Now showing items 49398-49416 of 49416

    • Zapote Seed (<i>Pouteria mammosa </i>L.) Valorization for Thermal Energy Generation in Tropical Climates

      Miguel-Angel Perea-Moreno; Quetzalcoatl Hernandez-Escobedo; Fernando Rueda-Martinez; Alberto-Jesus Perea-Moreno (MDPI AG, 2020-05-01)
      According to the Law for the Use of Renewable Energies and the Financing of Energy Transition, Mexico's goal for 2024 is to generate 35% of its energy from non-fossil sources. Each year, up to 2630 tons of residual biomass from the zapote industry are dismissed without sustainable use. The main purposes of this study were to determine the elemental chemical analysis of the zapote seed and its energy parameters to further evaluate its suitability as a solid biofuel in boilers for the generation of thermal energy in a tropical climate. Additionally, energy, economic, and environmental assessments of the installation were carried out.<b> </b>The results obtained show that zapote seed has a higher heating value (18.342 MJ/kg), which makes it appealing for power generation. The Yucatan Peninsula is the main zapote-producing region, with an annual production of 11,084 tons. If the stone of this fruit were used as biofuel, 7860.87 MWh could be generated and a CO<sub>2</sub> saving of 1996.66 tons could be obtained. Additionally, replacing a 200 kW liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) boiler with a biomass boiler using zapote seed as a biofuel would result in a reduction of 60,960.00 kg/year of CO<sub>2</sub> emissions. Furthermore, an annual saving of $7819.79 would be obtained, which means a saving of 53.19% relative to the old LPG installation.<b> </b>These results pave the way toward the utilization of zapote seed as a solid biofuel and contribute to achieving Mexico's energy goal for 2024 while promoting sustainability in universities.
    • Zeolite Tuff and Recycled Ceramic Sanitary Ware Aggregate in Production of Concrete

      Jacek Szulej; Paweł Ogrodnik; Beata Klimek (MDPI AG, 2019-03-01)
      The article presents the results of research on the use of ceramic ware waste as aggregate in concrete production. Four concrete mixtures with aluminous cement were prepared, each with a different admixture of clinoptilolite. The only used aggregate was crushed waste ceramic sanitary ware obtained from a Polish sanitary fixture production plant. As part of the studies, a compressive test of cubic samples at different curing times ranging from 7 to 90 days was performed. Prior to the preparation of the samples, a sieve analysis and an elemental analysis of the obtained aggregate were conducted. In the framework of the testing, the bimodal distribution of clinoptilolite grains was determined, as well as its chemical composition. The conducted compressive tests demonstrated high strength of concrete containing ceramic aggregate and aluminous cement with an addition of clinoptilolite. In order to determine the impact that adding zeolite exerts on the phase composition and the structure of concrete samples, an analysis of the phase composition (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy examination (SEM) were performed. Furthermore, tests of abrasion, water penetration under pressure and frost resistance were conducted, determining particular properties of the designed mixtures. The abrasion tests have confirmed that the mixtures are highly abrasion-resistant and can be used as a topcoat concrete layer. The conducted tests of selected properties have confirmed the possibility of using waste ceramic cullet and a mineral addition of clinoptilolite in concrete production.
    • Zero Emission Buildings in Korea—History, Status Quo, and Future Prospects

      Thorsten Schuetze (MDPI AG, 2015-03-01)
      This paper discusses the history, status quo, and future prospects of Zero Emission Buildings (ZEBs) in the Republic of Korea. The advantages of, and requirements for ZEBs are described, concerning the factors of energy, water, nutrients, and biomass. ZEBs are characterized by net zero energy consumption through the minimization of the energy demand, as well as the onsite production and use of renewable energy. The direct water footprint is reduced by up to 100% through on-site water supply and wastewater management according to the principles of Sustainable Sanitation. The fresh water demand is reduced by using water saving technologies and by recycling of wastewater. Rainwater harvesting, utilization, and infiltration facilitates for onsite drinking water production. Nutrients and biomass from sanitation systems are recycled for local soil application. While traditional Korean buildings can be generally regarded as ZEBs, traditional know-how has been overlooked in the process of modernization and implementation of centralized infrastructure systems in the 20th century. However, the growing interest in sustainability issues in Korea since the beginning of the 21st century is reflected in a growing number of research and development activities, including the design, construction, and operation of ZEBs. The widespread implementation of ZEBs would significantly contribute to sustainable development in the Republic of Korea.
    • Zero Non-Detection Zone for Islanding Detection Based on a Novel Hybrid Passive-Active Technique with Fuzzy Inference System

      Yasser A. Elshrief; Sameh Abd-Elhaleem; Sulayman Kujabi; Dalal H. Helmi; Belal A. Abozalam; Amin D. Asham (MDPI AG, 2022-05-01)
      Distributed generation (DG) has reformed the meaning of power generation from large scale to small scale, but unintentional islanding is the main issue when connecting DG and the utility grid. A lot of techniques have been used for detecting islanding, among these techniques, there are passive and active. The main problem of passive techniques is their large non-detection zone (NDZ), while the main drawback of active techniques is their undesirable effect on power quality. In this paper, a proposed hybrid passive–active systematic methodology based on a smart classifier that decides to use an active method instead of a passive one is presented. In the proposed scheme, sensors are used for measuring the reactive power at three terminals: the DG terminal, grid terminal, and load terminal. The novelty in this paper is the accurate detection of islanding within a shorter time either in the normal case or NDZ; also it can differentiate between islanding and grid faults without degrading the power quality of the overall system as the active technique does not have to be used continuously, and so total harmonic distortion does not exceed the standard value (5%) detected by IEEE standards. The proposed scheme was simulated using the MATLAB/Simulink platform, and the results reflect its potential with a comparative study.
    • Zero Tillage, Residue Retention and System-Intensification with Legumes for Enhanced Pearl Millet Productivity and Mineral Biofortification

      Mukhtar Ahmad Faiz; Ram Swaroop Bana; Anil Kumar Choudhary; Alison M. Laing; Ruchi Bansal; Arti Bhatia; Ramesh Chand Bana; Yudh Vir Singh; Vipin Kumar; Shanti Devi Bamboriya (MDPI AG, 2022-01-01)
      Pearl millet-based cropping systems with intensive tillage operations prior to sowing have limited sustainable productivity in the low-irrigation conditions of semi-arid farming ecologies, such as those in the north Indian plains. The adoption of improved management practices such as zero tillage with residue retention (ZTR) and diversification with the inclusion of summer pulse crops has the potential to improve cropping system sustainability. Therefore, an experiment was designed to compare two improved management practices, zero tillage (ZT) and ZTR, to conventional tillage (CT), across three pearl millet-based cropping systems: pearl millet–chickpea (PM–CP), PM–CP–mungbean (MB), and PM–CP–forage pearl millet in a two-year experiment. Experimental treatments were compared in terms of pearl millet productivity, mineral biofortification, and greenhouse gas emissions. Results showed a significant increase in pearl millet yield attributes, grain and stover productivity, nutrient uptake, and micronutrient biofortification in the PM–CP–MB cropping system under ZTR relative to other treatment combinations. On-farm evaluation at different locations also showed that the intensification of PM–CP system using summer crops enhanced pearl millet productivity across diverse tillage systems. Overall, zero tillage practices combined with diversified pearl millet-based cropping systems are likely to be management practices, which farmers can use to sustainably maintain or increase cropping system productivity in the various semi-arid areas of the world.
    • Zero-Acreage Farming in the City of Berlin: An Aggregated Stakeholder Perspective on Potential Benefits and Challenges

      Kathrin Specht; Rosemarie Siebert; Susanne Thomaier; Ulf B. Freisinger; Magdalena Sawicka; Axel Dierich; Dietrich Henckel; Maria Busse (MDPI AG, 2015-04-01)
      How can buildings be combined with agricultural production and what are the major potential benefits and challenges for the introduction of zero-acreage farming (ZFarming) in Berlin from the relevant stakeholders’ perspectives? These questions were explored through a series of interviews and stakeholder workshops held between 2011 and 2013. The aim was to identify the most suitable building-integrated farming model for the Berlin metropolitan area and to develop guidelines for the model’s successful and sustainable implementation through a stakeholder-driven approach. This paper provides an aggregated synthesis of the outcomes derived from the qualitative interviews and stakeholder workshops. As the results reveal, the stakeholders perceive potential benefits and challenges related to the issue of ZFarming in all dimensions (economic, social, environmental and political). They largely agreed on the importance of focusing on local resources, using energy-efficient production—including social and educational aspects—and developing new market structures when introducing ZFarming to the city of Berlin. The stakeholders identified urban rooftop greenhouses (RTG) as the most promising farming model for Berlin. In a joint collaboration of all stakeholders, a manual for RTG was developed within the participatory innovation process that addresses the identified problems and challenges associated with future implementation and governance of RTG in Berlin and beyond.
    • Zero-Liquid Discharge Treatment of Wastewater from a Fertilizer Factory

      Svetlana B. Zueva; Francesco Ferella; Giuliana Taglieri; Ida De Michelis; Inna Pugacheva; Francesco Vegliò (MDPI AG, 2020-01-01)
      This article describes the improvement of wastewater treatment in a fertilizer plant located in Central Italy (municipality of Vasto). In this facility, water is used for the removal of dust and fluorinated gases from the air. The resulting wastewater contains fluorides and phosphates in hazardous forms. Its treatment ordinarily does not result in a Zero-Liquid Discharge (ZLD) process. To achieve this purpose, several reagents were tested, focusing on the correlation linking pH, type of reagent and the effect on the separation of fluorides and phosphates from the wastewater. It was eventually found, and explained with a model, that hydrated lime at pH = 12 was so effective as a precipitating agent that phosphate and fluoride separation reached a value of 99.9%, thus allowing for reuse of the water in the plant process. Furthermore, phosphates and fluorides precipitated in a non-hazardous form, so that the material could also be recycled. In synthesis, wastewater treatment of the fertilizer plant was upgraded so that it became a ZLD process coupled with the recovery and recycling of fluorides and phosphates.
    • Zeta/Flyback Hybrid Converter for Solar Power Applications

      Sheng-Yu Tseng; Jun-Hao Fan (MDPI AG, 2022-03-01)
      This paper presents a zeta/flyback hybrid converter with a PV array as its power source for an LED street light or digital signage application. When the PV array is used in a LED lighting system, it needs a battery charger and discharger. In order to increase the areas of application for different PV arrays, a zeta converter has been adopted as the battery charger. In addition, since a flyback converter has a simpler circuit, it is used as the battery discharger. Due to the leakage inductor of the transformer in the flyback converter, an active clamp circuit is used to recover the energy stored in leakage inductance. Zeta and flyback converters use switch integration techniques to form the proposed zeta/flyback hybrid converter. With this approach, the proposed system has less components, a lighter weight, a smaller size, and higher conversion efficiency. Finally, a prototype of the proposed hybrid converter with an output voltage of 12 V and output power of 50 W has been implemented to verify its feasibility. It is suitable for LED lighting system applications.
    • Zigbee and Long-Range Architecture Based Monitoring System for Oil Pipeline Monitoring with the Internet of Things

      Rajesh Singh; Mohammed Baz; Ch. Lakshmi Narayana; Mamoon Rashid; Anita Gehlot; Shaik Vaseem Akram; Sultan S. Alshamrani; Deepak Prashar; Ahmed Saeed AlGhamdi (MDPI AG, 2021-09-01)
      Oil pipeline monitoring is having a significant role in minimizing the impact on the environment and humans during pipeline accidents. The real-time monitoring of oil pipelines empowers the authorities to have continuous supervision of the oil pipeline. The Internet of Things (IoT) provides an opportunity for realizing the real-time monitoring system by deploying the IoT-enabled end devices on the oil pipeline. In this study, we propose a hybrid architecture based on 2.4 GHz-based Zigbee and LoRa communication for oil pipeline monitoring. Moreover, customized end devices and LoRa based gateway are designed and implemented for sensing the critical parameters of an oil pipeline. Here, we have performed the simulation of ZigBee communication on the OPNET simulator for evaluating the parameters such as packet delivery ratio (PDR), retransmission attempts, throughput, medium access (MAC) queue size, and queue delay. Furthermore, the distinct evaluation metrics of LoRa such as bit rate, link budget, and receiver sensitivity are also included. Finally, a real-time experiment is implemented with customized end devices and a gateway for evaluating the proposed architecture. In the real-time experiment, the devices and gateway are logging the pressure sensory data into the Cayenne cloud.
    • Zinc Concentration and Distribution in Vineyard Soils and Grapevine Leaves from Valdepeñas Designation of Origin (Central Spain)

      Francisco Jesús García-Navarro; Raimundo Jiménez-Ballesta; Jesus Garcia-Pradas; Jose A. Amoros; Caridad Perez de los Reyes; Sandra Bravo (MDPI AG, 2021-07-01)
      <b>(1) Background:</b> The purpose of this study was to investigate zinc contents in leaves and soils of the Valdepeñas Protected Designation of Origin (PDO), situated in central Spain. Zn distribution maps of leaves and soils were obtained. <b>(2) Methods:</b> Ninety soil profiles were described, sampled and analyzed. Furthermore, vineyard leaves were collected randomly in each of the analyzed soil vineyard profiles. Soil and leaf samples were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence. <b>(3) Results:</b> The mean total Zn concentrations in vineyard soils were in the range of 16.2–153.7 mg·kg<sup>−1</sup>, with a mean of 47.5 mg·kg<sup>−1</sup>. The obtained values above the 95th percentile (between 81.3 and 153.7 mg·kg<sup>−1</sup>) could be affected by different parent materials or Zn agricultural treatments in vineyards. Contents in different soils follow the order Entisol > Alfisol > Inceptisol. The average Zn content value in leaves was 23.8 mg·kg<sup>−1</sup> and oscillated between 11.5 and 93.3 mg·kg<sup>−1</sup>; minor differences were detected between soil types, with the highest value in plants grown on soils without carbonates. <b>(4) Conclusions:</b> The obtained values are optimal for vine cultivation. The bioaccumulation factors in leaves were lower than unity (0.24–0.53 range). This means that the Zn bioaccumulation process is relatively low in the soil–grapevine system. This study serves as a reference to identify areas that present Zn deficiencies or risk of contamination.
    • Zinc-Coated Urea for Enhanced Zinc Biofortification, Nitrogen Use Efficiency and Yield of <i>Basmati</i> Rice under <i>Typic Fluvents</i>

      Ramesh Chand Bana; Ashok K. Gupta; Ram Swaroop Bana; Yashbir Singh Shivay; Shanti D. Bamboriya; Narendra P. Thakur; Ramphool Puniya; Meenakshi Gupta; Shish Ram Jakhar; Kailash (MDPI AG, 2022-12-01)
      Deficiency of Zn in human diet is an emerging health issue in many developing countries across the globe. Agronomic Zn biofortification using diverse Zn fertilization options is being advised for enhancing Zn concentration in the edible portion of rice.A field study was carried out to find out the Zn fertilization effects on biofortification of <i>basmati</i> rice and nutrient use efficiencies in the Himalayan foothills region. Amongst the Zn nutrition treatments, 4.0% Zn-coated urea (ZnCU) + 0.2% Zn foliar spray (FS) using ZnSO<sub>4</sub>·7H<sub>2</sub>O recorded the highest grain (3.46 t/ha) and straw (7.93 t/ha) yield of <i>basmati</i> rice. On average, the rice productivity increase due to ZnCU application was ~25.4% over Commercial Urea. Likewise, the same Zn fertilization treatment also resulted in the maximum Zn (35.93 and 81.64 mg/kg) and N (1.19 and 0.45%) concentration in grain and straw of rice, respectively. Moreover, N use efficiency (NUE) was also highest when ZnCU was applied at 4.0% (ZnSO<sub>4</sub>·7H<sub>2</sub>O) in comparison to soil application. From the grain quality viewpoint, Zn ferti-fortification had significant effect on elongation ratio and protein concentration of grain only and respective Zn fertilization treatment recorded highest quality parameters 1.90 and 7.44%, respectively. Therefore, ZnCU would be an important low-cost and useful strategy for enhancing yield, NUE and biofortification, and also in minimizing the Zn malnutrition related challenges in human diet in many developing economies.
    • Zonation and Directional Dynamics of Mangrove Forests Derived from Time-Series Satellite Imagery in Mai Po, Hong Kong

      Mingfeng Liu; Hongsheng Zhang; Guanghui Lin; Hui Lin; Danling Tang (MDPI AG, 2018-06-01)
      Mangrove deforestation is occurring globally at a rapid rate, and is causing serious ecological and economic losses on all scales. Monitoring mangrove changes is the first important step for mangrove management and conservation. Zonation of mangrove species (ZMS) is the predictable and discrete ordering of mangrove species caused by a unique, intertidal environment. Mapping the ZMS is critical to understanding the mangrove community at a species level. In this paper, the Standard Deviational Ellipse (SDE) was proposed as a method to evaluate mangrove species from a new dimension of directional changes. Three dominant mangrove species, Kandelia obovata (KO), Avicennia marina (AM), and Acanthus ilicifolius (AI), in Mai Po, Hong Kong were analyzed using SDEs based on the time series Système Pour l’Observation de la Terre (SPOT) and Gaofen-1 (GF-1) satellite images. The SDE results demonstrated that in the past 25 years: (1) The overall spatial extent of the mangroves in Mai Po expanded significantly, approximately from 150 to 350 Ha, and show a zonation pattern with a clear sequence of species perpendicular to the shoreline; (2) KO was the dominant species in most years, showing the strongest directional characteristic; (3) All three species zones have moved toward the north and west, as observed by the SDE centers. The SDE was proved to be a useful tool for understanding the temporal and spatial changes of mangrove zonation.
    • Zone-Aware Service Platform: A New Concept of Context-Aware Networking and Communications for Smart-Home Sustainability

      Jinsung Byun; Sanguk Park; Keonhee Cho; Sehyun Park (MDPI AG, 2018-01-01)
      Recent advances in networking and communications removed the restrictions of time and space in information services. Context-aware service systems can support the predefined services in accordance with user requests regardless of time and space. However, due to their architectural limitations, the recent systems are not so flexible to provide device-independent services by multiple service providers. Recently, researchers have focused on a new service paradigm characterized by high mobility, service continuity, and green characteristics. In line with these efforts, improved context-aware service platforms have been suggested to make the platform possible to manage the contexts to provide the adaptive services for multi-user and locations. However, this platform can only support limited continuity and mobility. In other words, the existing system cannot support seamless service provision among different service providers with respect to the changes of mobility, situation, device, and network. Furthermore, the existing context-aware service platform is significant reliance on always-on infrastructure, which leads to great amounts of energy consumption inevitably. Therefore, we subsequently propose a new concept of context-aware networking and communications, namely a zone-aware service platform. The proposed platform autonomously reconfigures the infrastructure and maintains a service session interacting with the middleware to support cost- and energy-efficient pervasive services for smart-home sustainability.
    • Zoning and Analysis of Control Units for Water Pollution Control in the Yangtze River Basin, China

      Fuliang Deng; Tao Lin; Yue Zhao; Ying Yuan (MDPI AG, 2017-08-01)
      In order to meet the needs of the control-unit-based water pollution prevention problem in China, we proposed a comprehensive control unit zoning method with the combined basic administrative region and objective watershed management. The method can effectively connect the natural characteristics of watershed water sources, three-level zoning of water resources, and comprehensively consider the pollution distribution, socio-economics and many other factors. The zoning process includes four steps: (1) Generate the multi-level hydrological unit; (2) Identify the multi-element water catchment units; (3) Obtain the control unit with the administrative boundary as the boundary; (4) Check and adjust the results to meet the actual needs. Based on this method, the Yangtze River Basin was divided into 568 control units with a total area of 1.91 million km2. These control units were used as the basic unit to analyze the water quality status and the results show that the upper reaches have good water quality, while the lower reaches have poor water quality and more serious water pollution. Our study helps the Ministry of Environmental Protection of China develop the list of control units that are needed to improve water quality during the “13th Five-Year Plan”, with a goal to provide technical support for control-unit-based water pollution prevention and control in the future.
    • Zoom In, Zoom Out: The Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic in the Classroom

      Luiz Antonio Joia; Manuela Lorenzo (MDPI AG, 2021-02-01)
      On 11 March 2020, the World Health Organization declared COVID-19 to be a pandemic to be confronted by humanity. As a result, social isolation has become the norm in most countries, with the consequent replacement of face-to-face classes by classes mediated by information and communication technology. Within this context, this work sets out to investigate the factors necessary for courses mediated by technology to attain their pedagogical objectives. Additionally, the study examines how subjects that develop hard and soft skills differ in a technology-mediated setting. The results show that the teacher’s digital competence on the technological platform and the metacognitive support available in the digital environment are significant factors for a course to attain its pedagogical objectives successfully. Lastly, the study revealed that hard skill disciplines, when they migrate to technology-mediated environments, are more likely to fail to achieve their educational goals than soft skill disciplines subject to the same migration.
    • ʻĀina Momona, Honua Au Loli—Productive Lands, Changing World: Using the Hawaiian Footprint to Inform Biocultural Restoration and Future Sustainability in Hawai‘i

      Samuel M. Gon; Stephanie L. Tom; Ulalia Woodside (MDPI AG, 2018-09-01)
      Pre-Western-contact Hawai‘i stands as a quintessential example of a large human population that practiced intensive agriculture, yet minimally affected native habitats that comprised the foundation of its vitality. An explicit geospatial footprint of human-transformed areas across the pre-contact Hawaiian archipelago comprised less than 15% of total land area, yet provided 100% of human needs, supporting a thriving Polynesian society. A post-contact history of disruption of traditional land use and its supplanting by Western land tenure and agriculture culminated in a landscape less than 250 years later in which over 50% of native habitats have been lost, while self-sufficiency has plummeted to 15% or less. Recapturing the ‘āina momona (productive lands) of ancient times through biocultural restoration can be accomplished through study of pre-contact agriculture, assessment of biological and ecological changes on Hawaiian social-ecological systems, and conscious planned efforts to increase self-sufficiency and reduce importation. Impediments include the current tourism-based economy, competition from habitat-modifying introduced species, a suite of agricultural pests severely limiting traditional agriculture, and climate changes rendering some pre-contact agricultural centers suboptimal. Modified methods will be required to counteract these limitations, enhance biosecurity, and diversify agriculture, without further degrading native habitats, and recapture a reciprocal Hawaiian human-nature relationship.
    • δ<sup>2</sup>H and δ<sup>18</sup>O in Precipitation and Water Vapor Disentangle Seasonal Wind Directions on the Loess Plateau

      Fu-Qiang Huang; Jian-Zhou Wei; Xin Song; Yong-Hong Zhang; Qi-Feng Yang; Yakov Kuzyakov; Feng-Min Li (MDPI AG, 2021-06-01)
      In many areas of the Loess Plateau, groundwater is too deep to extract, making meteoric water (snow and rain) the only viable water resource. Here we traced the rainwater and water vapor sources using the δ<sup>2</sup>H and δ<sup>18</sup>O signature of precipitation in the northern mountainous region of Yuzhong on the Loess Plateau. The local meteoric water line in 2016 and 2017 was defined as δ<sup>2</sup>H = 6.8 (±0.3)∙δ<sup>18</sup>O + 4.4 (±2.0) and δ<sup>2</sup>H = 7.1 (±0.2)∙δ<sup>18</sup>O + 1.5 (±1.6), respectively. The temperature and precipitation amount are considered to be the main factor controlling the δ<sup>2</sup>H and δ<sup>18</sup>O variation of precipitation, and consequently, relationships were first explored between δ<sup>18</sup>O and local surface air temperature and precipitation amount by linear regression analysis. The temperature effect was significant in the wet seasons but was irrelevant in the dry seasons on daily and seasonal scales. The amount effect was significant in the wet seasons on a daily scale but irrelevant in the dry seasons. However, based on the data of the Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP) (1985–1987, 1996–1999) of Lanzhou weather station, the amount effects were absent at seasonal scales and were not useful to discriminate either wetter or drier seasons or even wetter or drier decades. Over the whole year, the resulting air mass trajectories were consistent with the main sources of water vapor were from the Atlantic Ocean via westerlies and from the Arctic region, with 46%, 64%, and 40% of water vapor coming from the westerlies, and 54%, 36%, and 60% water vapor from the north in spring, autumn and winter, respectively. In the summer, however, the southeast monsoon (21%) was also an important water vapor source in the Loess Plateau. Concluding, using the δ<sup>2</sup>H and δ<sup>18</sup>O signatures of precipitation water, we disentangled and quantified the seasonal wind directions that are important for the prediction of water resources for local and regional land use.
    • Μeat Quality Traits as Affected by the Dietary Inclusion of Food Waste in Finishing Pigs

      Elisavet Giamouri; George Papadomichelakis; Athanasios C. Pappas; Panagiotis E. Simitzis; Fenia Galliou; Nadine Paßlack; Juergen Zentek; Katia Lasaridi; Kostas Fegeros; Thrassyvoulos Manios (MDPI AG, 2022-05-01)
      An increasing world population along with increasing human needs have raised demand for animal origin products. Moreover, high prices of conventional animal feeds have led to a demand for alternative feedstuff. Food waste can be an alternative feed ingredient. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of dietary inclusion of dried hotel residues (DHR) on the growth performance, blood biochemical parameters and meat quality traits in finishing pigs. In each of the 2 trials conducted, 20 castrated male pigs were allotted into 2 treatments. In both trials, control treatment pigs were fed a corn-soybean meal-based diet without hotel residues. In the first trial, a DHR1 treatment contained 100 g DHR1/kg with meat residues (approximately 5%). In the second trial, a DHR2 treatment, contained 80 g DHR2/kg with no meat residues. Average daily feed intake tended to be lower and average daily weight gain was lower in DHR1 compared to control pigs in the first trial, while in the second no differences were detected. However, final body weight, FCR and dressing percentage were not affected in any of the two trials. Minor differences in several meat physical traits, hematological parameters were observed among treatments and trials. In conclusion, the results indicate that the dietary addition of DHR did not affect the feed utilization and the quality of the produced meat; hence, the use of DHR in pig feeding can be supported.
    • Τhe Sustainability of Creativity

      Anna-Maria Kanzola; Panagiotis E. Petrakis (MDPI AG, 2021-03-01)
      Creativity is a critical element of sustainable development. In current paper it is described through Social Identity by identifying the main factors that shape the background of creativity. We conclude that health, maturity, and positive attitudes of cultural change as well as the social stability, the environmental care and finally, the incentives, material and non-material, shape the human creative dynamism.