The Australasian Journal of Educational Technology (AJET) is the journal of ASCILITE, the Australasian Society for Computers in Learning in Tertiary Education. It aims to promote research and scholarship on the integration of technology in tertiary education, promote effective practice, and inform policy.
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Library has vol. 31, no. 6, 2015 to current

Recent Submissions

  • Factors affecting Chinese university students’ intention to continue using virtual and remote labs

    Zhang, Mu-Hua; Su, Chien-Yuan; Li, Yan; Li, Yan-Yan (ASCILITE, 2020-05-15)
    Recently, virtual and remote labs (VRLs) have been developed to support students in conducting experiments in engineering and science education. However, little is known about the students’ intentions to continue using VRLs and their satisfaction with the experience. This study proposed an extended model embedded within the expectation confirmation model and two variables concerning flow experience (time distortion and focused attention) to predict Chinese university students’ satisfaction with and intention to continue using VRLs. A structural equation modelling technique based on covariance was conducted to evaluate survey questionnaire responses received from 238 students at a university located in central China. The results demonstrated that satisfaction was the most crucial determinant of the students’ intention to continue using VRLs, followed closely by perceived usefulness. Confirmation played an indirect role in predicting students’ intentions to continue using VRLs via satisfaction and perceived usefulness. Students’ flow experience while performing virtual experiments played a positive and direct role in confirming their expectations of VRLs.
  • The evolving field of learning analytics research in higher education: From data analysis to theory generation, an agenda for future research

    Axelsen, Megan; Redmond, Petrea; Heinrich, Eva; Henderson, Michael (ASCILITE, 2020-05-15)
    Over the last decade the deployment and use of learning analytics has become routine in many universities around the world. The ability to analyse the way students interact with technology has demonstrated significant value for providing insights into student learning and there are now a wide range of uses for learning analytics in education. From use as a diagnostic tool, to a method for prediction, learning analytics in higher education has an emphasis on a wide range of outcome measures, including student retention, progression, attainment, performance, mastery, employability and engagement. In exploring how learning analytics can improve learning practice by transforming the ways we support learning processes, this editorial highlights some of the learning analytics research that has been published in AJET to date.
  • The role of informal digital learning of English and a high-stakes English test on perceptions of English as an international language

    Lee, Ju Seong (ASCILITE, 2020-05-15)
    This study investigated the relationship among informal digital learning of English (IDLE) practice, a high-stakes English test, English productive skills, and perceptions of English as an international language (EIL). Eighty-nine English as a foreign language (EFL) undergraduate students across three South Korean cities participated in the study. The participants submitted their scores in the Test of English for International Communication (TOEIC, South Korea’s most popular high-stakes English test), took English speaking and productive vocabulary-level tests, and completed surveys that measured the frequency of their IDLE activities and EIL perceptions. Results of the hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed that IDLE practice and TOEIC scores were significant predictors of EIL perceptions. The structural equation modelling analysis further revealed that IDLE practice partially mediated the relationship between TOEIC scores and EIL perceptions. This indicates that students with higher TOEIC scores tended to practise IDLE activities more frequently, which enabled them to experience diverse accents and users of English and, in turn, help increase their EIL perceptions. It also suggests that more proficient EFL speakers may not necessarily become competent EIL users. These findings are discussed with consideration of South Korea’s socio-educational contexts, followed by pedagogical implications for English language educators and test developers.
  • Not just digital natives: Integrating technologies in professional education contexts

    Smith, Erika E; Kahlke, Renate; Judd, Terry (ASCILITE, 2020-04-27)
    In 2001, Prensky characterised a new generation of learners entering higher education as digital natives – naturally digitally literate and inherently proficient users of technology. While many educational technology researchers have long argued for the need to move beyond the digital native assumptions proposed by Prensky and other futurists, a critical review of the literature reveals that this concept remains influential in academia broadly and within professional education specifically. In light of this, we propose an alternative approach to technology integration in professional education settings that aims to avoid unhelpful digital native stereotypes by instead developing digital literacies in ways that leverage technological affordances. By building digital literacies across the procedural and technical, cognitive, and sociocultural domains connected to professional competencies, learners can effectively adopt and utilise emerging technologies through professional digital practices.
  • Measuring university students’ technostress in technology-enhanced learning: Scale development and validation

    Wang, Xinghua; TAN, Seng Chee; Li, Lu (ASCILITE, 2020-04-27)
    With technology-enhanced learning playing an increasingly important role in higher education, university students are enjoying unprecedented benefits while likely experiencing technostress due to increased requirements and different academic expectations of technology-enhanced learning. This study aimed to develop a psychometric scale to measure university students’ levels of technostress in technology-enhanced learning. An initial technostress scale was developed drawing on the person-environment fit theory and prior research on technostress. In total 620 students were recruited from two public universities in China. Three rounds of study were performed to validate the initial technostress scale using factor analysis, the Rasch model, and multilevel linear regression. The finalised technostress scale with 8 items demonstrated robust psychometric properties, including high internal consistency, validity, uni-dimensionality, and measurement invariance across students of different demographics. The development of the technostress scale is an important step in identifying maladapted students and preserving their wellbeing so as to increase their constructive and active participation in technology-enhanced learning.
  • Collaboration, collation, and competition: Crowdsourcing a directory of educational technology tools for teaching and learning

    Donlon, Enda; Costello, Eamon; Brown, Mark (ASCILITE, 2020-04-27)
    This paper reports on a distinctive one-year online open crowdsourcing initiative which originated in the Republic of Ireland with a view to compiling an A–Z directory of educational technology tools for teaching and learning. Through analysis of multiple sources of data, the paper presents an intrinsic case study which outlines the design and implementation of the initiative and offers critical insights into engagement and participation in the project. The study found that participants from across the spectrum of educational sectors contributed to this project from a range of geographical locations, with significantly greater numbers engaging with the directory of educational technology tools that resulted from the crowdsourcing activity. It concludes that the creative project design, combined with a novel crowdsourcing methodology encompassing elements of collaboration, competition, and gamification, were strong motivational factors for participation. The case study provides a valuable context for considering the wider potential of this particular crowdsourcing format (and crowdsourcing applications in general) for teaching and learning purposes.
  • AJET Bibliometrics

    Heinrich, Eva; Henderson, Michael; Redmond, Petrea (ASCILITE, 2020-03-20)
    The bibliometric data in this editorial provide readers with information about the journal’s publication, review and article access statistics, the articles attracting the most interest over the past year and the citation performance of the journal.
  • University students’ digital competence in three areas of the DigCom 2.1 model: A comparative study at three European universities

    López-Meneses, Eloy; Sirignano, Fabrizio Manuel; Vázquez-Cano, Esteban; Ramírez-Hurtado, José Manuel (ASCILITE, 2020-01-30)
    This study analysed the digital competence of 1,073 students at one Italian and two Spanish universities using the COBADI 2.0 (Basic Digital Competences/Registered Trademark 2970648) questionnaire. A quantitative methodology was applied to university students’ use of, and competence in, three areas of DigCom 2.1: information and data literacy, communication and collaboration, and digital content creation. The results showed that these future graduates had an upper intermediate level of competence in information and digital literacy, and communication and collaboration, but a lower intermediate level in terms of digital content creation, particularly in the creation and dissemination of multimedia content using different tools. Two student profiles were identified for time spent online: those who dedicated a lot of their time to gaming or interacting on social media, and those who used most of their online time to searching for information and completing academic work.
  • Simulation acceptance scale (SAS): A validity and reliability study

    Sezer, Baris; Teker, Gulsen Tasdelen; Sezer, Tufan Asli; Elcin, Melih (ASCILITE, 2020-01-28)
    A review of literature reveals serious problems in the validity and reliability of the measurement tools used in simulation technology acceptance studies conducted in the context of various technology acceptance models. To address this gap in literature, this study proposes a measurement tool that will allow a valid and reliable measurement of students’ acceptance levels. The study was conducted in the 2017–2018 academic year and involved a group of 409 health sciences students. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was conducted to examine the construct validity of the conclusions based on gathered measurements. At the end of the EFA, a construct with a single factor and 24 items which explained 54.87 percent of the total variance was obtained. Based on the findings of the research, it was concluded that simulation acceptance scale produced from the EFA could be used for valid and reliable measurements regarding the general acceptance of simulation technologies by the health sciences students.
  • Perceptions of learning management system quality, satisfaction, and usage: Differences among students of the arts

    Koh, Joyce Hwee Ling; Kan, Rebecca Yen Pei (ASCILITE, 2020-01-28)
    The model of information system success has been used to evaluate students’ satisfaction with the system quality, information quality, and service quality of learning management systems. This study extends the model by considering the pedagogical dimensions of instructional quality, learning quality, and interaction quality as well as how perceived usage frequency influences students’ quality perceptions. Through a sample of 376 higher education students, this study validated a five-factor quality structure for the evaluation of learning management systems with respect to the perceptions of students of the arts. Regression analyses showed differences among the quality factors that predicted satisfaction for arts students perceiving infrequent, average frequency, and frequent use. Although the quality of instructional experiences predicted satisfaction for all student groups, information quality significantly predicted satisfaction for only infrequent and average frequency users. System quality was a significant predictor of satisfaction for only average frequency and frequent users, whereas only frequent users perceived the quality of learning outcomes to be a significant predictor of satisfaction. The theoretical, instructional, and institutional implications for higher education institutions are discussed.
  • Effects of instructors’ academic disciplines and prior experience with learning management systems: A study about the use of Canvas

    Fathema, Nafsaniath; Akanda, Mohammad H (ASCILITE, 2020-01-29)
    This study examines the effects of instructors’ academic disciplines and prior experience with the learning management system (LMS), Canvas, on current use. Our mixed method study collected data via an online survey from 557 instructors at two United States universities. Quantitative analyses found significant differences in instructors’ use of Canvas by their academic discipline and prior Canvas experience. Content analysis of the open-ended responses revealed that, when reporting the strengths and weaknesses of Canvas, while instructors across disciplines reported common strengths, the weaknesses they identified varied according to the features they used for their specific disciplines. Our findings lead us to recommend routine evaluation and assessment of instructors’ needs related to LMS. We suggest that, together with general LMS training, campuses design and offer discipline-specific LMS training to ensure instructors’ needs for LMS based on their academic fields are addressed. Also, we propose that universities should design and offer basic and advanced LMS training programs for instructors with different levels of LMS experience.
  • Facilitating student engagement through educational technology in higher education: A systematic review in the field of arts and humanities

    Bedenlier, Svenja; Bond, Melissa; Buntins, Katja; Zawacki-Richter, Olaf; Kerres, Michael (ASCILITE, 2020-01-26)
    Understanding how educational technology can enhance student engagement is becoming increasingly necessary in higher education, and particularly so in arts and humanities, given the communicative nature of courses. This narrative systematic review synthesises 42 peer-reviewed arts and humanities articles published between 2007-2016, indexed in four international databases. The results indicate that the majority of research has been undertaken in language learning, predominantly in East Asian countries, with limited grounding of research in theory. This review found that educational technology supports student engagement, with behavioural engagement by far the most prevalent dimension. Affective engagement was the lowest observed dimension, with affective disengagement the most prevalent negative dimension. Blogs, mobile learning, and assessment tools were the most effective at promoting engagement. However, caution and education in how to use technology are needed, as any use not underpinned by effective and informed pedagogy can also lead to students feeling overwhelmed and disengaging from learning. Further research is needed on online collaboration, as well as international courses that offer cross-cultural opportunities for language use, and the increased use of qualitative methods is also advised.
  • Tracking reading strategy utilisation through pupillometry

    Wong, Aaron Y.; Moss, Jarrod; Schunn, Christian D. (ASCILITE, 2016-12-15)
    Explicit reading strategies help low-knowledge readers make the inferences necessary to comprehend expository texts. Self-explanation is a particularly effective strategy, but it is challenging to monitor how well a reader is applying self-explanation without requiring the reader to externalise the self-explanations being generated. Studies have shown that different reading strategies vary in the amount of cognitive control required as well as the engagement of brain regions involved in internally-directed attention. Pupil diameter is related to task engagement and cognitive control via the brain’s locus coeruleus-norepinephrine system. Therefore, pupil diameter could be a method to unobtrusively measure a reader’s use of self-explanation. The current study assessed whether pupil diameter can be used to distinguish between the use of different reading strategies and whether it is linked to the quality and effectiveness of the strategy in terms of learning gains. Participants reread, paraphrased, and self-explained texts while pupil diameter was recorded, and completed comprehension tests. Average pupil diameter differed between all three reading strategies, and pupil diameter was related to learning gains and the quality of strategy use. The results suggest that pupil diameter could be used to track effective reading strategy utilisation.
  • Eye tracking and early detection of confusion in digital learning environments: Proof of concept

    Pachman, Mariya; ARGUEL, Amaël; Lockyer, Lori; Kennedy, Gregor; Lodge, Jason (ASCILITE, 2016-12-15)
    Research on incidence of and changes in confusion during complex learning and problem-solving calls for advanced methods of confusion detection in digital learning environments (DLEs). In this study we attempt to address this issue by investigating the use of multiple measures, including psychophysiological indicators and self-ratings, to detect confusion in DLEs. Participants were subjected to two intrinsically confusing insight problems in the form of visual digital puzzles. They were asked to solve problems while their eye trajectories were recorded and these data were triangulated with self-ratings of confusion and cued retrospective verbal reports. All participants had a significant increase in fixations on relevant (i.e., related to the solution) and not-relevant areas at an early stage of the problem-solving process. However, only fixations on not-relevant areas were positively correlated with confusion ratings. Moreover, participants who significantly solved the problem differed in their fixations duration on relevant and not-relevant areas from non-solvers. The importance of early detection of confusion and the affordances of emerging technologies for this purpose are discussed.
  • Editorial: Brain, mind and educational technology

    Lodge, Jason M; Kennedy, Gregor; Lockyer, Lori (ASCILITE, 2016-12-15)
    The emergence and growth of research in cognitive neuroscience over recent decades has led to important discoveries about how the brain and mind work. These discoveries have potential implications for the use of educational technologies and provide insight into possibilities for improving student learning in digital environments. Despite the promise of the emerging field of educational neuroscience, it is difficult to translate findings from the laboratory to the physical or virtual classroom. The articles in this special issue of AJET are attempts to bridge this gap. We hope that this special issue will serve as a catalyst for further work on the translation of foundational research on the brain and mind to learning design and teaching with educational technologies.
  • Measuring cognitive load in the presence of educational video: Towards a multimodal methodology

    Kruger, Jan-Louis; Doherty, Stephen (ASCILITE, 2016-12-15)
    The use of video has become well established in education, from traditional courses to blended and online courses. It has grown both in its diversity of applications as well as its content. Such educational video however is not fully accessible to all students, particularly those who require additional visual support or students studying in a foreign language. Subtitles (also known as captions) represent a unique solution to these language and accessibility barriers, however, the impact of subtitles on cognitive load in such a rich and complex multimodal environment has yet to be determined. Cognitive load is a complex construct and its measurement by means of single indirect and unidimensional methods is a severe methodological limitation. Building upon previous work from several disciplines, this paper moves to establish a multimodal methodology for the measurement of cognitive load in the presence of educational video. We show how this methodology, with refinement, can allow us to determine the effectiveness of subtitles as a learning support in educational contexts. This methodology will also make it possible to analyse the impact of other multimedia learning technology on cognitive load.
  • Learning number sense through digital games with intrinsic feedback

    Laurillard, Diana (ASCILITE, 2016-12-15)
    The paper proposes a new interdisciplinary approach to helping low attaining learners in basic mathematics. It reports on the research-informed design and user testing of an adaptive digital game based on constructionist tasks with intrinsic feedback. The approach uses findings from the neuroscience of dyscalculia, cognitive science research on conceptual understanding in mathematics, and mathematical education research to inform the detailed pedagogic design. It is interdisciplinary in the sense that it synthesises the results from multiple disciplines in the design principles. It then exploits the new capabilities of digital technologies to develop the design for testing with learners, and capturing appropriate data. The initial pilot has shown that the game supports learners age 5-7 years for independent learning of the kind that low attaining learners will need in order to keep pace with mainstream learners. The experimental work will evaluate this and similar games for learners of all ages who have low numeracy. In general, the approach is to (i) focus on a problem at the intersection of robust evidence in both education and neursocience; and (ii) use this data to design and test a digital intervention that fully exploits the adaptive and interactive features of learning technology.
  • What if learning analytics were based on learning science?

    Marzouk, Zahia; Rakovic, Mladen; Liaqat, Amna; Vytasek, Jovita; Samadi, Donya; Stewart-Alonso, Jason; Ram, Ilana; Woloshen, Sonya; Winne, Philip H; Nesbit, John C (ASCILITE, 2016-12-15)
    Learning analytics are often formatted as visualisations developed from traced data collected as students study in online learning environments. Optimal analytics inform and motivate students’ decisions about adaptations that improve their learning. We observe that designs for learning often neglect theories and empirical findings in learning science that explain how students learn. We present six learning analytics that reflect what is known in six areas (we call them cases) of theory and research findings in the learning sciences: setting goals and monitoring progress, distributed practice, retrieval practice, prior knowledge for reading, comparative evaluation of writing, and collaborative learning. Our designs demonstrate learning analytics can be grounded in research on self-regulated learning and self-determination. We propose designs for learning analytics in general should guide students toward more effective self-regulated learning and promote motivation through perceptions of autonomy, competence, and relatedness.
  • Tertiary students’ understandings and practices of informal learning: A New Zealand case study

    Lai, Kwok-Wing; Smith, Lee Ann (ASCILITE, 2017-06-09)
    In 2013, we undertook research in a New Zealand University to gain insights into students’ understandings of informal learning, its connection to formal learning and how they engaged in informal learning using digital and mobile technologies. A total of 765 students (postgraduate, undergraduate and first-year students) completed a questionnaire. Follow-up interviews were conducted with 30 of these students. A total of 90% of the questionnaire participants undertook informal learning to support their formal learning or for their personal development. The undergraduate and first-year interview participants reported that they primarily engaged in informal learning to support their formal coursework. However, the postgraduate participants made arbitrary links between their informal learning and formal learning. The three groups of participants used the same digital technologies to engage in informal learning, including laptops, desktop computers and mobile phones, while the dominant means of conducting informal learning was accessing the Internet and using online tools such as Google and Wikipedia. Fewer students used social networking sites (such as Facebook or Twitter) or mobile digital technologies (such as iPads and tablets) for informal learning.
  • Elements of satisfactory online asynchronous teacher behaviour in higher education

    Smits, Anneke; Voogt, Joke (ASCILITE, 2017-06-09)
    In this study, differences were analysed between two groups of online teachers in a Master of Special Educational Needs program. One group scored high on student satisfaction and the second group received low student satisfaction ratings. Findings indicate that high satisfaction is associated with relatively long and pedagogically complex messages that are most often addressed to the whole group. These messages are characterised by careful listening to the students, elaborate on content knowledge, and show online personality and social behaviour. The research resulted in preliminary guidelines for crafting asynchronous teacher messages that positively affect student satisfaction and a scoring guideline that can be used to score the quality of online teaching as expressed in online asynchronous messages.

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