Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050) is an international and cross-disciplinary scholarly, open access journal of environmental, cultural, economic and social sustainability of human beings, which provides an advanced forum for studies related to sustainability and sustainable development. It publishes reviews, regular research papers, communications and short notes, and there is no restriction on the length of the papers.
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Library has: Vol. 1 (2009) to current

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  • Model for Sustainable Financial Planning and Investment Financing Using Monte Carlo Method

    Alica Tobisova; Andrea Senova; Robert Rozenberg (MDPI AG, 2022-07-01)
    The article deals with current issues of finance and investment planning with a selective focus on financial decision-making processes using sophisticated software tools. The article has a special significance in this period when it is necessary to re-evaluate and consider ways of appropriate and effective investment and financial policy in view of the restrictions in enterprises in Slovakia, which brings with it the global pandemic COVID-19 or another crisis in enterprises. The aim of the article is to propose a methodology as a tool for streamlining the investment activities of companies. The proposed methodology combines the usability of traditional and modern economic methods, making it an important tool for the sustainability and competitiveness of enterprises. Three variants of investment decisions in the enterprise were simulated using simulation in terms of two approaches. The first approach focuses on mathematical–economic calculations of deterministic modeling through traditional software tools. The second stochastic modeling uses the simulation of financial risks using a modern software tool using the Monte Carlo method. The output is the creation of a graphical management model in the form of an algorithm.
  • The Impact of Pro-Social Behaviours on Workplace Performance and Sustainability of University Administration

    Francis Ezieshi Monyei; Anthony Aniagboso Igwe; Edith Ogoegbunam Onyeanu; Lovlyn Ekeowa Kelvin-Iloafu; Wilfred Isioma Ukpere (MDPI AG, 2022-07-01)
    Taking a leap from the perspective of organizational citizenship behaviour, pro-social behaviour examines how volunteering intentions such as helping or assisting colleagues, to how collaboration tendencies such as selfless or willful participation in workplace functions, events and issues can affect or influence administrative sustainability and longevity. This study examines the impact of pro-social behaviours on workplace performance and sustainability of university administration. Adopting the survey research design, respondents comprised both the academic and non-academic staff of the University of Nigeria, Enugu campus. The data collected were analyzed using the simple linear regression tools of the Statistical Package for Social Sciences, Version 20. Findings revealed that volunteering impacts the longevity development of university administration, while collaboration affects the competitive edge of university administration. The study thus concluded that pro-social behaviours influence the performance and sustainability of university administration.
  • The Attitudes of K–12 Schools’ Teachers in Serbia towards the Potential of Artificial Intelligence

    Valentin Kuleto; Milena P. Ilić; Rocsana Bucea-Manea-Țoniş; David-Florin Ciocodeică; Horia Mihălcescu; Veronica Mindrescu (MDPI AG, 2022-07-01)
    Similar to so many other aspects of modern life, education is gradually being automated by technological means. The software, apps, systems, platforms, and digital devices that permeate modern education are inextricably linked to these automated processes. One of the primary goals of automation has always been to improve quality and efficiency by reducing the number of human repetitive tasks based on machine learning (ML) algorithms and applications that facilitate the automation of decision-making of artificial intelligence (AI). Thus, computers and robots are predictable and do exactly what they are programmed to do. It is impossible for a computer’s memory or processing power to become “tired” because machines never rest, and now some activities can be automated, thanks to advances in artificial intelligence. Schools nowadays have software that analyses data and makes decisions based on the data rather than relying solely on human analysts regarding repetitive administrative tasks. The exploratory research within the K–12 group of teachers from LINK Educational Alliance from Serbia was performed on 109 persons to identify the genuine knowledge about AI and the potential for automatisation of work processes. Based on the teachers’ opinions regarding opportunities brought about by AI in K–12 schools, we analysed their implications in implementing AI in the educational process in K–12 education.
  • Estimation of CO2 Emissions Embodied in Domestic Trade and Their Influencing Factors in Japan

    Yuzhuo Huang; Ken’ichi Matsumoto (MDPI AG, 2022-07-01)
    CO2 emissions embodied in domestic trade between Japanese prefectures are gradually increasing and becoming an important growth point in the country’s CO2 emissions. The primary objective of this study is to evaluate the CO2 emissions embodied in Japan’s domestic imports and exports to visualize the carbon transfer paths between prefectures according to the attributes of production and consumption: also to identify the influencing factors of the carbon flow. This study estimated the CO2 emissions embodied in domestic imports and exports by prefectures using input–output analysis, followed by the log-mean Divisia index decomposition approach, which is used to quantify the influencing factor of net export CO2 emissions across prefectures. The results show substantial regional differences in the CO2 emissions embodied in domestic imports and exports across prefectures. Manufacturing prefectures satisfy most of Japan’s domestic demand for industrial products and are the main net exporters of CO2 emissions. Carbon flow is more obvious in economically advanced regions (such as the Kanto and Kansai regions) and covers more prefectures through carbon transfer. Consumer prefectures import the most CO2 emissions and export large amounts of CO2 emissions to other prefectures. Among the three factors influencing net export CO2 emissions, the technology effect has the most significant impact through the carbon intensity of domestic trade flows. These findings highlight the substantial differences in CO2 emissions embodied in domestic trade and the influencing factors across prefectures in Japan. The responsibility for emission reduction is attributable to both manufacturing and consumer prefectures.
  • Towards Sustainable Internationalization of Higher Education: Innovative Marketing Strategies for International Student Recruitment

    Nguyen-Tan Hung; Kuo-Liang Yen (MDPI AG, 2022-07-01)
    Globalization and internationalization have received increasing attention from researchers in the field of education management over the past decade, who have found that internationalization is an indispensable component in the sustainable development of higher education (HE). This research aims to construct Innovative Marketing Strategies (IMS) for international student recruitment and contribute to the sustainable internationalization of higher education (IoHE). A literature review was used to construct an Innovative Marketing Strategies questionnaire. Data collected from 300 international students studying in Taiwan were used for a feasibility analysis in order to construct the final questionnaire, and survey data collected from 522 participants were used for more in-depth statistical analysis of the final strategies. The research results indicate that combining the marketing mix 4C with an innovative strategy (IS) approach provides sustainable recruitment marketing strategies toward higher education institution internationalization from a customer-oriented perspective. The IMS in this study includes 2 dimensions, 10 strategies, and 32 indicators. Additionally, a comprehensive analysis demonstrating the perspectives of international students with respect to the strategies was also conducted. This research contributes to the theoretical development and practical implementation of sustainable HE internationalization management. Discussions and recommendations based on the results of this study are also given.
  • Assessing Spatial Variations of Traffic Congestion Using Traffic Index Data in a Developing City: Lessons from Johannesburg, South Africa

    Thembani Moyo; Siphiwe Mbatha; Oluwayemi-Oniya Aderibigbe; Trynos GUMBO; Innocent Musonda (MDPI AG, 2022-07-01)
    The COVID-19 pandemic has created unforeseen effects in public transport and the mobility of people in cities globally. Johannesburg, being a developing city in one of the most affected countries in Africa during the pandemic, has experienced severe changes in traffic management and travel patterns as a result of the restrictions imposed on movement. Hence, this study examined the spatial variations in traffic during the pandemic. The study utilized data obtained from the TomTom Traffic Index for the city of Johannesburg from 2019 to 2021, with 2019 representing the period pre-COVID-19 with no lockdown restrictions, 2020 representing the period with restricted movement to limit spread of COVID-19, and 2021 representing a period of relaxed and minimized restrictions on movement. Our findings revealed that there was a variation in congestion levels between 2019–2021 with year 2020 having the least congestion from the beginning of the COVID-19 restrictions due to regulations enforced in movement and reduced travel. Our findings further revealed that traffic congestion was higher during weekdays than weekends during the three periods, with mini-bus taxis as the major contributors to congestion. Consequently, there is a need to discourage the use of single occupancy vehicles and invest in more sustainable means of transportation to ease the mobility of people and reduce traffic on major roads.
  • Examining the Effect of Tax Reform Determinants, Firms’ Characteristics and Demographic Factors on the Financial Performance of Small and Micro Enterprises

    Neba Bhalla; Inderjit Kaur; Rakesh Kumar Sharma (MDPI AG, 2022-07-01)
    Taxation is a powerful tool to achieve sustainable development goals (SDG) as tax policies help strengthen economic growth and improve revenue capacity. So, after tax reform, it is vital to analyze their impact on the performance of enterprises. Keeping in mind the SDG, the present study was conducted in India after the major tax overhaul—Goods and Service Tax (GST) on 1 July 2017, to measure the impact on Return on Equity (ROE) and Return on Investment (ROI) as they are the barometers to measure performance (DuPont Analysis). We opted for tax reform determinants, the characteristics of firms, demographic variables, and drivers from DuPont analysis to conduct the research, as all these variables can help identify the different causes of factors impacting ROI and ROE among different types of firms and demographics across countries. An econometric analysis of 546 registered SMEs (small and micro enterprises) was conducted using the regression model, structured equation modeling, and exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis to achieve the objectives. The empirical findings highlighted that a firm’s size, turnover, and DuPont analysis drivers (earnings × asset to sales × asset turnover) positively enhanced the ROI and ROE. Further, the change in the tax system after the tax reforms has enabled the detection of tax fraud and wrong invoices, reducing the missing insolvent traders and increasing the working capital flow of the firms, which in turn has augmented financial performance.
  • Decarbonization of Nitrogen Fertilizer: A Transition Engineering Desk Study for Agriculture in Germany

    Florian Ahrens; Johann Land; Susan Krumdieck (MDPI AG, 2022-07-01)
    The use of fossil fuel and artificial nitrogen fertilizer in German agriculture is a wicked problem. The incumbent system allows access to nutrition, but relies on unsustainable fossil fuel, produces greenhouse gas emissions along the whole production chain, and nitrogen pollution. This article uses the Interdisciplinary Transition Innovation, Engineering, and Management (InTIME) method for German agriculture systems with data from FAO and the German Ministry For Food And Agriculture. The purpose of this article is a rigorous analysis of the complex agriculture system and the development of feasible opportunities for sustainable carbon downshifting. Sustainability indicators are biodiversity loss, fossil-fuel use, mineral depletion, energy use, carbon emissions and eutrophication. The results indicate that the technology-based solution of “green hydrogen” as a substitute for fossil hydrogen in the fertilizer production decreases the sustainability of the agriculture system. The most promising results arise from shifting consumption of meat and animal-based products to a more plant based diet, and transitioning to organic agriculture. Net-zero sustainability goals and a reduction in eutrophication are achieved by 75% downshift of animal products and the upscaling of organic agriculture. Strategic scenarios to achieve the results are developed and recommendations for policy implementation to ease the transition are examined.
  • TRNSYS Simulation and Experimental Validation of Internal Temperature and Heating Demand in a Glass Greenhouse

    Misbaudeen Aderemi Adesanya; Wook-Ho Na; Anis Rabiu; Qazeem Opeyemi Ogunlowo; Timothy Denen Akpenpuun; Adnan Rasheed; Yong-Cheol Yoon; Hyun-Woo Lee (MDPI AG, 2022-07-01)
    The energy demand in greenhouses is enormous, and high-performance covering materials and thermal screens with varying radiometric properties are used to optimise the energy demand in building energy simulations (BES). Transient System Simulation (TRNSYS) software is a common BES tool used to model the thermal performance of buildings. The calculation of the greenhouse internal temperature and heating demand in TRNSYS involves the solution of the transient heat transfer processes. This study modelled the temperature and heating demand of two multi-span glass greenhouses with concave (farm A) and convex (farm B) shapes. This study aims to investigate the influence of the different BES longwave radiation modes on greenhouse internal temperature in different zones and the heating demand of a conditioned zone. The standard hourly simulation results were compared with the experimental data. The results showed that the standard and detailed modes accurately predicted greenhouse internal temperature (the Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient (NSE) > 0.7 for all three zones separated by thermal screens) and heating demand (NSE > 0.8) for farms A and B. The monthly heating demand predicted by the simple and standard radiation modes for farm A matched the experimental measurements with deviations within 27.7% and 7.6%, respectively. The monthly heating demand predicted by the simple, standard, and detailed radiation modes for farm B were similar to the experimental measurements with deviations within 10.5%, 6.7%, and 2.9%, respectively. In the order of decreasing accuracy, the results showed that the preferred radiation modes for the heating demand were standard and simple for farm A, and detailed, standard, and simple for farm B.
  • International Research Progress in School Travel and Behavior: A Literature Review and Bibliometric Analysis

    Xiaofeng Ji; Haotian Guan; Mengyuan Lu; Fang Chen; Wenwen Qin (MDPI AG, 2022-07-01)
    A deep understanding of school travel mode can help policymaking related to the optimization of the school travel structure, alleviating urban traffic congestion due to the increasingly prominent phenomenon of urban sprawl. However, existing studies in this field are based on a specific research perspective, and comprehensive reviews are rather limited. Therefore, this study aims to provide an in-depth, systematic review of school travel by using bibliometric analysis. Firstly, based on the Web of Science, TRID, ScienceDirect, and MEDLINE databases, 457 studies about school travel are selected from between 1996 and 2021. Secondly, utilizing bibliometric analysis, the research progress is summarized with emphasis on the annual performance of the literature, publication status of a country or region, literature source institutions, keywords of the literature, and co-citation network analysis. The research results show that (1) the United States, Canada, and Australia rank top in the number of studies on school travel, and they also have high citation frequency and connection strength. (2) This study collects studies published in 34 journal publications, and the “Journal of Transport & Health” is the main source for publishing research. (3) The choice of school travel mode is significantly affected by individual characteristics, family conditions, and social status. The built environment and parental factors play a leading role in students’ active travel to school, and independent mobility and active transport contribute to students’ healthy development. However, policy planning is necessary to further improve the transportation infrastructure sustainability and school route safety. (4) Finally, several promising directions and potential limitations are discussed for developing countries based on the research progress in developed economies.
  • Promoting Sustainability through Assessment and Measurement of Port Externalities: A Systematic Literature Review and Future Research Paths

    Theodore Styliadis; Jason Angelopoulos; Panagiota Leonardou; Petros Pallis (MDPI AG, 2022-07-01)
    In an attempt to mitigate and balance economic, environmental, and societal externalities that ports exert, port sustainability is becoming increasingly important as a key priority. This work embarks on an effort to explore the boundaries, provide a holistic view, and establish a knowledge map of contemporary research in the field of port externalities and impacts, by conducting a systematic literature review (SLR) by carrying out a three-stage procedure (planning, execution, and reporting), enhancing objectivity, while limiting errors and bias. The literature under study pertains to research domains focusing on: (a) identifying port externalities and impacts, (b) utilizing metrics and indicators to measure and quantify the positive or negative impact of port externalities, and (c) promoting an inclusive framework for sustainable port development. Our results include, among others, the classification of methodologies and particularly, of indicators established per type of externality to measure and monitor sustainable port performance, as well as identification of trends and gaps within the contemporary literature. We find considerable room for exploring new concepts and research paths within the domain of port impacts and externalities, both within individual dimensions of sustainability (economic, social, environmental), and on a multidisciplinary level.
  • Changes in and Patterns of the Tradeoffs and Synergies of Production-Living-Ecological Space: A Case Study of Longli County, Guizhou Province, China

    Shunqian Gao; Liu Yang; Hongzan Jiao (MDPI AG, 2022-07-01)
    Production-living-ecological space (PLES) constitutes territorial space, and how to scientifically optimize PLES has become the core issue of territorial spatial planning in China. This paper constructs a spatial classification system for PLES based on merge classification. Taking Longli County, Guizhou Province, China, as an example, this paper studies the spatial patterns in 2015 and 2019, the driving factors of the changes in the spatial patterns, and the interrelationships of production space (PS), living space (LS) and ecological space (ES) and proposes a new scheme for dominant functional zoning. The results show that: (1) The high-scoring areas of PS and LS in Longli County are mainly located near the center of each town, with obvious consistency in the spatial distribution. The high-scoring areas of ES are located in the suburbs far from the towns, conflicting with PS and LS; (2) In the five-year period, PS and LS in Longli County continuously expanded. Specifically, LS expanded the most from the perspective of the rate of change, and ES shrunk continuously; (3) Socioeconomic factors are the dominant factor affecting the changes in PLES, among which the distance to town has the greatest influence; (4) Based on the correlation coefficient, PS and LS have a significant positive correlation, but they have a significant negative correlation with ES. In terms of spatial relationships, PS and LS mainly have synergistic relationships, but their relationships with ES mainly involve tradeoffs; (5) In the spatial functional areas of PLES in Longli County, the single dominant functional area is the main area, among which the ecological-dominant functional area is the largest. The results of this study provide a reference for territorial spatial planning and sustainable regional development.
  • Application of Remote-Sensing-Based Hydraulic Model and Hydrological Model in Flood Simulation

    Chaowei Xu; Jiashuai Yang; Lingyue Wang (MDPI AG, 2022-07-01)
    Floods are one of the main natural disaster threats to the safety of people’s lives and property. Flood hazards intensify as the global risk of flooding increases. The control of flood disasters on the basin scale has always been an urgent problem to be solved that is firmly associated with the sustainable development of water resources. As important nonengineering measures for flood simulation and flood control, the hydrological and hydraulic models have been widely applied in recent decades. In our study, on the basis of sufficient remote-sensing and hydrological data, a hydrological (Xin’anjiang (XAJ)) and a two-dimensional hydraulic (2D) model were constructed to simulate flood events and provide support for basin flood management. In the Chengcun basin, the two models were applied, and the model parameters were calibrated by the parameter estimation (PEST) automatic calibration algorithm in combination with the measured data of 10 typical flood events from 1990 to 1996. Results show that the two models performed well in the Chengcun basin. The average Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE), percentage error of peak discharge (PE), and percentage error of flood volume (RE) were 0.79, 16.55%, and 18.27%, respectively, for the XAJ model, and those values were 0.76, 12.83%, and 11.03% for 2D model. These results indicate that the models had high accuracy, and hydrological and hydraulic models both had good application performance in the Chengcun basin. The study can a provide decision-making basis and theoretical support for flood simulation, and the formulation of flood control and disaster mitigation measures in the basin.
  • Factors Affecting the Income of Agritourism Operations: Evidence from an Eastern Chinese County

    Xiaowen Jin; Liang Wang; Zhengzheng Zhang; Jingzhuang Yan (MDPI AG, 2022-07-01)
    Recently, agritourism has developed rapidly, and contributed considerably to economic and cultural revitalization in rural regions across the world. However, it cannot achieve long-term sustainable development if the operators are unable to enjoy necessary economic benefits. Therefore, the primary objective of this study is to identify the factors that affect the net income of agritourism entrepreneurs. Most previous studies have focused on regional or national incomes flowing from agritourism. This study surveyed all (1050) potential agritourism operators in the Luhe District, an eastern Chinese county. Seventy-two of them were identified as agritourism operators. A regression analysis with a best subset variable selection method of the surveyed data shows that the average agritourism income of three years is significantly affected by seven variables of twenty investigated. Some of those factors were also reported on by previous studies while others were new indicators. The findings highlight the importance of locality for local tourism governments when making regulations to promote agritourism. Finally, we provide some policy implications to promote agritourism in small areas (e.g., counties) in an early stage of development, especially in emerging developing economies such as rural China and many other Asian countries.
  • A Graphical Method for Designing the Horizontal Alignment and the Cant in High-Speed Railway Lines Aimed at Mixed-Speed Traffic

    Ali Alqatawna; Santos Sánchez-Cambronero; Inmaculada Gallego; Juan Miguel López-Morales (MDPI AG, 2022-07-01)
    To realize the design of mixed-traffic railway lines, the choice of radius must ensure a comfortable ride for passenger vehicles, safe freight transport, and acceptable maintenance costs of vehicle wheels and railway infrastructure. This is not a straightforward task, and what is worse, there is a worldwide lack of clear criteria to limit the design parameters involved in the geometric definition of high-speed railway lines. The proof of this is the great number of technical standards (or recommendations) that are applied depending on the period of time, the administrations involved, or the technicians in charge. If the line is going to be aimed at mixed-speed traffic, this indetermination is even more severe, as the different type of trains that are forecasted to use the tracks (with different loads, speeds, etc.) should affect the limits of the design parameters. To begin to solve this problem, this paper aimed (1) to analyze the design parameters and limitation defined in several technical standards that are used to design high-speed railway lines, (2) to propose a graphical method for designing the horizontal alignment (the cant, the radius, and the clothoid), and (3) to apply the method to a real example to compare our proposed design with the original project for a case study in Spain.
  • Multi-Fracture Synchronous Propagation Mechanism of Multi-Clustered Fracturing in Interlayered Tight Sandstone Reservoir

    Fuchun Tian; Yan Jin; Fengming Jin; Xiaonan Ma; Lin Shi; Jun Zhang; Dezhi Qiu; Zhuo Zhang (MDPI AG, 2022-07-01)
    A numerical model was established by using the 3D lattice method to investigate the synchronous propagation mechanism of multiple clusters of hydraulic fractures in interlayered tight sandstone reservoirs in the Songliao Basin in China. The multi-fracture synchronous propagation model under different geological factors and fracturing engineering factors was simulated. The results show that the vertical stress difference, interlayer Young’s modulus, and lithologic interface strength are positively correlated with the longitudinal propagation ability of multiple hydraulic fractures. The three clusters of hydraulic fractures can have adequate longitudinal extension capacity and transverse propagation range with 15 m cluster spacing and a 12 m3/min pumping rate. The viscosity of the fracturing fluid is positively correlated with the ability of hydraulic fracture to penetrate the interlayer longitudinally but negatively correlated with the transverse propagation length. It is recommended that high viscosity fracturing fluid is used in the early stage of multi-clustered fracturing in interlayered tight sandstone reservoirs to promote hydraulic fractures to penetrate more interlayers and communicate more pay layers in the longitudinal direction, and low viscosity fracturing fluid in the later stage to make multiple clusters of fractures propagate to the far end where possible and obtain a more ideal SRV.
  • Overview of the Special Issue “New Frontiers in Design and Planning for Healthy Built Environments”

    Alenka Fikfak; Saja Kosanović; Matej Nikšič; Christine Mady (MDPI AG, 2022-07-01)
    Public health issues are closely related to the design and planning of the built environment [...]
  • A Bibliometric Analysis of End-of-Life Vehicles Related Research: Exploring a Path to Environmental Sustainability

    Zhang Yu; Syed Abdul Rehman Khan; Hafiz Muhammad Zia-ul-haq; Muhammad Tanveer; Muhammad Jawad Sajid; Shehzad Ahmed (MDPI AG, 2022-07-01)
    Considering rapid economic development and continuously increasing environmental concerns, end-of-life vehicles (ELVs) have significant socioeconomic value as a crucial waste stream. The research relating to ELVs has rapidly evolved over the last few years. However, existing review studies focus on specific research themes, and thus, fail to present a complete picture. Hence, this research intends to explain the current research scenario relating to ELVs by reviewing the critical published studies of the last 22 years. A total of 1405 research publications were extracted from the Scopus database covering the period from 2000 to 2021. Mainly employing bibliometric analysis techniques, this research analyzes the quantity of literature, researchers, institutions, countries, and research themes to understand the current status and future trends in ELV recycling and management. The results revealed a considerable rise in the number of articles published in the last five years. The key producers of influential ELV research are listed as the United States, China, and the United Kingdom. Globally, Chinese universities have the most ELV-related articles published. Similarly, Serbian researcher Vladimir Simic authored the most ELV-related articles during the research period. This article also identifies various research themes: management and recycling, resource recovery and components, life cycle evaluation, and socioeconomic effects. The results also reveal a strong association between distinct ELV research clusters.
  • When Are Organizations Sustainable? Well-Being and Discomfort in Working Contexts: Old and New Form of Malaise

    Caterina Gozzoli; Diletta Gazzaroli (MDPI AG, 2022-07-01)
    The proposal for this Special Issue is related to a question that is increasingly present and debated by both researchers and practitioners [...]
  • Revisiting Education for Sustainable Development: Methods to Inspire Secondary School Students toward Renewable Energy

    Fahimul Hoque; Ruhizan M. Yasin; Kamaruzzaman Sopian (MDPI AG, 2022-07-01)
    Education is key to advancing a society that can achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). One SDG is shifting energy consumption from fossil fuels to renewable energy (RE) sources to reduce environmental damage and prevent global warming. Awareness must be instilled among citizens at an early age (as early as secondary school) to motivate students to pursue higher education and careers in RE concepts and technologies. To analyze the current trends of existing education in RE concepts and education for sustainable development (ESD) in secondary schools, this study employed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses method to systematically review 25 articles that were selected from the Web of Science and Scopus databases. The articles highlighted the availability of RE-targeted ESD in secondary schools and their impacts on students and society. However, they revealed a significant lack of curricula on RE concepts and ESD in secondary schools, reflecting the low knowledge, interest in, and awareness of RE and its concepts among students. The articles revealed positive impacts of introducing certain RE-targeted ESD courses/activities on students. Thus, we propose adopting new methods that include collaborative multidisciplinary and informal and non-formal and other factors as a means toward arousing secondary students’ interest in RE education to achieve the SDGs.

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