Now showing items 48458-48477 of 49773

    • V-Shaped Responsibility of China’s Social Welfare for the Elderly: Based on Analyzing Historical Evolution and Future Sustainability

      Weidong Dai (MDPI AG, 2019-04-01)
      The aim of this study was to explore the evolution of aging support in China. The findings showed that (1) aging support from 1949–1977 emphasized the responsibility of the family and enterprises; (2) from 1978–2000, government and market responsibility emerged with the shift from a planned economy to a market-oriented economy; and (3) from 2001 onward, a development of social welfare for the elderly was undertaken by the government, but this includes a shared responsibility involving the market, society, family, and individuals. Based on these findings, the responsibility for aging support formed a dynamic V-shaped welfare evolution. This V-shaped welfare responsibility, especially in family support, is sustainable in China and other similar countries around the world.
    • Vacuum Microwave-Assisted Aqueous Extraction ofPolyphenolic Compounds from Avocado (<i>Persea Americana</i>) Solid Waste

      Prodromos Skenderidis; Stefanos Leontopoulos; Konstantinos Petrotos; Ioannis Giavasis (MDPI AG, 2021-02-01)
      The extraction efficacy of avocado fruit peels (AP) and seeds (AS) with the use of vacuum microwave-assisted aqueous extraction (VMAAE) was optimized in this study, with regard to extract’s total phenolic content (TPC), maximum antioxidant activity and minimal operational cost. Temperature (79.64 and 78.11 °C for AP and 43.90 and 45.26 °C for AS), time (11.89 and 11.75 min for AP, 10.18 and 10.28 min for AS), ratio of water to raw material (16.45% and 10.02% for AP, 38.73% and 37.65% for AS) and microwave power (5708.04 and 5699.10 W for AP, 5549.08 and 4797.29 W for AS) were estimated statistically as the optimal conditions in order to achieve high rates of extracts with high TPC and antioxidant activity using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH<sup>●</sup>) scavenging radical methods, respectively. VMAAE performed under these conditions resulted in received extracts with TPC (0.352 gallic acid equivalent-GAE/g fresh AP/min and 0.124 GAE/g fresh AS/min). Furthermore, it was calculated the DPPH<sup>●</sup> radical scavenging activity was equal to 100 mg/L expressed in L of 0.104 L/min for AP and 0.045 L/min for AS. The results of our study may give a promising solution to avocado processing companies for further utilization of their waste.
    • Vaguely Right or Exactly Wrong: Measuring the (Spatial) Distribution of Land Resources, Income and Wealth in Rural Ethiopia

      Crelis F. Rammelt; Maarten van Schie; Fredu Nega Tegabu; Maggi Leung (MDPI AG, 2017-06-01)
      Land ties people to specific localities featuring different levels of accessibility and natural endowments; it is therefore related in various ways to matters of inequality. Drawing from economics and human geography, we explore the multifaceted and complex nature of inequality. Our case study takes place in rural Tigray, Ethiopia. Quantitative data analysis is used to reveal (spatial) income distribution patterns between statistically representative population groups. Qualitative data are then used to describe the productive activities of these groups, their respective processes of material asset accumulation or losses, and how their economic activities are affected by location. The paper concludes that, where measures of the distribution of income falls short, we require other tools that will help us reveal patterns: (1) of material wealth distribution; (2) of control over production; and (3) of the unaccounted value created within the household or derived from the natural environment.
    • Validating a Motivational Self-Guide Scale for Language Learners

      Wen-Ta Tseng; Hsing-Fu Cheng; Xuesong (Andy) Gao (MDPI AG, 2020-08-01)
      The aim of the current study was to develop and validate a new instrument that taps into learners’ self-image as a means of exploring language motivation, which plays a pivotal role in sustaining language learners’ efforts. A critical review of the literature revealed that the current measures of the second language (L2) self-guide instruments in language learning motivation research suffered from either under-representativeness of the ought-to L2 self<i><sub>others</sub></i> or weak validity of the ideal L2 self<i><sub>own</sub></i>. Since multilingualism has become more salient in foreign language education, it was necessary to develop a measurement that could better reflect self-imagery which was both plausible and relevant in foreign language contexts. This study utilized four scales in total that tapped into the targeted latent constructs: ideal L2 self<i><sub>own</sub></i>, ideal L2 self<i><sub>others</sub></i>, ought-to L2 self<i><sub>own</sub></i>, and ought-to L2 self<i><sub>others</sub></i>. Two independent samples recruited from Taiwanese college students were employed in the study. After an item-pool was developed through interviewing and piloting, each subscale was comprised of 4 items, totaling 16 items for formal model testing. The formal model testing involved three phases. Phase I conducted an exploratory factor analysis to explore the possible dimensions using the first sample. Phase II proceeded with a series of confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) on the eight hypothesized models using the second sample. Phase III also relied on the second sample and further examined the item fit performance by using the multidimensional Rasch model. The results of formal model testing confirmed the validity and reliability of a 4-factor correlated model, as well as the fit performance of the finalized scale items, and thus lent strong empirical support to Higgins’s theory regarding the inner structure of future self-guides. It is suggested that the new L2 self-guide scale can be adopted and applied to future L2 and languages other than English motivational research.
    • Validating Italian General Ecological Behaviour Questionnaire of Travellers Using Dichotomous Rasch Model

      Pinky Kumawat; Cristina Pronello (MDPI AG, 2021-10-01)
      Ecological behaviour and its impact on the environment are subjects of public concern and understanding individual behavioural measures to induce sustainable lifestyles is of extreme importance for policy makers to assess and promote sustainable mobility. To this end, a questionnaire with highly reliable items, evaluations of determinants and accurate measurements of ecological behaviour is a precondition for understanding the levers of behavioural change. This paper aims at an understanding of whether the dichotomous Rasch model provides a legitimate measurement of General Ecological Behaviour (GEB) using a 26-item questionnaire as a valid tool to assess the pro-environment behaviour of a large sample of users. A web questionnaire was administered using the snowball sampling plan in the Piedmont region (Italy), with a sample of 4473 respondents. The results suggest that using the dichotomous Rasch model, the proposed questionnaire is able to effectively measure the pro-environment behaviour of travellers. Unidimensionality, the perfect level of item reliability of 1, the very high item separation of 34.22, the absence of larger differential item functions, and the local independence are all good indicators of a valid model. This research shows how a good, validated, and reliable measurement of ecological behaviour would support public bodies in planning environment-focused transport policies thanks to the knowledge of which variables determine pro-environment behaviour. In addition, the proposed approach also allows us to measure the efficacy of the adopted policies.
    • Validating the City Region Food System Approach: Enacting Inclusive, Transformational City Region Food Systems

      Alison Blay-Palmer; Guido Santini; Marielle Dubbeling; Henk Renting; Makiko Taguchi; Thierry Giordano (MDPI AG, 2018-05-01)
      This paper offers a critical assessment of the value and utility of the evolving City Region Food Systems (CRFS) approach to improve our insights into flows of resources—food, waste, people, and knowledge—from rural to peri-urban to urban and back again, and the policies and process needed to enable sustainability. This paper reflects on (1) CRFS merits compared to other approaches; (2) the operational potential of applying the CRFS approach to existing projects through case analysis; (3) how to make the CRFS approach more robust and ways to further operationalize the approach; and (4) the potential for the CRFS approach to address complex challenges including integrated governance, territorial development, metabolic flows, and climate change. The paper begins with the rationale for CRFS as both a conceptual framework and an integrative operational approach, as it helps to build increasingly coherent transformational food systems. CRFS is differentiated from existing approaches to understand the context and gaps in theory and practice. We then explore the strength of CRFS through the conceptual building blocks of ‘food systems’ and ‘city-regions’ as appropriate, or not, to address pressing complex challenges. As both a multi-stakeholder, sustainability-building approach and process, CRFS provides a collective voice for food actors across scales and could provide coherence across jurisdictions, policies, and scales, including the Milan Urban Food Policy Pact, the Sustainable Development Goals, the Habitat III New Urban Agenda, and the Conference of the Parties (COP) 21. CRFS responds directly to calls in the literature to provide a conceptual and practical framing for policy through wide engagement across sectors that enables the co-construction of a relevant policy frame that can be enacted through sufficiently integrated policies and programs that achieve increasingly sustainable food systems.
    • Validating the Pro-Environmental Behavior Task in a Japanese Sample

      Florian Lange; Shimpei Iwasaki (MDPI AG, 2020-11-01)
      Controlled experimentation is critical for understanding the causal determinants of pro-environmental behavior. However, the potential of experimental pro-environmental behavior research is limited by the difficulty to observe pro-environmental behavior under controlled conditions. The Pro-Environmental Behavior Task (PEBT) was developed to address this limitation by facilitating the experimental analysis of pro-environmental behavior in the laboratory. Previous studies in Belgian samples have already supported the validity of the PEBT as a procedure for the study of actual pro-environmental behavior. Here, we aimed for a cross-cultural replication of this finding in a sample of <i>N</i> = 103 Japanese college students. Along the lines of previous studies, we found PEBT choice behavior to be sensitive to within-subject manipulations of its behavioral costs and environmental benefits. This implies that participants take these consequences into account when choosing between PEBT options. In addition, we showed, for the first time, that such consequence effects can also be detected in a less powerful between-subjects design. These results support the generality of consequence effects on PEBT choice behavior as well as the validity and utility of the PEBT for use in samples from different cultural backgrounds.
    • Validation and Factorial Invariance of the Life Skills Ability Scale in Mexican Higher Education Students

      Argenis P. Vergara-Torres; Verónica Ortiz-Rodríguez; Orlando Reyes-Hernández; Jeanette M. López-Walle; Raquel Morquecho-Sánchez; José Tristán (MDPI AG, 2022-02-01)
      The objective of this study was to validate the Life Skills Ability Scale through internal consistency and construct validity in the context of higher education in Mexico. In study 1, the reliability and factor structure of the scale were evaluated with a sample of 525 higher education students (<i>M<sub>age</sub></i> = 19.94 years, <i>SD</i> = 3.85). In study 2, the factor invariance of the instrument was analyzed based on sample gender, which consisted of 707 higher education students (<i>M<sub>age</sub></i> = 20.03 years, <i>SD</i> = 4.19). The results showed adequate reliability and construct validity with a second order model and an eight-factor structure (teamwork, goal-setting, time management, emotional skills, communication, social skills, leadership, problem-solving, and decision-making). Likewise, there was measure equivalence between men and women. In conclusion, the Spanish version of the Life Skills Ability Scale in a Mexican context is a reliable and valid instrument that allows the assessment of life skills in higher education students.
    • Validation and Psychometric Properties of the Gameplay-Scale for Educative Video Games in Spanish Children

      Félix Zurita Ortega; Nuria Medina Medina; Francisco Luis Gutiérrez Vela; Ramón Chacón Cuberos (MDPI AG, 2020-03-01)
      The knowledge of evaluation instruments to determine the level of gameplay of schoolchildren is very important at this time. A systematic review has been carried out in this study. The aim of this paper is to investigate the psychometric properties of a study of a sample of Spanish gamers. Two hundred and thirty-seven children (mean age: 11.2± 1.17 years, range: 10-12 years, 59.5% female) completed the Gameplay-Scale to discover their opinions after a game session with a serious educational game. The final scale consisted of three factors. The fit for factor 1 (usability) was 0.712, the fit for factor 2 was 0.702 (satisfaction), the fit for factor 3 was 0.886 (empathy) and the overall fit was 0.868. A positive and direct relationship could be observed between all the dimensions of the developed scale. The greatest correlation strength is shown between satisfaction and empathy (r = 0.800; p < 0.005), followed by satisfaction and usability (r = 0.180; p < 0.05) and the association between empathy and usability (r = 0.140; p < 0.05). In summary, the results of the present study support the use of the Gameplay-Scale as a valid and reliable measure of the game experience of youth populations. These results demonstrate strong psychometric properties so that the Gameplay-Scale appears to be a valid instrument for children in different contexts where an educational video game is used, analyzing its usability/“playability” in terms of learning to use it, game satisfaction, and empathy.
    • Validation Method for a Multimodal Freight Transport Model Exploiting Floating Car Data

      Dario Ballarano; Marco Petrelli; Alessandra Renna (MDPI AG, 2022-05-01)
      The implementation of valid freight transport simulation models requires an extensive and detailed validation phase for understanding the feasibility of the outputs and the capacity of the structure of the proposed models in representing the real-world data. Traditional methods involve the use of surveys in order to describe the behaviour of stakeholders and to gather some aspects of the modal choices. Recent studies integrate this approach with Big Data as Floating Car Data to obtain better statistical information of the details at different levels. The current research involves the unexplored field of the validation of freight transport simulation models using a data-driven approach based on a large database of over 292 million Floating Car Data (FCD) signals generated by 29,298 commercial vehicles during the month of October 2019. The paper proposes an FCD processing methodology to identify freight vehicles using Ro-Ro/Ro-Pax services, and presents the results of an in-depth tracking analysis for combined transport and road transport. The validation phase permits the evaluation of the simulation tool results with real choices of heavy vehicles, referring also to the statistical information on travel times and the achievement of additional information through an in-depth analysis of tracking single vehicles.
    • Validation of a Football Competence Observation System (FOCOS), Linked to Procedural Tactical Knowledge

      Rubén Sánchez-López; Ibon Echeazarra; Julen Castellano (MDPI AG, 2021-06-01)
      The use of instruments for the evaluation of a player’s procedural tactical knowledge (PTK) in sociomotor sports, such as football, is a line of research of growing interest since it allows a pertinent description of the player’s football competence. The aim of this study is to configure and validate an ad-hoc observational tool that allows evaluating the player’s PTK, understood as football competence, from the observation, coding and recording of the roles, the actions of the acquired subroles and the operational and specific principles of football in the attack and defense phases. Based on the Delphi method, a field format coding instrument was designed and validated where each criterion is a system of categories, exhaustive and mutually exclusive. The results showed excellent content validity (9.02 out of 10), and high values of intra-observer stability (k = 0.747) and inter-observer agreement (k = 0.665). Generalizability analysis showed an excellent reliability (G = 0.99). Additionally, the construct validity of the tool was calculated through a small-sided game Gk + 4v4 + Gk, using two independent samples: semi-professional and amateur players. The results reflected significant differences (α < 0.05) between both samples in the variables total score, offensive score and defensive score. Therefore, this study provides a valid and reliable instrument that allows data collection in a rigorous and pertinent way, as well as their analysis and evaluation in attack and defense according to the roles of the players and based on the motor behaviors that they perform using the subroles that they acquired, associated with the technical dimension, along with the principles that they develop in parallel, in support of the tactical dimension.
    • Validation of a Simulation-Based Pre-Assessment Process for Solar Photovoltaic Technology Implemented on Rooftops of South African Shopping Centres

      Dirk Johan van Vuuren; Annlizé L Marnewick; Jan Harm C Pretorius (MDPI AG, 2021-02-01)
      The existing processes that determines the yield of a photovoltaic (PV) system before construction commences are fairly unstructured. Research that defines a structured process for simulation purposes is limited. This article builds on prior research where a proposed structured pre-assessment process, which may be applied before construction commences, was generated so that electricity yield from a PV system can be predicted with a higher degree of accuracy, and then subsequently optimized. By implementing the proposed pre-assessment process, calculating the future return on investment (ROI) by private investors is simplified, given that the existing process is restrictive. The research used the results from a South African case study over 24 months to ascertain the validity of the proposed pre-assessment process. The validation process includes analyzing the load demand of the shopping centre before and after the PV system was constructed, comparing the electricity yield from the PV system to the simulation results obtained in the preceding research, and amending the proposed pre-assessment process accordingly for improved electricity estimation. The case study shopping centre operates in Johannesburg, Gauteng, and consumes approximately 5000 kVA under maximum load.
    • Validation of a Wearable Accelerometer-Based Activity Monitor for Use in Future Osteoporosis Prevention Programs

      Horacio Sánchez-Trigo; Antonio Jesús Sanchez-Oliver; Grant Abt; Borja Sañudo (MDPI AG, 2020-03-01)
      Osteoporosis is considered a major public health problem worldwide. In order to develop effective physical exercise protocols for the prevention of osteoporosis and ensure skeletal integrity, the intensity of the exercise must be quantified objectively and accurately. This study aimed to assess the validity of a wearable accelerometer-based activity monitor for use in osteoporosis prevention programs. Eighteen premenopausal women completed an exercise protocol consisting of five countermovement jumps followed by four treadmill bouts at different speeds. Participants carried two pairs of accelerometers (Muvone<sup>®</sup> and ActiGraph GT3X+) located on the wrist and hip. Three types of analysis were performed: (1) association between measurements from both devices; (2) level of similarity in group estimates; and (3) evaluation of measurement bias. High to almost perfect correlations between the peak acceleration measured by both devices were found in all protocol tests (r = 0.607−0.975, <i>p</i> < 0.001). Differences in group estimates were non-significant and measurement bias between devices was below 6%. In conclusion, the validity of Muvone<sup>®</sup> to quantify acceleration has been tested at both the wrist and hip and could be used to assess mechanical loading during physical activities for the implementation of population-wide osteoporosis prevention programs.
    • Validation of an Empirical Model with Risk Assessment Functionalities to Simulate and Evaluate the Tailings Dam Failure in Brumadinho

      Torben Dedring; Valerie Graw; Kristina Thygesen; Andreas Rienow (MDPI AG, 2022-05-01)
      The failure of tailings dams causes ecological damage and economic loss and can cause casualties. The simulation of the tailings’ spill path in the event of tailings dam failures (TDFs) can mitigate the risk by the provision of spatial information for disaster prevention and preparedness. In order to close the gap between basic one-dimensional spill-path routing models and complex numerical models, this paper examines an empirical model based on the freely available Laharz model. The model incorporates a tailings-specific planimetric area regression from the literature to describe the spatial extent of tailings flows based on the released volume. By providing information about affected residents and infrastructure, such a model can be used for preliminary risk evaluation. The model was validated against the TDF in Brumadinho (2019) and reached hit rates of over 80%, critical success indices of approximately 60% and false alarm ratios of roughly 30%. The latter is particularly evident in the overestimation of the lower part of the tailings flow. The risk assessment identified 120 affected residents, 117 destroyed buildings (109 reported) and several kilometres of affected roads (1.9 km) and railway (2.75 km). However, the OpenStreetMap-based part of the risk assessment inherits some uncertainties to be investigated in the future.
    • Validation of Francis–Kaplan Turbine Blade Strike Models for Adult and Juvenile Atlantic Salmon <i>(Salmo Salar, L.) </i>and Anadromous Brown Trout <i>(Salmo Trutta, L.) </i>Passing High Head Turbines

      Linda Vikström; Kjell Leonardsson; Johan Leander; Samuel Shry; Olle Calles; Gustav Hellström (MDPI AG, 2020-08-01)
      The negative effects of hydroelectric power (HEP) on salmonid populations has long been recognized and studied. Downstream passage through turbines may potentially constitute a significant source of mortality for both juvenile and adult fish in regulated rivers. Numerical models have been developed to calculate turbine passage mortality based on the probability of collision with the turbine blades, but although widely used in management and conservation, their performance is rarely validated in terms of the accuracy and bias of the mortality estimates. In this study, we evaluated commonly used blade strike models for Kaplan and Francis turbines by comparing model predictions with observed passage mortalities for juvenile 13–27 cm and adult 52–94 cm Atlantic salmon (<i>Salmo salar</i>, L.) and anadromous brown trout (<i>Salmo trutta</i>, L.) acquired by acoustic telemetry. Predictions made for juveniles aligned closer with observed mortality for both Kaplan and Francis turbines (within 1–3% percentage points). However, the model severely underestimated the mortality of adult fish passing through Francis turbines, with up to 50% percentage points difference between predicted and observed mortalities. Furthermore, the model did not capture a clear negative correlation between mortality and discharge observed for salmon between 50–60 cm (grilse). We concluded that blade strike models are a useful tool for quantifying passage mortality for salmonid smolts passing large, high-head turbines, but that the same models should be used with care when trying to estimate the passage mortality of kelts in iteroparous populations. We also concluded that the major cause of passage mortality for juveniles is injury by collision with the turbine blade, but that other factors seem to contribute substantially to the passage mortality of kelts. Our study reports low mortality for smolts up to 27 cm passing through Kaplan and Francis turbines (0–12%), but high mortality for salmon over 50 cm passing though Francis turbines (56–81%).
    • Validation of Korean Version of the Hardiness Resilience Gauge

      Kyung-Hyun Suh; Hana Lee; Paul T. Bartone (MDPI AG, 2021-12-01)
      Hardiness and resilience are known as internal traits that buffer the negative effects of stress and play important roles in individuals’ well-being and psychological sustainability. This study aimed to validate the Korean version of the hardiness resilience gauge (HRG Korean). Reliability and validity were analyzed using data obtained from 389 Korean adults. Confirmatory factor analysis with three factors (challenge, control, and commitment) for the HRG Korean showed acceptable model fit, with satisfactory RMSEA and SRMR indices, allowing for some covariance in error terms. Cronbach’s α for challenge, control, commitment subscales, and the total HRG Korean were 0.84, 0.74, 0.86, and 0.92, respectively. Analyses of the concurrent validity revealed that the total score of the HRG Korean was closely correlated with the scores of the KHD-SF and MR-KA, which measure hardiness and resilience in Korea, respectively. In addition, the HRG Korean was relatively strongly correlated with life satisfaction and subjective happiness. These findings suggest that the HRG is a valid instrument for measuring Koreans’ hardiness and resilience to promote their well-being and sustainability.
    • Validation of Simulated Safety Indicators with Traffic Crash Data

      Borja Alonso; Vittorio Astarita; Luigi dell’Olio; Vincenzo Pasquale Giofrè; Giuseppe Guido; Marcella Marino; William Sommario; Alessandro Vitale (MDPI AG, 2020-01-01)
      The purpose of this document is to validate a new methodology useful for the estimation of road accidents resulting from possible driver distractions. This was possible through a statistical comparison made between real accident data between 2016 and 2018 in the city of Santander (Spain) and simulated data resulting from the application of the methodology on two areas of study. The methodology allows us to evaluate possible collisions starting from the knowledge of vehicular trajectories extrapolated from microsimulation. Studies show that there are good correlations between the real data and the simulated data. The results obtained show that the proposed methodology can be considered reliable and, therefore, it could be of fundamental importance for designers, since it would simplify the choice between different possible intervention scenarios, determining which is the least risky in terms of road safety.
    • Validation of Sustainability Benchmarking Tool in the Context of Value-Added Wood Products Manufacturing Activities

      Cagatay Tasdemir; Rado Gazo (MDPI AG, 2019-04-01)
      The primary objective of this study was to validate the sustainability benchmarking tool (SBT) framework proposed by the authors in a previous study. The SBT framework is focused on benchmarking triple bottom line (TBL) sustainability through exhaustive use of lean, six-sigma, and life cycle assessment (LCA). During the validation, sustainability performance of a value-added wood products’ production line was assessed and improved through deployment of the SBT framework. Strengths and weaknesses of the system were identified within the scope of the bronze frontier maturity level of the framework and tackled through a six-step analytical and quantitative reasoning methodology. The secondary objective of the study was to document how value-added wood products industries can take advantage of natural properties of wood to become frontiers of sustainability innovation. In the end, true sustainability performance of the target facility was improved by 2.37 base points, while economic and environmental performance was increased from being a system weakness to achieving an acceptable index score benchmark of 8.41 and system strength level of 9.31, respectively. The social sustainability score increased by 2.02 base points as a function of a better gender bias ratio. The financial performance of the system improved from a 33% loss to 46.23% profit in the post-improvement state. Reductions in CO2 emissions (55.16%), energy consumption (50.31%), solid waste generation (72.03%), non-value-added-time (89.30%), and cost performance (64.77%) were other significant achievements of the study. In the end, the SBT framework was successfully validated at the facility level, and the target facility evolved into a leaner, cleaner, and more responsible version of itself. This study empirically documents how synergies between lean, sustainability, six-sigma and life cycle assessment concepts outweigh their divergences and demonstrates the viability of the SBT framework.
    • Validation of the Index for Inclusion Questionnaire for Compulsory Secondary Education Students

      José A. Fernández-Archilla; Joaquín F. Álvarez; José M. Aguilar-Parra; Rubén Trigueros; Isabel D. Alonso-López; Gerardo Echeita (MDPI AG, 2020-03-01)
      As one of the protagonists in education, the perspective of the students is fundamental in the determination of inclusive education in an educational center. The Index for Inclusion is an instrument and strategy for self-evaluation. One of their questionnaires, the questionnaire for compulsory secondary education students, is intended for students and has become one of the most used instruments to help teaching teams to self-assess their political and practical cultures from the perspective of the values and principles of educational inclusion worldwide. Some of the questionnaires included in the Index have been used in many studies, mainly in a qualitative way. For this reason, the present study intends to show evidence of validity of the Index for Inclusion questionnaire of students in a quantitative way through an exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). In this study, 727 secondary school students (359 boys and 368 girls) aged between 13 and 19 years (<i>M</i> = 13.89; <i>SD</i> = 1.35) took part. They belonged to six educational centers in the province of Almeria. To analyze the temporal stability of the Index for Inclusion student questionnaire, a second independent sample of 81 secondary school students was used, aged between 15 and 18 years (<i>M</i>= 16.14; <i>SD</i> = 0.78). The results revealed adequate adjustment rates, showing the invariant structure with respect to gender. The Student Inclusion Index was shown to be a robust and adequate psychometric instrument to assess the degree of development of inclusive education in schools from the perspective of secondary school students, and therefore, its future application to students in schools is recommended.
    • Validation of the Perceptions of Inclusion Questionnaire including PE Teachers’ Opinion as Part of an Innovative Use of the Tool

      Anna Zwierzchowska; Karolina Kostorz; Barbara Rosołek; Edyta Tomińska-Conte (MDPI AG, 2022-03-01)
      The aim of the study was to validate the Polish version of the Perceptions of Inclusion Questionnaire (PIQ) for the first time. The analysis included not only pupils, parents/legal guardians, and teachers but also physical education teachers, which is an innovative solution proposed by the authors. The sample consisted of 448 respondents. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that the tested model corresponding to the construct proposed by the PIQ authors did not have good fit indicators (χ2/df = 7.73; CFI = 0.855; SRMR = 0.103; RMSEA = 0.123). The three-factor structure of the questionnaire was confirmed by the eigenvalues obtained for each extracted factor based on the Kaiser criterion and the scree plot based on the Cattella criterion. All three factors showed satisfactory levels of reliability (Cronbach’s alpha > 0.7). The conditions of convergent and discriminant validity for the construct were confirmed. However, Horn’s parallel analysis showed that the optimal number of factors is 4. Therefore, the research presented here should constitute a starting point for further analyses. It is recommended that research teams should conduct further scientific exploration of the PIQ tool in four perspectives, i.e., including PE teachers’ opinions.