four main activities were categorized and presented, including reconnaissance works, planning works, data collection works, and data adjustment works. Moreover, forty-three risk factors that control the main activities and affect the time and accuracy of LSPs were recognized. The probabilities of occurrences for the risk factors and impacts on the time and accuracy of LSPs were determined as well as their combined effects. Key risk factors that had high threats on LSPs and affect time and accuracy were highlighted as the most critical risk factors. Many correlations were determined among risk factors affecting LSPs’ activity groups and their various effects on time and accuracy. The responsibilities of the surveying crew (chief, surveyor, assistance, office engineer) for each risk factors were correspondingly defined. The results showed that “Data collection works” is considered the riskiest activity group in LSPs and most of the key risk factors belonged to this group. Around 25% of the LSPs face time overrun and do not meet the required specifications. On the other hand, the surveyor was found to be responsible for most of the risk factors and the office engineer was signified by the lowest responsibility, while the responsibilities for most risk factors were single responsibility and few were shared by only dual responsibility.
    • Qualitative Analysis of the Occupational Health and Safety Performance of Chinese International Construction Projects

      Zhen Lei; Wenzhe Tang; Colin F. Duffield; Lihai Zhang; Felix Kin Peng Hui; Richun You (MDPI AG, 2018-11-01)
      Chinese contractors undertaking international projects are frequently criticized for their poor Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) performance. It is noticed that people with different occupations may perceive OHS differently. From a qualitative perspective, this study investigates the perceived OHS performances of design managers and construction managers engaged in Chinese overseas construction projects, considering a range of subgroups classified by people’s overseas experience, project size, project industry, project location, and firm size. The analysis was based on an e-questionnaire survey that sampled responses from 52 design managers and 160 construction managers involved in 110 international projects, and face-to-face interviews with 26 managers. The findings indicate that the assessment variation of OHS performance between design managers and construction managers is not only related to their different mental ways, but also can be mediated by their in-progress communication and affected by project and organizational conditions. The varying OHS performance in projects with different sizes or from different regions also suggests that Chinese contractors should be more proactive in OHS management instead of passively responding to external requirements.
    • Qualitative Analysis of Traditional Italian Dishes: FTIR Approach

      Alessandra Durazzo; Johannes Kiefer; Massimo Lucarini; Emanuela Camilli; Stefania Marconi; Paolo Gabrielli; Altero Aguzzi; Loretta Gambelli; Silvia Lisciani; Luisa Marletta (MDPI AG, 2018-11-01)
      Italian cuisine and its traditional recipes experience an ever-increasing popularity around the world. The “Integrated Approach„ is the key to modern food research and the innovative challenge for analyzing and modeling agro-food systems in their totality. The present study aims at applying and evaluating Fourier Transformed Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy for the analysis of complex food matrices and food preparations. Nine traditional Italian recipes, including <i>First courses</i>, <i>One-dish meals</i>, <i>Side courses</i>, and <i>Desserts</i>, were selected and experimentally prepared. Prior to their analysis via FTIR spectroscopy, the samples were homogenized and lyophilized. The IR spectroscopic characterization and the assignment of the main bands was carried out. Numerous peaks, which correspond to functional groups and modes of vibration of the individual components, were highlighted. The spectra are affected by both the preparation procedures, the cooking methods, and the cooking time. The qualitative analysis of the major functional groups can serve as a basis for a discrimination of the products and the investigation of fraud. For this purpose, the FTIR spectra were evaluated using Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Our results show how the utilization of vibrational spectroscopy combined with a well-established chemometric data analysis method represents a potentially powerful tool in research linked to the food sector and beyond. This study is a first step towards the development of new indicators of food quality.
    • Qualitative and Quantitative Characterization of Municipal Waste in Uncontrolled Dumpsites and Landfills Using Integrated Remote Sensing, Geological and Geophysical Data: A Case Study

      Islam Abou El-Magd; Mohamed Attwa; Mohammed El Bastawesy; Ahmed Gad; Ahmed Henaish; Sara Zamzam (MDPI AG, 2022-04-01)
      The conducted research offers an environmental assessment of municipal waste (MW) using remote sensing (RS), geological, and geophysical datasets. As a test site, the present study aims to characterize one of the largest uncontrolled dumpsites in Egypt. RS data analysis indicates that high temperature values are concentrated at the MW and landfill site allocations as a result of the decomposition process, leading to fire risks. Moreover, the geological and structural data draw attention to the structural-controlled old topography role on MW distributions. Consequently, the dumpsite MW has larger surface quantities near the downthrows of the mapped faults. For MW characterization, geophysical data are acquired to produce2D/3D resistivity models. Because MW has the ability to become soft clay, the municipal organic waste and landfill leachate resistivities are lower than that of municipal solid waste and sandy soils. The geophysical inversion results indicate that the maximum thickness of MW calibrating with the drilled borehole data is 60 m. Furthermore, the estimated MW dumpsite volume is about 42.32 MCM. Accordingly, the MW can be characterized in an accurate qualitative and quantitative manner. Our findings, therefore, help the efforts of uncontrolled dumpsite development and thus contribute to sustainability plans.
    • Qualitative Assessment of Agritourism Development Support Schemes in Italy, the USA and South Africa

      Giulia Grillini; Giovanna Sacchi; Lisa Chase; Jacqui Taylor; Christelle C. Van Zyl; Peet Van Der Merwe; Thomas Streifeneder; Christian Fischer (MDPI AG, 2022-06-01)
      Agritourism has grown rapidly in many countries worldwide. However, for all this success, little is known about the concrete implementation, actual extent, and effectiveness of public and private agritourism support measures aimed at keeping up farming and promoting agritourism. Hence, the objective of this study is to provide an overview and a comparison of agritourism supports and policies in different countries. To this purpose, specific political, legal, financial, and promotional instruments for agritourism have been investigated. The focus is on three countries with strong agritourism sectors and different socio-cultural characteristics: Italy, the USA, and South Africa. The analysis of these case study areas is motivated by examination of agritourism from different continents with a diverging status of development as well as history. Italy and the USA are two countries with well-established and successful agritourism sectors; however, these are based on very different framework conditions, resulting in specific development paths and various supportive driving factors. South Africa has been included as a representative case study of a developing country where agritourism operations are growing rapidly through the support of an active private sector association. By assessing commonalities and differences in public and private support backgrounds in three different continents, the present study represents the first exploratory attempt to understand the influences of public and private national and regional framework conditions for agritourism development. Our findings suggest that both public and private supports contribute to success; however, clear criteria and further research are needed in order to fully understand the implications.
    • Qualitative Assessment of Social Vulnerability to Flood Hazards in Romania

      Ibolya Török (MDPI AG, 2018-10-01)
      This paper investigates local-scale social vulnerability to flood hazards in Romania, aiming to identify the most vulnerable social and demographic groups across a wide range of geographical locations by considering three dimensions: demographic, socioeconomic, and the built environment. The purpose of the paper is threefold: first, it strives to improve the Social Vulnerability model (SoVI®) by applying a different weighting method adapted to the Romanian context, taking into consideration the municipalities exposed to flood movements. Second, it aims to develop an assessment model for the most vulnerable communities by measuring the heterogeneity according to local indicators related to disaster risks. Third, it aims to facilitate emergency managers to identify community sub-groups that are more susceptible to loss and to increase the resilience of local communities. To perform local-level vulnerability mapping, 28 variables were selected and three aggregated indexes were constructed with the help of the ArcGIS software. Moreover, a model of Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) between communities directly affected by floods and localities with high- and very high values of the Local Social Vulnerability Index (LoSoVI) was used to explore the spatial relationship among them and to compare the appropriateness of Ordinary Least Square (OLS) and GWR for such modelling. The established GWR model has revealed that the negative effects of flood hazards are often associated with communities with a high degree of social vulnerability. Thus, the analysis is able to provide a more comprehensive picture on communities in desperate need of financial resources in order to have the ability to diminish the negative impacts of flood hazards and to provide a more sustainable society.
    • Qualitative Impact Analysis of International Tourists and Residents’ Perceptions of Málaga-Costa Del Sol Airport

      L. Caballero Galeote; J. García Mestanza (MDPI AG, 2020-06-01)
      Air transport plays a key role especially in countries where tourism has a great impact on the economy. In Spain, the contribution made by this industry to GPD stands at EUR 119 billion, representing 11% of GDP. This case study focuses on the Málaga-Costa del Sol Airport due to the growth the city has experienced in recent years. The research examines the impacts of this infrastructure from the perceptions of residents and tourists. We conducted 638 questionnaires and 50 interviews with residents, and 165 questionnaires and 106 interviews with international tourists from August 2019 to January 2020. A qualitative thematic analysis was carried out using the NVivo Pro software. The findings indicate that residents value the ease of travel and employment generated by the airport. However, they are concerned about the environment impacts and mass tourism. For tourists, almost no negative impacts are recorded. Residents and tourists consider the existence of positive effects on other nearby cities of Andalusia. Conclusions have practical and theoretical implications for impact researches.
    • Qualitative Stakeholder Analysis for a Swedish Regional Biogas Development: A Thematic Network Approach

      Komalsingh Rambaree; Agneta Sundström; Zhao Wang; Sandra Ann Ingela Wright (MDPI AG, 2021-07-01)
      The creation of pathways toward a societal transition to clean energy requires the engagement of multiple stakeholders with different and sometimes conflicting interests. In this connection, stakeholder analysis (SA) offers a technique for identifying, assessing and structuring different needs, interests and concerns related to different stakeholders within the context of sustainability. This article aims to present the findings from a qualitative stakeholder analysis (QSA) by using a thematic network approach (TNA), with the help of the ATLAS.ti software. It focuses on Project X, which was aimed at engaging multiple stakeholders and creating favorable conditions for small and medium-sized companies in a region situated in the central part of Sweden, with the potential to start biogas production. In this work, the findings and discussions of the QSA using TNA are structured by using the political, economic, social, technological, environmental and legal (PESTEL) themes of the model. The present study concludes that for the small-scale biogas industry to successfully develop an understanding of the possibilities of the biogas value chain, it is necessary to have analyzed the nature of the main themes by which various stakeholders relate to biogas production and envision their contribution to creating a sustainable society. Herein, we demonstrate that QSA by a TNA, combined with the application of a PESTEL model, are valuable analytical tools in sustainable project management. The lessons from Project X can be applied to other local biogas initiatives, as many identified threats and opportunities are shared by others.
    • Qualitative Study on Electricity Consumption of Urban and Rural Households in Chiang Rai, Thailand, with a Focus on Ownership and Use of Air Conditioners

      Aya Yoshida; Panate Manomivibool; Tomohiro Tasaki; Pattayaporn Unroj (MDPI AG, 2020-07-01)
      This study investigated the differences in household energy consumption between urban and rural households in northern Thailand, with a particular focus on air-conditioner ownership and use. In-depth visits to 32 households in Chiang Rai were undertaken in 2016 and 2017. The data collection covered six aspects: household attributes, ownership of electric appliances, use of air conditioners (ACs), intentions to conserve electricity, desire to purchase electric appliances in the future, and prospects for a future lifestyle. Traditional stilt houses can still be found in rural areas, but ACs have been introduced as rural houses have modernized. The typical period of AC use in rural areas was 2 to 4 months during summer. In urban households, ACs were used for a longer period, from 3 to 12 months each year. In addition, rural households usually used ACs for only a few hours each day before sleeping, whereas urban households often used them while they slept and some used them throughout the day. Households with children and grandchildren tended to use the AC for longer periods. These results suggest that promotion of environmentally friendly lifestyles for younger adults to control overuse of ACs would be key to reducing energy consumption in the future.
    • Quality 4.0 Maturity Assessment in Light of the Current Situation in the Czech Republic

      Jaroslav Nenadál; David Vykydal; Petra Halfarová; Eva Tylečková (MDPI AG, 2022-06-01)
      Production companies throughout the world are currently facing challenges with the extensive transformation of their processes with regard to digitalisation and other features of Industry 4.0. Simultaneously, traditional quality management processes must be significantly changed, and the umbrella term “Quality 4.0” is used to represent this transformation. Many companies, including Czech enterprises, are still struggling with the concept of Quality 4.0, as there are a lot of uncertainties, misunderstandings, and false approaches. Additionally, a lot of questions arise about how to provide an objective and comprehensive assessment of the company’s maturity or readiness for Quality 4.0. Therefore, the main objective of this article is to present our proposal of a framework and methodology on how to assess and measure the maturity level for the implementation of Quality 4.0. This proposal will be supplemented by a presentation of the main results obtained from a special field study, which was conducted at Czech production companies with the aim of obtaining a representative set of information showing their readiness to adopt Quality 4.0 and convert existing quality management systems into the new era. The authors also identify some research gaps, including the necessity to confirm the mutual relationship between the dimensions and items of Quality 4.0 and the sustainable development of companies or society.
    • Quality 4.0: The EFQM 2020 Model and Industry 4.0 Relationships and Implications

      Luis Fonseca; António Amaral; José Oliveira (MDPI AG, 2021-03-01)
      The European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM) 2020 model is a comprehensive and updated business model that encompasses sustainability and shares features with Industry 4.0, emphasizing transformation and improved organizational performance, yet with different theoretical and practical foundations. This research highlights the EFQM 2020 model’s novelties and its relationships/implications with the Industry 4.0 paradigm, contributing to the Quality 4.0 body of knowledge. Several linkages between the EFQM 2020 model and Industry 4.0 have been identified, namely, at the criteria level and guidance points, which can support successful digital transformation by combining quality and excellence with Industry 4.0. However, given the model’s generic and non-prescriptive nature, there is no specific reference to the nine Industry 4.0 pillars. Additionally, the links between direction and organizational culture and leadership criteria and driving performance and transformation are not evident, which might be a concern for business and technology transformation strategies. Managing knowledge, skills, and capabilities is critical for the successful adoption of Industry 4.0. The EFQM model adds a strategic and technologically unbiased perspective to Industry 4.0, providing an integrated business excellence framework for Quality 4.0. With empirical support of the model application, future research is recommended to develop this subject further.
    • Quality Analysis of Some Spray Parameters When Performing Treatments in Vineyards in Order to Reduce Environment Pollution

      Ovidiu Ranta; Ovidiu Marian; Mircea Valentin Muntean; Adrian Molnar; Alexandru Bogdan Ghețe; Valentin Crișan; Sorin Stănilă; Tibor Rittner (MDPI AG, 2021-07-01)
      There is a worldwide trend that supports the rational use of chemicals in agriculture. It has become common knowledge that irresponsible application of pesticides can cause food security issues, by endangering human and animal health while also having negative environmental consequences. The aim of this experiment was to assess the qualitative parameters of spraying treatments in vineyards. To achieve this, a vineyard and orchard sprayer machine was used for the application of treatments under a gradient of pressures (3, 5, 7, 9 bar). Water-sensitive collectors were placed at three heights (0.8 m, 1.5 m, 2.5 m). Following spraying was determined using DepositScan: the volume median diameter characterization of droplets (DV 1, DV 5, DV 9), and coverage degrees of sprayings. Results indicated that best coverage degree and larger droplets tend to be deposited 1.5 m from the ground, which corresponds with the highest proximity to the positioning of the nozzles of the machine during application, and lowest coverage is found at the top, where droplets deposited also tend to be smaller. For the anti-drift nozzle model used in the study, the best coverage was obtained at a pressure of 5 bar. For sustainability of agricultural practices and rational use of pesticides, more research is required for optimization of increased precision spraying that could ensure high coverage at lower doses of chemicals and coarse droplets. In this way the quantity of product sprayed is expected to be reduced, due to minimization of off-target losses and increased efficiency. This can ensure that negative environmental impacts are lowered. Improved treatment application at higher positioning of the canopy remains a challenge and shall receive more attention.
    • Quality Analysis on Spatial Planning Pattern of Rural Area in Southern Shaanxi, China

      Juan Xu; Mengsheng Yang; Ziliang Lu; Dan Liu; Yan Wu (MDPI AG, 2021-11-01)
      There have been many studies that have only focused on factors affecting the spatial distribution of rural settlements, without paying attention to their function and scale. China’s mountainous rural area has many problems, such as a fragile ecological environment, poor infrastructure and limited public service facilities. As a result, mountainous rural settlements demonstrate a disorderly and scattered layout. This research takes southern Shaanxi as its research area and uses quantitative and qualitative analysis to analyze the field survey data, revealing the spatial format of rural settlements and its influencing factors. The research results show that: (1) The spatial structure of mountainous settlements can be summarized as falling into three types—agglomeration type, belt type, and dispersion type. The individual settlements are discrete, and the spatial structure of the settlement groups exhibits small-scale clustering in a large area. (2) The influencing factors of spatial structure are ranked thus—geomorphological conditions > population quantity > land use scale. (3) The number of settlements in the study area is constantly decreasing, and their boundaries are gradually shrinking, showing randomly distributed characteristics. (4) A radius of 284.12 m can be used as a measure of the development scope of the village to control the scope of settlement construction. The objective of the research is to classify the spatial structure and propose the most optimal spatial mode in mountainous rural areas.
    • Quality and Diffusion of Social and Sustainability Reporting in Italian Public Utility Companies

      Francesco Badia; Enrico Bracci; Mouhcine Tallaki (MDPI AG, 2020-06-01)
      In recent decades, non-financial reporting has been widely debated in the literature relating to both public and private sectors. Non-financial reporting is used to increase accountability and transparency, and to adapt to external pressures and stakeholder expectations. The focus on external factors, i.e., transparency and stakeholders, has largely precluded research into the quality of non-financial reporting. Nevertheless, the quality and reliability of sustainability reports have been widely questioned in the literature. Non-financial reporting may provide purely symbolic actions to manage expectations. This paper analyzes the level of diffusion and quality of non-financial reporting tools in the public utility sector. We use the principles of the GRI (Global Reporting Initiative) framework to measure quality, i.e., clarity and accuracy, timeliness and stakeholder engagement, comparability, and reliability. We use a qualitative exploratory approach with a mix of primary and secondary sources. The results show that despite the increasing use of non-financial reporting in organizational life, it is not diffused within public utilities. We address the issue of quality, and find that, overall, the accuracy/clarity and comparability of non-financial reporting is satisfactory; timeliness and stakeholder engagement appear to be acceptable, while reliability does not appear to be acceptable.
    • Quality and Environmental Management Linkage: A Review of the Literature

      Erlantz Allur; Iñaki Heras-Saizarbitoria; Olivier Boiral; Francesco Testa (MDPI AG, 2018-11-01)
      This article presents a conceptual and empirical review of the literature related to the link between the different perspectives, models, and tools associated with Quality Management and Environmental Management. Several academic works identified in the literature that aimed to establish conceptual similarities between QM and EM are reviewed and discussed. In general, terms, the scholarly literature suggests that the main quality practices and programs associated with the Quality Management paradigm—such as ISO 9001 and Total Quality Management—facilitate the adoption of environmental practices associated with corporate Environmental Management. However, there is evidence of certain limitations driven by different biases, whether or not they are recognized in the reviewed publications. The concentration on some avenues of research focused on very detailed aspects of the linkage between QM and EM is discussed. Conversely, lines that have been overlooked and are in need for more research were also identified. The implications for scholars, such as suggestions for further research, are included as a contribution of the article.
    • Quality and Oxidative Changes of Minced Cooked Pork Incorporated with <i>Moringa</i> <i>oleifera</i> Leaf and Root Powder

      Nobuhle S. Lungu; Anthony J. Afolayan; Ronald S. Thomas; Emrobowansan M. Idamokoro (MDPI AG, 2021-09-01)
      Consumers are currently demanding meat products produced using natural additives due to their potential health benefits. Consequently, there has been a progressive interest in the search for more natural antioxidant sources. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of varying levels of <i>M.</i> <i>oleifera</i> root and leaf powder on the oxidative stability and quality of cooked minced pork during eight days of refrigerated storage at 4 °C. The leaves contained significantly higher (<i>p</i> ˂ 0.05) concentrations of total phenols (50.08 ± 0.01 mg GAE/g), while the roots contained the highest amounts of flavonoids (375.15 ± 0.19 mg QE/g) and proanthocyanidins (132.62 ± 0.4 mg CE/g). Both plant parts demonstrated good 2,2-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2 íazino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) free radical scavenging activity. Minced cooked pork incorporated with <i>M.</i> <i>oleifera</i> leaf and root powder had significantly lower pH and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) values compared to the control (<i>p</i> < 0.05). The ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) was also significantly higher in the samples that incorporated antioxidants compared to the control (<i>p</i> < 0.05). Findings from this study suggest that <i>M.</i> <i>oleifera</i> leaves and roots are potent antioxidant sources which can be incorporated in meat to improve quality attributes during storage.