Now showing items 33469-33488 of 49060

    • R & D Attention and Profit Performance—An Empirical Study on Listed Companies in China’s Electric Power and Electrical Industries

      Shiyin Jing; Yanbin Li; Yulong Sun (MDPI AG, 2021-07-01)
      The electric power and electric industries are basic and strategic emerging industries in China’s national economy. Based on the data of listed companies in China’s electric power and electric industries from 2015 to 2019, this paper empirically studies the impact of research and development (R & D) attention on corporate profitability. The results show that attention to R & D by listed companies in electric power and electric industries will significantly improve enterprise’s profit performance, and this kind of effect has yearly heterogeneity. From 2015 to 2017, R & D attention gradually improved the profit performance of enterprises, but the profit spillover effect of R & D investment in recent years needs to be further strengthened. Further study found that R & D attention has a significant effect on corporate profitability in the private enterprise group, the R & D attention of state-owned enterprises and R & D structure adjustment should be paid more attention; R & D investment can significantly improve the profitability of the electrical industry, but the promotion effect was relatively slow in recent years, and R & D investment has a significant effect on the profitability of listed companies in the electric power industry. Although the promotion effect is not obvious, it shows a steady improvement trend. After variable and model replacement, the empirical regression conclusion of this paper is still robust. The results of this paper help to deepen the understanding of the stage characteristics of the impact of R & D attention on profit performance, and it is of great significance to optimize the efficiency of R & D investment and pay attention to the adjustment of R & D structure in the electric power and electrical industries.
    • R & D Intensity and Dividend Policy: Evidence from South Korea’s Biotech Firms

      Namryoung Lee; Jaehong Lee (MDPI AG, 2019-09-01)
      In this paper, we examine the relation between a firm’s research and development (R & D) intensity and dividend payout policy with a focus on biotech firms in a sample of 18,253 firm-year observations in South Korea. We find that biotech firms’ R & D intensity is negatively related to dividend payout. Furthermore, for biotech firms, increased internal cash holding accomplished via a lower dividend policy is positively associated with long-term corporate value. In particular, this study reports that the relation between biotech firms’ cash holding and corporate firm value is significantly positive in firms with high stock dividends. Moreover, it shows that non-biotech firms in the maturity stage of the corporate lifecycle tend to distribute cash dividends, a practice that is relatively uncommon among biotech firms in an R & D steady state.
    • R&D Accounting Treatment, R&D State and Tax Avoidance: With a Focus on Biotech Firms

      Namryoung Lee (MDPI AG, 2018-12-01)
      This study examines the correlation among R&D accounting treatment, R&D state and tax avoidance behavior, with a focus on biotech firms. Findings from the analysis show that most firms are unlikely to capitalize R&D in a steady state; however, in the case of biotech firms, this is not the case. This may be due to biotech firms’ accounting choice to capitalize R&D outlays based on a strong belief in future opportunities of commercial success. Moreover, the analysis of tax avoidance behavior finds that firms with low capitalization in an R&D steady state have a positive correlation with tax avoidance, whereas biotech firms do not. The results imply that biotech firms focus on sustainable commercial success unlike the general patterns of other industries.
    • R&D Cooperation and Knowledge Spillover Effects for Sustainable Business Innovation in the Chemical Industry

      Petr Hájek; Jan Stejskal (MDPI AG, 2018-04-01)
      This paper investigates the influence of research and development (R&D) cooperation on the creation of spillover effects for sustainable firms in the chemical industry. We explore the evidence for the origin of knowledge spillovers derived from cooperation amongst firms and universities and R&D organizations as well as to test the influence of internal/external financial support on these effects. The results confirm that when firms acquire knowledge from internal sources, this leads to increased innovation and sustainable performance. We have proved that internal expenditure results in increased internal knowledge spillovers. These findings may be specific for Central and Eastern (CEE) transition countries, indicating their efforts to build path-dependent structures based on knowledge institutions and businesses as well as knowledge networks. However, this study also provides a more “global” contribution to the knowledge spillover effect theory. It shows that a firm’s cooperation both with universities and with other firms promotes different types of knowledge spillovers and can affect diverse modes of sustainable activities in innovation.
    • R&D in Europe: Sector Decomposition of Sources of (in)Efficiency

      Tihana Škrinjarić (MDPI AG, 2020-02-01)
      Measuring the efficiency of research and development (R&D) expenditure and innovation policy has gained attention in recent years. This research examines the efficiency of 29 selected European countries for the period ranging from 2007 to 2017 in achieving and obtaining R&D goals. The methodology applied is the data envelopment analysis approach with the inclusion of the missing data approach. The contributions of this research include the following: dynamic analysis is conducted to track changes of (in)efficiencies over time; the decomposition of the efficiency is done by separating the main variables of interest into the private, higher education, and government sectors; and the robustness of the results is evaluated, which is often ignored in the literature. The results of the analysis are discussed with possible directions for inefficient countries. The rankings provided in the empirical part of the study confirm previous findings on disparities between the European countries with respect to innovation and the R&D sector.
    • R&D Investments and Firm Value: Evidence from China

      Woo Sung Kim; Kunsu Park; Sang Hoon Lee; Hongyoung Kim (MDPI AG, 2018-11-01)
      This study examines whether R&D investments are non-linearly related to firm value. Using a sample of 563 Chinese listed firms between 2005 and 2013, we find that R&D investments have an inverted U-shaped relationship with firm value. This finding indicates that as R&D investments increase, firm value increases to a certain level and then decreases. We further find the presence of an inverted U-shaped relationship in firms with low state ownership. However, we find no evidence of a non-linear relationship in firms with high state ownership. These results suggest that the inverted U-shaped relationship is more pronounced for firms with low state ownership than for firms with high state ownership. Moreover, we find that there is an inverted U-shaped relationship between R&D investments and firm value in firms with high growth opportunities. In contrast, for firms with low growth opportunities, their relationship has a U-shaped pattern. These results are robust to robust standard errors clustered at the firm level, controlling for industry fixed effects, and omitting variable biases. Overall, our empirical evidence extends and complements the literature on the R&D investments–firm value relationship by considering their non-linear pattern. This study provides important implications for stakeholders, such as investors, policy makers, standard-setters, state owners, and regulators. Specifically, our findings can be useful to policy makers who pursue long-term performance objectives.
    • R&D Project Selection Incorporating Customer-Perceived Value and Technology Potential: The Case of the Automobile Industry

      Sungjoo Lee; Chanwoo Cho; Jaehong Choi; Byungun Yoon (MDPI AG, 2017-10-01)
      As user-centric innovation has recently emerged as a successful way of developing new products, services, and concepts, it is worth considering the perspectives of potential technology users during R&D project selection processes. Nevertheless, little effort has been made to reflect customer-perceived value in establishing selection criteria, with the focus mainly on technological potential instead. Therefore, this study aims to develop an R&D project selection model incorporating not only technological potential but also customer-perceived value. For this purpose, a new R&D project evaluation model and process is proposed, and its feasibility is tested by potential users in a real scenario. The automobile industry is suitable for our evaluation model because it is a B2C and system-based industry where customer needs are critical to market success and a number of R&D projects are proposed every year. Finally, a supporting tool is developed to help interact with various evaluators and visualize the evaluation results, as customer involvement is recommended for accurate project evaluation from the perspective of technology users. This study is one of the earliest attempts to reflect customer-perceived value in R&D project selection, and practically, the research outputs are expected to be useful to automobile manufacturers in creating value from R&D projects.
    • R&D Project Valuation Considering Changes of Economic Environment: A Case of a Pharmaceutical R&D Project

      Jung Ho Park; Kwangsoo Shin (MDPI AG, 2018-03-01)
      R&D project valuation is important for effective R&D portfolio management through decision making, related to the firm’s R&D productivity, sustainable management. In particular, scholars have emphasized the necessities of capturing option value in R&D and developed methods of real option valuation. However, despite suggesting various real option models, there are few studies on simultaneously employing mean-reverting stochastic process and Markov regime switching to describe the evolution of cash flow and to reflect time-varying parameters resulting from changes of economic environment. Therefore, we suggest a mean-reverting binomial lattice model under Markov regime switching and apply it to evaluate clinical development with project cases of the pharmaceutical industry. This study finds that decision making can be different according to the regime condition, thus the suggested model can capture risks caused by the uncertainty of the economic environment, represented by regime switching. Further, this study simulates the model according to rate parameter from 0.00 to 1.00 and risk-free interest rates for regimes 1 and 2 from ( r 1 = 4%, r 2 = 2%) to ( r 1 = 7%, r 2 = 5%), and confirms the rigidity of the model. Therefore, in practice, the mean-reverting binomial lattice model under Markov regime switching proposed in this study for R&D project valuation contributes to assisting company R&D project managers make effective decision making considering current economic environment and future changes.
    • R&D, Advertising and Firms’ Financial Performance in South Korea: Does Firm Size Matter?

      Jian Xu; Feng Liu; You-hua Chen (MDPI AG, 2019-07-01)
      Advertising and research and development (R&D) are two engines for firms to obtain competitiveness and improve profits. This study develops a system of equations to investigate the overall relationships among R&D, advertising and financial performance across firm sizes. Data from Korean listed firms have been used during 2012−2016. First, our results show that R&D and advertising are complementary in South Korea. Second, for large firms, advertising is positively and significantly associated with financial performance, and the R&D expenditure has no significant influence. Finally, R&D and advertising expenditures have a negative impact on the financial performance of small firms. An additional analysis is conducted to examine the duration of R&D and advertising. Our results from Korean listed firms contain important implications for academia as well as practitioners.
    • R&D Intensity and Its Curvilinear Relationship with Firm Profitability: Perspective from the Alternative Energy Sector

      Natasha Hazarika (MDPI AG, 2021-04-01)
      There is an inconclusive debate concerning the relationship between environmental research and development (R&D) and corporate financial performance (CFP). The debate becomes more complex because a win–win situation between environmental and financial goals is not as plausible in practice as it is in theory. Though arguments have been made that when time-lag is considered, the relationship can produce positive outcomes for both entities, ambiguities persist because linear models dominate this analysis. This study, therefore, empirically tested the existence of a curvilinear relationship between R&D intensity and CFP in the context of the alternative energy sector. Using a panel dataset of 24 companies and 232 unbalanced firm-year observations for 10 years, it was found that after passing the inflection points, investment in R&D reaps financial benefits that will eventually offset the cost of the initial investment. The curvilinear relationship of R&D intensity on return on sales and net profit margin is strongly supported.
    • R&D, Marketing, Strategic Planning, or Human Resources? Which CEO Career Is Most Helpful for the Economic Sustainability of ICT Startups in South Korea?

      Hongbum Kim; Yuri Jo; Daeho Lee (MDPI AG, 2021-03-01)
      The market performance of a company is greatly influenced by the functional experience of the chief executive. In the case of a small startup, the functional experience of the chief executive is even greater. Based on career data of chief executives, this study first classifies startups in the information and communication technology (ICT) industry into four different groups. In addition, this study analyzes the effect of the CEO’s experience on the market performance of ICT startups by deriving the efficiency of each company using the financial data of ICT startups provided in the database. This study estimates the technical efficiency of each group using stochastic frontier analysis and then uses meta-frontier analysis to compare the efficiency of different groups. As a result, the CEO group with a career in strategy and planning showed the highest meta-frontier efficiency, whereas the CEO group with a career in R&D showed the lowest.
    • R3SOLVE: A Serious Game to Support End-of-Life Rooftop Solar Panel Waste Management

      Hengky Salim; Rodney Anthony Stewart; Oz Sahin; Birthe Sagstad; Michael Dudley (MDPI AG, 2021-11-01)
      A complex systems model is necessary to holistically address the end-of-life (EoL) solar panel waste problem. However, there is a significant challenge in communicating such a model to stakeholders. Serious games can overcome this challenge by simplifying a complex model via a user-friendly interface. It enables stakeholders to experiment with different decisions and understand their long-term impacts in a safe environment. In this paper, a serious game called <i>R3SOLVE</i> was designed from a previously developed system dynamics (SD) model. The goal of the game is to achieve certain collection and recovery outcomes through a mix of decisions ranging from product stewardship strategies, landfill regulation, technological investment, promotional effort, reuse strategy, and infrastructure improvement. The game has a single player mode, where a player can access all decisions, and a multiplayer (turn-based) mode, where two players with different roles work collaboratively to achieve the desired outcome. Rewards and penalties also exist in the game to promote players’ extrinsic motivation to use critical thinking. Both game modes have been tested in separate workshops to identify bugs and issues regarding goal clarity and in-game information. Future directions to conduct stakeholder workshops and the evaluation approach are also suggested at the end of this paper.
    • Racial Residential Segregation: Measuring Location Choice Attributes of Environmental Quality and Self-Segregation

      Zhaohua Zhang; Derrick Robinson; Diane Hite (MDPI AG, 2018-04-01)
      Both sorting on public goods and tastes for segregation contribute to the persistence of segregation in America. Incorporating Schelling’s (1969, 1971) concept of “neighborhood tipping” into a two-stage equilibrium sorting model, in which both neighborhood demographic composition and public goods (e.g., environmental quality) affect households’ residential location choice, this study investigates how preferences for neighborhood demographic composition could obscure the role of exogenous public goods on segregation. The results reveal that non-white households face higher level of exposure to air pollution, suggesting the presence of environmental injustice in Franklin County, OH. Using a counterfactual scenario of switching off heterogeneous taste for environmental quality, this study identifies that sorting on Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) emissions drives little correlations between emissions and demographics. However, when taste parameters of the interactions between neighborhood demographic composition and household race are eliminated, segregation (as measured by over-exposure to households of the same race) of black and white households decreases by 7.63% and 16.36%, respectively, and own-race neighbor preferences contribute to segregation differently according to household income. These results may help explain some recent puzzles in the relationship between environmental quality and demographics.
    • Radiant Floors versus Radiant Walls Using Ceramic Thermal Panels in Mediterranean Dwellings: Annual Energy Demand and Cost-Effective Analysis

      Víctor Echarri-Iribarren; Wong Nyuk Hien; Ana Sánchez-Ostiz (MDPI AG, 2021-01-01)
      The present study focuses on the application of large-format thermal ceramic conditioning panels (TCPs) containing polypropylene (PPR) capillary tube mats in dwellings on the Mediterranean coast. The thermal and energy behaviours were examined once the underfloor heating was installed, and they were compared with an alternative wall application. The system was implemented in a single-family house located on the Spanish Mediterranean coast. After having monitored the house during a complete one-year cycle, the annual energy demand was quantified using the Design Builder tool. TCP panels applied to radiant floors reduced energy demand by 5.15% compared to the wall-layout alternative. Significant reductions in CO<sub>2</sub> emissions were also achieved, as well as a 25.19% reduction in energy demand compared to convection systems. The incorporation of 24 m<sup>2</sup> of solar thermal panels into the system, combined with solar cooling systems based on lithium chloride, was also analysed. A reduction in energy demand of 57.46% was obtained compared to all-air convection systems. Finally, the amortisation periods of the investments in TCP panels and solar panels were calculated and compared to a convection system. Underfloor TCP panels proved to be more cost-effective than a wall installation. The additional cost of EUR 21,844 could be amortised over approximately 14 years with the radiant underfloor TCP system, while the wall TCP would be amortised over 17.4 years.
    • Radiating Benefit of Windbreak and Sand Fixation in the Baijitan Nature Reserve of Lingwu, Ningxia, China

      Chao Song; Qiyin Yu; Ruixia Wang; Guofa Cui (MDPI AG, 2021-03-01)
      Many important ecosystem services show spatial flow characteristics, which are crucial for the study of environmental processes, such as the transformation, correlation, coordination, and management of ecosystem services at different scales. As a result, flow characteristics should be taken into account when it comes to the evaluation of ecosystem services. The study area was the Baijitan Nature Reserve, used to assess the radiating benefits of the windbreak and sand fixation from 2000 to 2019, based on wind erosion loss and sand spatial erosion models. The main results are as follows: Firstly, the fractional vegetation coverage (FVC) clearly increased over the last 20 years and the medium coverage, which accounted for 66.13%, became the main vegetation cover. The wind speed in the reserve dropped gradually as well. Secondly, sand only affected the nature reserve and the surrounding communities. When the wind speed was above a strong breeze (10.8–13.8 m/s), coarse silt could affect 26 downwind administrative regions, with an affected area of 2.13 × 10<sup>6</sup> km<sup>2</sup>. Thirdly, the benefits of windbreak and sand fixation varied with the beneficial range, including distance from the Baijitan Nature Reserve and the beneficial area. Dust deposition decreased as the beneficial distance increased. For instance, Shaanxi Province saw the greatest benefit of windbreak and sand fixation, with a dust deposition reduction of 6.87 × 10<sup>7</sup> t (1 t = 10<sup>3</sup> kg), followed by Hubei and Henan Provinces, with reductions of 5.31 × 10<sup>7</sup> t and 5.59 × 10<sup>7</sup> t, respectively. Fourthly, the periodical deposition in administrative regions decreased gradually, as did the different influence ranges. The dust depositions in the five phases of Shaanxi Province were 2.04 × 10<sup>7</sup>, 1.83 × 10<sup>7</sup>, 6.63 × 10<sup>6</sup>, 4.65 × 10<sup>6</sup>, and 3.48 × 10<sup>6</sup> t. Fifthly, medium silt, fine silt, and clay silt could easily drift long distances under the influence of sand-driving wind, thus affecting the air quality in downwind administrative regions. Sixthly, the sand source in Baijitan Nature Reserve was an important factor that caused sand–dust weather in downwind areas. The frequency of sand–dust weather was significantly higher in cities near the sand source than in other regions in downwind areas, and the correlations between particle concentrations less than 10 microns in diameter (PM<sub>10</sub>) and the time sequences of sand-driving wind reached significant levels in certain cities. We found that the windbreak and sand fixation in Baijitan Nature Reserve could offer great benefits to the downwind area. Establishing a desert nature reserve could be a great way to promote environmentally sustainable development since it could effectively reduce dust deposition and the frequency of sand–dust weather in downwind areas.
    • Radiation Protection Legislation and Sustainable Development of a Rural Green Tuff Village of Ischia Island

      Giuseppe La Verde; Vittoria D’Avino; Carlo Sabbarese; Fabrizio Ambrosino; Vincenzo Roca; Adelaide Raulo; Mariagabriella Pugliese (MDPI AG, 2020-10-01)
      Radiological risks affects the quality of the environment in buildings since population and workers can be potentially exposed to high levels of radiation. Radon gas emanating from both subsoil and building materials represents the most important source of radiation exposure for people. This study investigates the sustainability concept of a small rural village of Ischia Island, named Ciglio, in relation to radiation protection legislation concerning the radiological risk for workers. Radon activity concentration was measured in typical green-tuff dwellings and in water samples collected from a local spring using E-Perm devices. Moreover, for green tuff as a building material, the radon emanation coefficient was calculated by gamma spectroscopy. The results highlight the importance of performing environmental radon monitoring and investigating the radon content of building materials, especially in geographical areas characterized by traditional use of typical stones for constructions. In conclusion, the sustainable development of rural buildings is possible if the radiological risk for inhabitants and workers is assessed in line with the national radiation protection legislation.
    • Radio Frequency Fingerprint-Based DSRC Intelligent Vehicle Networking Identification Mechanism in High Mobility Environment

      Tianshu Chen; Aiqun Hu; Yu Jiang (MDPI AG, 2022-04-01)
      In recent years, Dedicated Short-Range Communication (DSRC) vehicle interconnection technology has achieved mature development and broad applications, which is the key Vehicle to Everything (V2X) technology to realize transport intelligence. However, the openness of wireless transmission and the mobility of wireless terminals cause the identification mechanism of the DSRC system to face serious security threats. A radio frequency fingerprint (RFF)-based identification method can better resist the identity attack and spoofing by extracting the hardware characteristics formed by the differences of electronic components to authenticate different devices. Therefore, in this paper a novel RFF identification mechanism is proposed for IEEE 802.11p protocol-based DSRC intelligent vehicle networking devices suitable for a high mobility environment, in which the preamble field features of physical layer frames are extracted as device fingerprints, and the random forest algorithm and sequential detection method are used to distinguish and authenticate different devices. The experiment and simulation results demonstrate that the identification accuracy rates of the eight DSRC modules in the low-speed LOS and NLOS experimental states and up to 70 km/h high-speed simulations all exceed 99%, illustrating that this method has important application value in the field of identity authentication of V2X devices in high-speed scenarios.
    • Radioactivity in Oily Sludge and Produced Waste Water from Oil: Environmental Concerns and Potential Remedial Measures

      Avin E. Pillay; Fadhil M. Salih; Muthana I. Maleek (MDPI AG, 2010-03-01)
      Produced water separated from oil is usually returned to the environment and could permeate through the water table. If such water is contaminated with radioactive substances, it could create a definite threat to the water supply, especially in arid regions where ground water and overhead streams are sources of potable water. Low-level radioactive contamination of oily sludge is equally hazardous and also leads to detrimental pollution of water resources. We investigated the distribution of 226Ra, 40K and 228Ac in produced waste water and oily sludge and found abnormal levels of radioactivity. A total of 90 ground wastewater samples were collected from different sites for a period of one year. The presence of these radionuclides was identified by their characteristic gamma rays. The detection system consisted of a high-purity germanium detector. Our results show that about 20% of the samples exhibited 20–60 Bq/L radioactivity and ~6% of the samples exceeded 60 Bq/L. Roughly 70% of the experimental samples fell in the range of 2–20 Bq/L, which still exceeded the maximum admissible drinking-water limit 0.2 Bq/L.
    • Radiometric Calibration for Multispectral Camera of Different Imaging Conditions Mounted on a UAV Platform

      Yahui Guo; J. Senthilnath; Wenxiang Wu; Xueqin Zhang; Zhaoqi Zeng; Han Huang (MDPI AG, 2019-02-01)
      Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) equipped with multispectral cameras for remote sensing (RS) has provided new opportunities for ecological and agricultural related applications for modelling, mapping, and monitoring. However, when the multispectral images are used for the quantitative study, they should be radiometrically calibrated, which accounts for atmospheric and solar conditions by converting the digital number into a unit of scene reflectance that can be directly used in quantitative remote sensing (QRS). Indeed, some of the present applications using multispectral images are processed without precise calibration or with coarse calibration. The radiometric calibration of images from the UAV platform is quite difficult to perform, as the imaging condition is different for every single image. Thus, a standard procedure is necessary for a systematical radiometric calibration method to generate multispectral images with unit reflectance. Further, these images can be used to calculate vegetation indices, which are useful in monitoring vegetation phenology. These vegetation indices are considered as a potential screening tool to know the plant status, such as nitrogen, chlorophyll content, green leaf biomass, etc. This study focuses on a series of radiometric calibrations for multispectral images acquired from different flight altitudes, time instants, and weather conditions. Radiometric calibration for multispectral images is performed using the linear regression method (LRM). The main contribution involves (1) affirming the optimal calibration targets and assessing the atmospheric effects of different flights using the single scene of images; (2) to evaluate the effects of mosaic images with the LRM; (3) to propose and validate a universal calibration equation for the Mini Multiple Camera Array (MCA) 6 camera. The obtained results show that the three calibration targets, such as the dark, moderate, and white, are better for the Mini MCA 6 camera. The atmospheric effects increase with the increase of flight altitudes for each band, and the camera effect is of a fixed number. However, the camera effect and atmospheric attenuation to reflectance from different altitudes were relatively low considering the accuracy assessment. The performance measures namely, mean absolute deviation (indicated as V) and root mean square error (RMSE) between single and mosaic images show that the mosaic will not influence too much reflectance. The LRM performs well in all weather conditions. The universal calibration equation is suitable to apply to the images acquired during a sunny day and even with a little cloud.
    • Radionuclide Transfer in the Zirconium Oxychloride Production Process and the Radiation Effect in a Typical Chinese Enterprise

      Shoulong Xu; Qifan Wu; Xiaogang Li; Feng Yuan; Liangying Tu (MDPI AG, 2019-10-01)
      The radiation impact on the environment from naturally-occurring radioactive materials in zircon sand is an important issue for zirconium product manufacturing enterprises. In this paper, a typical oxychloride production enterprise has been taken as an example to study the radiation effect and environmental pollution during the whole production process. The transfer and enrichment of radionuclides in zircon sand was studied by analyzing their concentrations in samples, such as products and wastes, which were sampled from every studied workshop, so that the dose rate in the environment and typical facility surfaces of each workshop could be measured. The study results show that the transfer and enrichment of radionuclides occur mainly in workshops of acidification, dissolution, concentration and crystallization. Silicon slag adsorbed some radionuclides, but most of the radionuclides in raw materials are transferred and enriched in waste acid by the concentration and crystallization process. Sludge and wastewater still contain a large quantity of radionuclides after treatment by wastewater treatment plants. This results in a significant increase in U-238 and Th-232 concentrations in river water near the main outlet. The average effective dose of all employees in the studied enterprises was 0.94 mSv, and workers from the wastewater treatment plants had the largest annual effective dose at 11 mSv.