Now showing items 40656-40675 of 49060

    • T21-Ohio, a System Dynamics Approach to Policy Assessment for Sustainable Development: A Waste to Profit Case Study

      Emrah Cimren; Andrea Bassi; Joseph Fiksel (MDPI AG, 2010-09-01)
      A new system dynamics tool, T21-Ohio, was developed to support integrated and comprehensive development planning at the state level. Based on the Threshold 21 (T21) framework, T21-Ohio provides insights into the potential impacts of energy and environmental policies across a wide range of sectors, and reveals how different strategies interact with one another to achieve planned goals and objectives. This paper shows how T21-Ohio was used to model the broader social, economic and environmental impacts of “waste to profit” activities in Ohio, such as recycling, electricity generation from waste, and bio-fuel production. Three alternative scenarios were simulated to evaluate the impacts of biomass co-firing, government stimulus for solid waste recycling, and by-product synergy activities. The results of the three scenario analyses indicate significant potential for economic development and creation of jobs while reducing emissions and waste.
    • Taboos/Norms and Modern Science, and Possible Integration for Sustainable Management of the Flyingfish Resource of Orchid Island, Taiwan

      Shui-Kai Chang (MDPI AG, 2020-10-01)
      Coastal management without scientific data or modern techniques has been implemented successfully by many coastal communities, and traditional ecological knowledge (TEK), which is regarded as a culturally framed belief system, has played an important role in the successful cases. TEK of flyingfish culture in the Orchid Island was proved to have a theoretical basis and advantages in managing the flyingfish resource. However, modernization, introduction of modern techniques (motorized boats), development of tourism, and numerous other factors have caused TEK to change or disappear, and integration of TEK with the modern science of environmental management may be a solution to sustain the marine resource. TEK constitutes numerous taboos and norms (T&N). This study, for the first time, itemized the T&N of the flyingfish culture by category, with plausible motives explained by the respondents through in-depth interviews of tribespeople in 2014 and 2015, and identified the T&N with ecological conservation implications. The study also implemented a sampling scheme to provide the first records of fishery composition, flyingfish catch amount (about 260,000–280,000 fish per year), and the catch rate for the island. Finally, this study discussed three interrelated approaches for sustainable management of the flyingfish resource, including integration of TEK with science-based monitoring, control and surveillance (MCS), and research.
    • Tacit Collusion of Pricing Strategy Game between Regional Ports: The Case of Yangtze River Economic Belt

      Gang Dong; Dandan Zhong (MDPI AG, 2019-01-01)
      We develop a game model to analyze the tacit collusion between regional ports under three different scenarios. In the first scenario, there is simultaneous pricing game between regional ports; this intends to depict pricing strategy adopted independently. In the second, we consider two competing ports that make sequential pricing decisions. Thirdly, an infinitely repeated game model is then formulated for regional ports to test the stability of Nash equilibrium. Our main finding is that there is a certain degree of tacit collusion of pricing strategy between regional ports in the competitive environment; in particular, the tacit collusion of pricing strategy will gradually stabilize with the increasing number regional ports games. A case study of Yangtze River Economic Belt is provided to illustrate the results.
    • Tacit Collusion on Steroids: The Potential Risks for Competition Resulting from the Use of Algorithm Technology by Companies

      Christophe Samuel Hutchinson; Gulnara Fliurovna Ruchkina; Sergei Guerasimovich Pavlikov (MDPI AG, 2021-01-01)
      Digitalization has a growing impact on everyone’s life. It influences the way consumers purchase products, read online news, access multimedia content, and even meet or interact socially. At the core of digital products lies algorithm technology, decision-making software capable of fulfilling multiple tasks: data mining, result ranking, user matching, dynamic pricing, product recommendations, and ads targeting, among others. Notwithstanding the perceived benefits of algorithms for the economy, the question has been raised of whether the use of algorithms by businesses might have countervailing effects on competition. Although any anti-competitive behavior typically observed in traditional markets can be implemented by this technology, a particular issue highlighted in discussions between researchers and practitioners is the concern that algorithms might foster collusion. Because of their capacity to increase market transparency and the frequency of interactions between competing firms, they can be used to facilitate parallel collusive behavior while dispensing competing firms with the need for explicit communication. Consequently, it is not excluded that algorithms will be used in the years to come to obtain the effects of a cartel without the need to enter into restrictive agreements or to engage in concerted practices. We evaluate the collusion risks associated with the use of algorithms and discuss whether the “agreement for antitrust purposes” concept needs revisiting. The more firms made use of types of algorithms that enable direct and indirect communication between the competitors, the more likely those companies may be considered liable.
    • Tackling Air Pollution in China—What do We Learn from the Great Smog of 1950s in LONDON

      Dongyong Zhang; Junjuan Liu; Bingjun Li (MDPI AG, 2014-08-01)
      Since the prolonged, severe smog that blanketed many Chinese cities in first months of 2013, living in smog has become “normal” to most people living in mainland China. This has not only caused serious harm to public health, but also resulted in massive economic losses in many other ways. Tackling the current air pollution has become crucial to China’s long-term economic and social sustainable development. This paper aims to find the causes of the current severe air quality and explore the possible solutions by reviewing the current literature, and by comparing China’s air pollution regulations to that of the post London Killer Smog of 1952, in the United Kingdom (UK). It is hoped that China will learn the lesson from the UK, and decouple its economic growth from the detrimental impact of environment. Policy suggestions are made.
    • Tackling Energy Poverty through Collective Advisory Assemblies and Electricity and Comfort Monitoring Campaigns

      Joana Ortiz; Mariana Jiménez Martínez; Alba Alegría-Sala; Sergio Tirado-Herrero; Irene González Pijuan; Mònica Guiteras Blaya; Lluc Canals Casals (MDPI AG, 2021-08-01)
      The present work aims to describe and analyze the results of the interventions carried out in the Barcelona pilot site of the EmpowerMed project. The overall objective of EmpowerMed is to tackle energy poverty and to help improve the health of people in coastal areas of Mediterranean countries, with a particular focus on women. The main support approach implemented in Barcelona is Collective Advisory Assemblies (CAA), in the framework of Alliance against Energy Poverty. CAA is an innovative, collaborative empowering engagement tool that offers an alternative to the more traditional one-off individual household advice and support approaches. CAAs take place together with a monitoring campaign where: electricity consumption is analyzed to optimize the supply contracts, and indoor environmental comfort to provide recommendations for wellbeing improvement. Through the different approaches, a characterization of the people that have participated in the Barcelona pilot site was completed, from a socioeconomic, energy, thermal comfort and air quality perspective. Additionally, it was compared with a group of energy poverty non-affected households, which are involved in the monitoring campaign. Finally, the impact was quantified in terms of empowerment of energy poverty population and, potential economic savings.
    • Tackling Fragmented Last Mile Deliveries to Nanostores by Utilizing Spare Transportation Capacity—A Simulation Study

      Bram Kin; Tomas Ambra; Sara Verlinde; Cathy Macharis (MDPI AG, 2018-02-01)
      Last mile deliveries in urban areas cause a disproportionate unsustainable impact, while it is also the most expensive part of the supply chain. This is particularly true for freight flows that are characterized by fragmentation. Logistically, this becomes apparent in vehicles that are driving around with a low vehicle fill rate, leading to the unnecessary presence of freight vehicles in our cities. This study focuses on the operational feasibility of utilizing the spare transportation capacity of a service-driven company as a potential solution to supply small independent retailers, or nanostores. The aim is to reduce inefficient vehicle movement. Based on a real-life implementation, we use SYnchronization Model for Belgian Inland Transport (SYMBIT), an agent-based model, to simulate various bundling scenarios. Results show the total vehicle kilometers and lead times to supply nanostores for the service-driven company to serve its customers. There is a potential to utilize spare capacity to supply nanostores while maintaining a decent service level. The number of vehicle kilometers driven highly depends on the location of the distribution center where the service-driven company operates. Based on these results, the conditions that have to be met to replicate this solution in other urban areas are discussed.
    • Tackling Regional Climate Change Impacts and Food Security Issues: A Critical Analysis across ASEAN, PIF, and SAARC

      Md Saidul Islam; Edson Kieu (MDPI AG, 2020-01-01)
      Climate change and food security issues are multi-faceted and transcend across national boundaries. Therefore, this paper begins with the premise that regional organizations are optimally positioned to address climate change and food security issues while actively engaging global partners to slow down or reverse current trajectories. However, the potential of regional organizations to play a central role in mitigating these vital concerns has not been realized. In this paper, we focus on three regional organizations—the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), the Pacific Islands Forum (PIF), and the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) and set out to investigate the multifaceted obstacles that impede regional organizations’ ability to effectively cope with these problems. We qualitatively review the efficacy of policies and examine the connections between politico-economic processes that affect the development, cooperation, and execution of regional policies. In doing so, we review regional policies using five key criteria: (i) planning, (ii) implementation, (iii) cooperation, (iv) legal obligation and (v) international contribution. Our findings suggest that regional organizations face fundamental problems in the implementation of extensive policies due to the lack of cooperation and legal obligation between member nation-states that stems from fundamental prioritization of national development agendas over regional cooperation.
    • Tackling Salinity in Sustainable Agriculture—What Developing Countries May Learn from Approaches of the Developed World

      Sajid Shokat; Dominik K. Großkinsky (MDPI AG, 2019-08-01)
      Soil salinity is a common problem of the developing world as well as the developed world. However, the pace to reduce salinity is much slower in the developing world. The application of short-term approaches with an unsustainable supply of funds are the major reasons of low success. In contrast, the developed world has focused on long-term and sustainable techniques, and considerable funds per unit area have been allocated to reduce soil salinity. Here, we review the existing approaches in both worlds. Approaches like engineering and nutrient use were proven to be unsustainable, while limited breeding and biosaline approaches had little success in the developing countries. In contrast, advanced breeding and genetics tools were implemented in the developed countries to improve the salinity tolerance of different crops with more success. Resultantly, developed countries not only reduced the area for soil salinity at a higher rate, but more sustainable and cheaper ways to resolve the issue were implemented at the farmers’ field. Similarly, plant microbial approaches and the application of fertigation through drip irrigation have great potential for both worlds, and farmer participatory approaches are required to obtain fruitful outcomes. In this regard, a challenging issue is the transition of sustainable approaches from developed countries to developing ones, and possible methods for this are discussed.
    • Tackling Traffic Congestion with Workplace Parking Levies

      Georgina Santos; Anna Hagan; Orla Lenehan (MDPI AG, 2020-03-01)
      On the basis of 17 interviews with employers and 272 survey responses from employees, we explore the perceptions of a Workplace Parking Levy (WPL) in Cardiff, with the aim of understanding if a WPL would be an acceptable traffic demand management policy to tackle traffic congestion. We find that employers would not be very supportive of a WPL, whilst employees would, provided employers were to absorb the costs. Despite this support, the majority of those who drive to work would not be prepared to change mode. An important theme throughout the study was the perception of public transport and active travel provision in Cardiff being inadequate. Most study participants felt that investment in public transport and active travel is needed before a WPL is introduced. We conclude that, although a WPL would not be overwhelmingly acceptable to employers and employees, it would be more acceptable than congestion charging, and there is a possibility that acceptability could be increased with the help of feedback from a public consultation.
    • Tactical Innovation to Incorporate Post-Consumer Expanded Polystyrene in Artisanal Chains for the Doping of Products

      Nayeli Montalvo-Romero; Aarón Montiel-Rosales; Gregorio Fernández-Lambert; Fabiola Sánchez-Galván; Horacio Bautista-Santos (MDPI AG, 2021-11-01)
      In its original manufacturing purpose, Expanded Polystyrene (EPS) is an industrial product with a short life cycle and waste with high negative environmental impact. Given this externality, this article contributes to the state of the art by proposing reuse EPS as a raw material valuable to the process of manufacturing hats in a Mexican company. The SCAMPER technique is used to formulate a hardener, which is optimized with a Taguchi design. Statistically, there is no difference between the quality of the conventional hardener and the mixture based on post-consumer EPS to make hats based on the standards defined by the company; a subjective analysis supported by the judgment of experts validates the quality of the hats. A contour graph and response surface reflect different combinations of solute and solvent to formulate the glue for the doping of the hat, with the same hardness results. This allows the artisan to assess the formulation from an economical point of view, as well as with respect to the arrangement of materials. These results specifically propose the sustainable alternative of integrating waste from the post–consumer EPS chain into the artisanal hat value chain, and are replicable to other similar products.
    • Tactical Urbanism in Italy: From Grassroots to Institutional Tool—Assessing Value of Public Space Experiments

      Alessandro Cariello; Rossella Ferorelli; Francesco Rotondo (MDPI AG, 2021-10-01)
      The paper aims to evaluate the value that the experimentation of tactical urban planning activities can assume for the city, through the critical account of some practices in three Italian cities of large (Milan), medium-large (Bari), and medium size (Taranto), which in recent years, in some cases unknowingly, have experienced its effects, also forced by the thrust offered by the need to respond to the consequences of the pandemic. The authors reflect on how short-term interventions started by tactical urbanism movement are inspiring planning institutions to implement short-term place-making initiatives. The contribution moves within the context of new generation urban regeneration in which the transformation of existing spaces is a process of community reconstruction through the redevelopment of public spaces increasingly open to multiple and temporary uses. First through a process of rereading the state of the art of the project of public spaces in Italy and its transformation caused by the pandemic, then through a comparative look between the three case studies, conclusions are drawn on the urban value of the experiments conducted and, on their ability, to identify a new reference point for the sustainable urban regeneration of public spaces.
    • Tactics for Xinjiang Tourism Industrial Belt Based on Performance Evaluation

      Xin Qian; Yuping Xu; Xuehui Mei; Xia Xie (MDPI AG, 2021-11-01)
      In this paper, some tactics are considered in Xinjiang tourism industrial belt based on performance evaluation. First, we applied the Balanced Scorecard (BSC) to establish an evaluation system for Xinjiang tourism development in four dimensions: tourism performance, resource utilization, basic supporting capacity, and market attention. Second, the performance of tourism development in 14 Prefectures was evaluated using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) in 2018. Third, because the Prefectures were divided into four tourism industrial belts, a discussion was conducted to identify and understand the difference among them and their corresponding influence on regional tourism development using the Theil index and Entropy method. The result shows that (1) In all dimensions, the differences within each industrial belt were greater than those between industrial belts. (2) The tourism industrial belts displayed a differentiation phenomenon, in the dimension of significant difference being distinct for different belts. Finally (3), it is found that the resource utilization of all belts is significantly different.
    • Tactile Architectural Drawings—Practical Application and Potential of Architectural Typhlographics

      Agnieszka Kłopotowska; Monika Magdziak (MDPI AG, 2021-05-01)
      The subject of research conducted by the team from the Bialystok University of Technology is architectural typhlographics—a kind of specialised tactile drawings dedicated to people with visual impairments. The aim of the publication is to present the specificity of this type of architectural graphics and to indicate the areas of its usefulness. Based on professional experience, available thematic literature, as well as specialist consultations, the authors made a multi-criteria analysis and valorisation of the obtained set of examples of architectural typhlographs. The result of the research is to indicate the main fields of current application, and to outline the potential and possible directions of further development of tactile architectural drawings. The specifics of the examined graphics are also presented, including their functionality, possible forms of representations and differences from typical architectural representations. The historical background of the typhlographics as well as the main principles of their creation are presented, as the supplement and basis for the author’s considerations. The research also showed the broad utility and social values of architectural typhlographs and the priorities for their further development.
    • Taekwondo as an Academic Field of Study for Non-Koreans: An Unconventional and Extreme Form of Martial Arts Tourism

      John A. Johnson (MDPI AG, 2021-03-01)
      Many Korean universities grant undergraduate and graduate school degrees in part on coursework, theses, and dissertations that explore Taekwondo through various academic lenses in Taekwondo Studies programs, yet only a few individuals have traveled to the Korean Peninsula to study Taekwondo academically. Traveling internationally to earn a university degree in a martial art can be considered extreme martial arts tourism. This multidisciplinary study explores the motivations of non-Koreans who have studied Taekwondo academically in Korea as well as their aspirations after graduation. The study utilized a combination of autoethnographic techniques and interviews with individuals who have given up years of their lives, thousands of dollars, their home cultures, languages, and food, and their families to travel to a foreign university in order to study Taekwondo. Twelve participants were identified that met the selection criteria, but eight responded to the interview requests. The nine participants, including the author, came from a wide assortment of backgrounds, but all shared a passion for Taekwondo; now, most participants (<i>n</i> = 5) have jobs within the Taekwondo industry, including two professors in separate Departments of Taekwondo. This study’s findings elucidate why non-Koreans study Taekwondo academically and thereby offer suggestions on how to improve this educational market.
    • Taguchi Loss Function in Intuitionistic Fuzzy Sets along with Personal Perceptions for the Sustainable Supplier Selection Problem

      Seda Turk (MDPI AG, 2022-05-01)
      Sustainability, a new interdisciplinary paradigm, can be defined as a standard in terms of economic, environmental and social awareness of a company. In many applications, theoretical sustainability models considering the importance of three aspects equally differed from models used in practice. A sustainable supplier selection problem generally contains many conflicting information and the imprecise decision makers’ knowledge, and decision makers can judge suppliers based on their first impression. Hence, in this study, a sustainable supplier selection problem of a plastic packaging company in Turkey is taken into account under an expert-based model and a theorical-based model for three scenarios which consider personal perceptions of decision makers. First, an intuitionistic fuzzy set-based method is applied to the problem using two different distance measurement approaches, namely, fuzzy normalized Euclidean distance and the Taguchi loss function, for which an alternative method is proposed. Then, suppliers are ranked and the validity of the results is also checked using the Pearson product–moment correlation coefficient. The results indicate that (i) the personal perception of decision makers has an inevitable impact on results, (ii) the proposed approach can capture the associated uncertainties embedded in decision makers and fuzzy environment, and (iii) there is a disparity between the theory and the reality of sustainability.
    • Tailoring Global Data to Guide Corporate Investments in Biodiversity, Environmental Assessments and Sustainability

      Joseph Kiesecker; Christina M. Kennedy; Timothy Boucher; James R. Oakleaf (MDPI AG, 2013-10-01)
      Companies make significant investments in environmental impacts assessments, biodiversity action plans, life-cycle assessments, and environmental management systems, but guidance on where and when these tools can be best used, and how they may scale-up to inform corporation-wide planning, is sorely lacking. A major barrier to informed environmental decision-making within companies, especially in data poor regions of the world, is the difficulty accessing, analyzing, and interpreting biodiversity information. To address this shortcoming, we analyzed nine publicly available environmental datasets, and created five globally-relevant metrics associated with biodiversity: habitat intactness, habitat protection, species richness (globally and biome normalized), and threatened species. We demonstrate how packaging these metrics within an open-source, web-based mapping tool can facilitate corporations in biodiversity prioritization of their sites (or their supply chains), ultimately guiding potential investments in the environment.
    • Tailoring Next Generation Plant Growth Promoting Microorganisms as Versatile Tools beyond Soil Desalinization: A Road Map towards Field Application

      Hafsa Cherif-Silini; Allaoua Silini; Ali Chenari Bouket; Faizah N. Alenezi; Lenka Luptakova; Nawel Bouremani; Justyna Anna Nowakowska; Tomasz Oszako; Lassaad Belbahri (MDPI AG, 2021-04-01)
      Plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) have been the target of intensive research studies toward their efficient use in the field as biofertilizers, biocontrol, and bioremediation agents among numerous other applications. Recent trends in the field of PGPB research led to the development of versatile multifaceted PGPB that can be used in different field conditions such as biocontrol of plant pathogens in metal contaminated soils. Unfortunately, all these research efforts lead to the development of PGPB that failed to perform in salty environments. Therefore, it is urgently needed to address this drawback of these PGPB toward their efficient performance in salinity context. In this paper we provide a review of state-of-the-art research in the field of PGPB and propose a road map for the development of next generation versatile and multifaceted PGPB that can perform in salinity. Beyond soil desalinization, our study paves the way towards the development of PGPB able to provide services in diverse salty environments such as heavy metal contaminated, or pathogen threatened. Smart development of salinity adapted next generation biofertilizers will inevitably allow for mitigation and alleviation of biotic and abiotic threats to plant productivity in salty environments.
    • Tailoring Resonant Energy Transfer Processes for Sustainable and Bio-Inspired Sensing

      Vincenzo Caligiuri; Francesca Leone; Alfredo Pane; Olga Favale; Antonio De Luca; Ferdinanda Annesi (MDPI AG, 2022-04-01)
      Dipole–Dipole interactions (DDI) constitute an effective mechanism by which two physical entities can interact with each other. DDI processes can occur in a resonance framework if the energies of the two dipoles are very close. In this case, an energy transfer can occur without the need to emit a photon, taking the name of Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET). Given their large dependence on the distance and orientation between the two dipoles, as well as on the electromagnetic properties of the surrounding environment, DDIs are exceptional for sensing applications. There are two main ways to carry out FRET-based sensing: (i) enhancing or (ii) inhibiting it. Interaction with resonant environments such as plasmonic, optical cavities, and/or metamaterials promotes the former while acting on the distance between the FRET molecules favors the latter. In this review, we browse both the two ways, pointing the spotlight to the intrinsic interdisciplinarity these two sensing routes imply. We showcase FRET-based sensing mechanisms in a variety of contexts, from pH sensors to molecular structure measurements on a nano-metrical scale, with a particular accent on the central and still mostly overlooked role played between a nano-photonically structured environment and photoluminescent molecules.
    • Taipei and Seoul’s Modern Urbanization under Japanese Colonial Rule: A Comparative Study from the Present-Day Context

      Yeonkyung Lee (MDPI AG, 2020-06-01)
      Both Taipei and Seoul underwent a process of colonization and modern urbanization during the early part of the 20<sup>th</sup> century, under Japanese rule. In both countries, urban-planning projects from the colonial period have had a great impact on recent urban changes. This comparative analysis aims to identify the characteristics of modern cities with Japanese colonial histories, focusing on the following three aspects: 1) Urban structure based on spatial distribution by ethnic group; 2) Japanese colonial urban planning; and 3) modern boulevards that convey the power and spectacle of a colonial city. Taipei and Seoul have multi-cores because the Japanese and Taiwanese/Korean areas were not clearly separated spatially. Secondly, Japanese colonial urban planning was influenced by Japanese settlements and government facilities. Thirdly, the main boulevards in each city, created through modern urban planning, combine modern streetscapes with imperial spectacle. These boulevards took on an important political meaning after liberation. Comparative studies of Taipei and Seoul can illuminate the difference between modern cities with a Japanese colonial history and colonial cities under European rule. Such comparisons make it possible to analyze the meaning, value, and relevance of colonial remnants, including urban structure and artifacts, for each city’s sustainable future.