The Australasian Journal of Educational Technology (AJET) is the journal of ASCILITE, the Australasian Society for Computers in Learning in Tertiary Education. It aims to promote research and scholarship on the integration of technology in tertiary education, promote effective practice, and inform policy.
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Library has vol. 31, no. 6, 2015 to current

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  • What kind of support do teachers really need in a blended learning context?

    Zhao, Shurong; Song, Junxia (ASCILITE, 2021-05-29)
    Teachers in higher education are the principal participants in blended learning (BL). Without their engagement, any attempt at BL might fail. In the process of BL implementation, they are faced with various challenges and are mostly not well prepared. However, studies have often neglected the feeling of teachers and their anxieties during BL implementation. There is insufficient research on teacher-related factors, especially teacher support. To address this question, a questionnaire was conducted among 123 respondents from 10 universities in China between March and May 2020. An analysis of the data collected shows that BL is widely recognised by teachers, but they lack confidence in their competence in BL implementation. The top three difficulties that faculty face are increased workload, a lack of funds to build their own courses and a lack of time to prepare online activities. Further, respondents have a clear need for pedagogical support, financial and infrastructure support, policy support, technical support and emotional support. These findings indicate that a targeted support system should be constructed to address these difficulties. Special attention should be paid to formulating BL guidance, offering a supportive environment that values BL efforts and relieving the workload of faculty.   Implications for practice or policy: BL teachers need various support to design and implement BL courses. Higher education institutions should formulate guidance and clarify the definition and key implementation elements to guide BL practice. Management departments of higher education institutions should take effective measures to alleviate the burden of teachers. The training of teachers in the application of BL technology should focus on strengthening technological content knowledge and technological pedagogical knowledge.
  • A study of meta-analyses reporting quality in the large and expanding literature of educational technology

    Tamim, Rana M.; Borokhovski, Evgueni; Bernard, Robert M.; Schmid, Richard F.; Abrami, Philip C.; Pickup, David I. (ASCILITE, 2021-05-29)
    As the empirical literature in educational technology continues to grow, meta-analyses are increasingly being used to synthesise research to inform practice. However, not all meta-analyses are equal. To examine their evolution over the past 30 years, this study systematically analysed the quality of 52 meta-analyses (1988–2017) on educational technology. Methodological and reporting quality is defined here as the completeness of the descriptive and methodological reporting features of meta-analyses. The study employed the Meta-Analysis Methodological Reporting Quality Guide (MMRQG), an instrument designed to assess 22 areas of reporting quality in meta-analyses. Overall, MMRQG scores were negatively related to average effect size (i.e., the higher the quality, the lower the effect size). Owing to the presence of poor-quality syntheses, the contribution of educational technologies to learning has been overestimated, potentially misleading researchers and practitioners. Nine MMRQG items discriminated between higher and lower average effect sizes. A publication date analysis revealed that older reviews (1988–2009) scored significantly lower on the MMRQG than more recent reviews (2010–2017). Although the increase in quality bodes well for the educational technology literature, many recent meta-analyses still show only moderate levels of quality. Identifying and using only best evidence-based research is thus imperative to avoid bias.   Implications for practice or policy: Educational technology practitioners should make use of meta-analytical findings that systematically synthesise primary research. Academics, policymakers and practitioners should consider the methodological quality of meta-analyses as they vary in reliability. Academics, policymakers and practitioners could avoid misleading bias in research evidence by using the MMRQG to evaluate the quality of meta-analyses. Meta-analyses with lower MMRQG scores should be considered with caution as they seem to overestimate the effect of educational technology on learning.
  • Tele-mentoring using augmented reality technology in healthcare: A systematic review

    Bui, Dung Trung; Barnett, Tony; Hoang, Ha T.; Chinthammit, Winyu (ASCILITE, 2021-05-15)
    This systematic review aimed to identify how tele-mentoring systems that incorporate augmented reality (AR) technology are being used in healthcare environments. A total of 12 electronic bibliographic databases were searched using the terms “augmented reality”, “tele-mentoring” and “health”. The PRISMA checklist was used as a guide for reporting. The mixed method appraisal tool was used to assess the quality of the included experiments. The data were then analysed using a concept-centric approach and categorised primarily with regards to system performance and task performance measures. A total of 11 randomised controlled trials and 14 non-randomised designs were included for review. Both mentees and mentors assessed the system and task performance according to 25 categories. The feedback of mentees using AR tele-mentoring systems was generally positive. The majority of experiments revealed that the AR system was an effective tele-mentoring device overall and resulted in the effective performance of a procedure. Benefits included improvements in trainees’ confidence, task completion time and reductions in task errors and shifts in focus. However, the systems had limitations, including heaviness of the equipment, inconvenience, discomfort and distraction of wearing devices, limited battery life, the latency of video and audio signals and limited field of view.   Implications for practice or policy: Health practitioners can apply AR technology to receive and follow real-time annotated instructions verbally and visually from remote experts. Technical developers may consider improving AR devices in terms of lighter weight, larger field of view, more ergonomic design, more stable network connection and longer battery life. Further AR-related experiments may need to explore AR tele-mentoring systems’ utility across healthcare environments with larger samples, real patient populations in remote settings, cost-benefit analysis and impacts on short- and long-term patient outcomes.
  • Preparation and synchronous participation improve student performance in a blended learning experience

    Clark, Charlotte Emily Jane; Post, Ger (ASCILITE, 2021-05-15)
    Blended learning can create flexibility for students, more efficiently utilise infrastructure, and can provide high-quality learning at scale. We investigated perceived value and learning gains associated with asynchronous eLearning and synchronous face-to-face (f2f) components of a blended learning experience. We hypothesised that individual student preference for eLearning and f2f learning would be variable, but that participation in f2f classes would enhance student learning. Using a design-based research approach, we have evaluated two iterations of a blended learning experience, combining qualitative survey data and quantitative attendance data and student grades. Students overwhelmingly valued active learning, both within eLearning materials and f2f classes. Final marks positively correlated with the number of f2f classes students attended. Analysis of a subset of intended learning outcomes (ILOs) showed that students who accessed eLearning independently and students who attended f2f classes performed equally-well in ILO-related assessment tasks, however, students were more likely to choose an assessment task directly-related to a class they attended. In addition, completion of required eLearning prior to f2f class attendance significantly enhanced student performance in related assessment tasks. We suggest that f2f attendance as part of blended learning is beneficial, however students can obtain selected ILOs from engaging eLearning materials. Implications for practice or policy: Instructors will gain insight into aspects of blended active learning that students value. We present evidence that supports the benefits to students of completion of pre-eLearning prior to participation in synchronous f2f classes.
  • Unbundling teaching and learning in a flipped thermal physics classroom in higher education powered by emerging innovative technology

    Hung, Hui-Chun; Young, Shelley Shwu-ching (ASCILITE, 2021-05-15)
    The emergence of open online courses and flipped classrooms has brought new opportunities to unbundle the traditional university. This study aimed to investigate a thermal physics classroom integrated with an open online learning mode to afford various learning strategies for students in Taiwan. Moreover, we examined students' preferred learning modes by adopting a quasi-experimental design with questionnaires, pre-test and post-test scores, self-reported journals and interviews. A total of 89 students participated in the study. The instructor allowed all students enrolled in the class to choose their own preferred learning modes. All students had full access to all course materials in both open online course and traditional face-to-face learning contexts throughout the whole semester. We examined the learners' academic performance in each learning mode and surveyed their perceptions of the course. The findings of this study indicate that information technology can transform teaching and learning in a thermal physics classroom and challenge the instructor to tailor the course to meet students' diverse needs. Significantly, students adopted five learning modes, consisting of face-to-face, web facilitated, alternative blended, online learning and flipped learning. This study provides a valuable reference on how traditional on-campus higher education institutions could be unbundled to create student-centred learning approaches.   Implications for practice or policy: Educators could design a flexible delivery model, allowing students to choose five learning modes, consisting of face-to-face, web facilitated, alternative blended, online learning and flipped learning in terms of their learning style and time management. For students with sufficient background knowledge, the flipped learning mode provides the best learning performance. This study could provide administrators, educators and instructors with insights and new approaches in science, technology, engineering and mathematics education and improvements in their course policies.
  • Employability: Smart learning in extracurricular activities for developing college graduates' competencies

    Hui, Yan Keung; Kwok, Lam For; Ip, Horace Ho Shing (ASCILITE, 2021-05-10)
    Nowadays, employers expect college graduates (or simply “graduates”) to be for ready in taking up challenges when they enter into their careers. Most competencies that employers are looking for cannot be learned but can be developed by participating in extracurricular activities. However, planning on participation in extracurricular activities is difficult, given the lack of measurement standards together with their unstructured and non-systematic nature. To provide a smarter way for activity organisers, advisers and students to plan for extracurricular activities, our university has launched the central repository on student development activities system and codified the information about participation in extracurricular activities in a quantified and systematic way. This paper has collected data from three consecutive years from the system, the employers' feedback data and the academic performance data of placement students in the Department of Computer Science. Participation level, with logarithm transformation, had a positive and significant relationship with academic performance. Moreover, the competency developed by most students had a positive relationship with job performance in the placement year of 2019/2020. In this article, we discuss contributions, limitations and future directions.
  • Using automatic speech recognition technology to enhance EFL learners’ oral language complexity in a flipped classroom

    Jiang, Michael Yi-Chao; Jong, Morris Siu-Yung; Lau, Wilfred Wing-Fat; Chai, Ching-Sing; Wu, Na (ASCILITE, 2021-05-10)
    The present study examined the effects of using automatic speech recognition (ASR) technology on oral complexity in a flipped English as a Foreign Language (EFL) course. A total of 160 undergraduates were enrolled in a 14-week quasi-experiment. The experimental group (EG) and the control group (CG) were taught with a flipped approach, but the EG students needed to undertake an additional pre-class task with ASR technology. In each unit, all students’ in-class task performance was recorded, based on which the metrics of oral complexity were coded and computed. A two-way between- and within-subjects repeated measures design was conducted to examine the effects of the group factor, the time factor and the group × time interaction effects. The results showed that the EG students performed statistically better than their counterparts in the CG on lexical complexity and syntactic complexity. Moreover, significant improvement in phrasal complexity was witnessed over time in both groups. Significant group × time interaction effects were witnessed on overall complexity or subordination complexity. The gradients of the EG trajectories of the two metrics were greater than those of the CG. However, on phrasal complexity, the interaction effect was not significant.
  • Review of smart learning: Patterns and trends in research and practice

    LI, Kam Cheong; Wong, Billy Tak-Ming (ASCILITE, 2021-05-10)
    This article presents a review of the literature on smart learning in order to provide a comprehensive overview of its latest developments in research and practice. The review covered 90 studies published from 2010 to 2019, which were collected from three publication databases, namely Web of Science, Scopus and ProQuest. They were analysed for the patterns and trends in terms of publication years, sources of publication, countries or regions of publication, research purposes, research methods, educational levels of the studies, application domains, research issues, research participants, learning devices or tools, learning environments and learning features. Overall, the findings show that increasing global attention was given to smart learning from diverse disciplines and contexts of application. The results also reveal the areas which should be addressed in future work: development of pedagogies which make effective use of smart learning technologies in different learning environments; examination of smart learning to cope with learners’ needs in informal contexts; in-depth analysis of how smart learning could be tailored to fit the characteristics of various application domains; and investigation of the views and perceptions of teachers on smart learning technologies, their readiness to use these technologies and their challenges and needs for support.
  • Digital game-based learning of information literacy: Effects of gameplay modes on university students’ learning performance, motivation, self-efficacy and flow experiences

    Zou, Di; Zhang, Ruofei; Xie, Haoran; Wang , Fu Lee (ASCILITE, 2021-05-10)
    Information literacy (IL) is important for university students. In this research, we developed a digital role-playing game to enhance students’ learning of IL and investigated the effects of gameplay modes on their learning performance, motivation, self-efficacy and flow experiences. A total of 90 students participated in the study and played the game in collaborative, competitive and solo modes. Their IL knowledge was measured through a post-test after they completed the game and associated exercises. Their motivation, self-efficacy and flow experiences were evaluated through a questionnaire survey. The results indicated statistically significant effects of the gameplay modes on the students’ learning performance, motivation, self-efficacy and flow experiences. The solo mode was inferior to the other two in all four aspects. The collaborative mode significantly outperformed the competitive mode in terms of enhancing learning performance and flow experience, while the competitive mode was significantly better in terms of promoting self-efficacy. These two modes were similarly effective in the dimension of motivation. Based on the results, we suggest that students play games in the collaborative or competitive modes when conditions permit. We also advise teachers to provide students with rich opportunities for discussion, collaboration and interaction and believe that an appropriate competitive atmosphere is important.
  • Smart classroom environments affect teacher-student interaction: Evidence from a behavioural sequence analysis

    Zhan, Zehui; Wu, Qianyi; Lin, Zhihua; Cai, Jiayi (ASCILITE, 2021-05-10)
    This study investigated the effect of classroom settings on teacher-student interaction in higher education by comparing the behavioural sequences in smart classrooms (SCs) and traditional multimedia classrooms (TMCs). Twenty in-classroom teaching sessions were randomly selected from six universities in South China, involving 1,043 students and 23 teachers. Half of the sessions were taken in SCs as the experimental group, and half were in TMCs as the control group. A teacher-student interaction behaviour coding schema was developed, and a total of 17,805 observable behaviours were collected and coded sequentially via a review of classroom videos. Then, the behavior pattern diagram was set up to visualise a lag sequential analysis results by four themes, namely teacher-talk, teacher-action, student-talk and student-action. Results show that compared to TMCs, the SCs triggered significantly more self-initiated student actions and student-driven teacher talk, while teacher-initiated talk decreased significantly, indicating that students’ autonomy was strengthened in the SC. Furthermore, teachers’ workload was somewhat reduced, and they obtained more support with trying new pedagogies with mobile terminals in the data-rich environment. These findings provide evidence to validate the effect of SCs on increasing teacher-student interaction and strengthening the students’ dominant position.
  • Evaluating student engagement and deep learning in interactive online psychology learning activities

    Sugden, Nicole; Brunton, Robyn; MacDonald, Jasmine; Yeo, Michelle; Hicks, Ben (ASCILITE, 2021-05-10)
    There is growing demand for online learning activities that offer flexibility for students to study anywhere, anytime, as online students fit study around work and family commitments. We designed a series of online activities and evaluated how, where, and with what devices students used the activities, as well as their levels of engagement and deep learning with the activities. A mixed-methods design was used to explore students’ interactions with the online activities. This method integrated learning analytics data with responses from 63 survey, nine interview, and 16 focus group participants. We found that students used a combination of mobile devices to access the online learning activities across a variety of locations during opportunistic study sessions in order to fit study into their daily routines. The online activities were perceived positively, facilitating affective, cognitive, and behavioural engagement as well as stimulating deep learning. Activities that were authentic, promoted problem-solving, applied theory to real-life scenarios, and increased students’ feelings of being supported were perceived as most beneficial to learning. These findings have implications for the future design of online activities, where activities need to accommodate students’ need for flexibility as students’ study habits become more mobile.
  • The Continuous Pursuit of Smart Learning

    Cheung, Simon K. S.; Wang, Fu Lee; Kwok, Lam For (ASCILITE, 2021-05-10)
    With an emphasis on learning flexibility, effectiveness, efficiency, engagement, adaptivity and reflectiveness, smart learning embraces a variety of concepts, including but not limited to personalised learning, adaptive learning, intelligent tutoring, open online learning, blended learning, and collaborative learning. As new concepts continue to evolve, the pursuit of smart learning is ongoing, mainly in areas pertaining to the design and implementation frameworks, pedagogical theories and practices, learners’ behaviours and learning pattern, learning and assessment strategies and evaluation of learning performance and perception. This editorial gives an overview of smart learning and provides the context on the latest development of smart learning in which the articles in this special issue are located.
  • On the use of flipped classroom across various disciplines: Insights from a second-order meta-analysis

    Hew, Khe Foon; Bai, Shurui; Huang, Weijiao; Dawson, Phillip; Du, Jiahui; Huang, Guoyuhui; Jia, Chengyuan; Thankrit, Khongjan (ASCILITE, 2021-05-10)
    Flipped classroom has become a popular buzzword in the post-secondary education setting, and it is one of the most visible trends in smart learning environments. Alongside this popularisation comes the view that the flipped classroom is something desirable. Yet, many educators remain divided over whether flipped classroom is really an improvement over traditional approaches. This paper is the first to synthesise all relevant meta-analytic information using a second-order meta-analysis approach on the effectiveness of the flipped classroom on student learning outcomes. By synthesising the findings of multiple primary meta-analyses instead of individual empirical studies, a second-order meta-analysis can more accurately account for publication bias and generate a more robust result. The present study synthesised and analysed the quality of 15 primary meta-analyses that involved 156,722 participants in flipped and non-flipped conditions to provide the most exhaustive test of the flipped classroom approach on its effect on student learning outcomes in higher education to date. The mean random effect size, after trim-and-fill adjustment, was 0.37, p < 0.001 in support of flipped classrooms. To check the accuracy of the second-order meta-analysis results, we performed a study-level meta-analytic validation. We discuss possible contextual and methodological moderators.
  • Students’ motivation types in the smart approach to ESP instruction

    Simonova, Ivana; Prochazkova, Zuzana; Lorenc, Vladimir; Skoda, Jiri (ASCILITE, 2021-05-10)
    This article focuses on the smart approach applied in teaching two topics (referred to as learning contents) within English for Specific Purposes with regard to students’ motivation types. It introduces results of the research conducted in this field. The research is based on the definition of the term smart set by Silverio-Fernandez et al. (2018) and the theory of motivation types created by Plaminek (2010), who designed the standardised Motivation Type Inventory distinguishing four motivation types (accurators, coordinators, directors, explorers). Data were collected via didactic tests; quantitative methods were applied to calculate the potential increase in students’ knowledge as a difference between pre-test and post-test scores in the didactic tests. In total, 119 prospective teachers from the Faculty of Education and the Faculty of Science at Jan Evangelista Purkyne University participated in this research conducted via quasi-experimental ex-post-facto method for 12 weeks. The smart approach included the exploitation of smart devices and technologies (applications) in face-to-face instruction and in-home preparation for lessons. Three main hypotheses were set to prove whether the smart approach to ESP instruction can be applied to learners of all motivation types. According to the findings, the smart approach suited students of all motivation types; however, coordinators’ increase in knowledge was significantly higher compared to explorers and directors in one of the learning contents.
  • Enabling adaptive, personalised and context-aware interaction in a smart learning environment: Piloting the iCollab system

    Oliveira, Eduardo; Galvao de Barba, Paula; Corrin, Linda (ASCILITE, 2021-05-10)
    Smart learning environments (SLE) provide students with opportunities to interact with learning resources and activities in ways that are customised to their particular learning goals and approaches. A challenge in developing SLEs is providing resources and tasks within a single system that can seamlessly tailor learning experience in terms of time, place, platform, and form. In this paper we introduce the iCollab platform, an adaptive environment where learning activities are moderated through conversation with an intelligent agent who can operate across multiple web-based platforms, integrating formal and informal learning opportunities. Fifty-eight undergraduate computer science students were randomly assigned to either an intervention or control group for the 12 weeks of the pilot study. Learning analytics were used to examine their interactions with iCollab, while their course performance investigated the impact of using iCollab on learning outcomes. Results from the study showed a high level of interaction with iCollab, especially social interaction, indicating an interweaving of formal learning within their informal network spaces. These findings open up new possibilities for ways that SLEs can be designed to incorporate different factors, improving the ability of the system to provide adaptive and personalised learning experiences in relation to context and time.
  • Sentiment evolution with interaction levels in blended learning environments: Using learning analytics and epistemic network analysis

    Huang, Changqin; Han, Zhongmei; Li, Ming; Wang, Xizhe; Zhao, Wenzhu (ASCILITE, 2021-05-10)
    Sentiment evolution is a key component of interactions in blended learning. Although interactions have attracted considerable attention in online learning contexts, there is scant research on examining sentiment evolution over different interactions in blended learning environments. Thus, in this study, sentiment evolution at different interaction levels was investigated from the longitudinal data of five learning stages of 38 postgraduate students in a blended learning course. Specifically, text mining techniques were employed to mine the sentiments in different interactions, and then epistemic network analysis (ENA) was used to uncover sentiment changes in the five learning stages of blended learning. The findings suggested that negative sentiments were moderately associated with several other sentiments such as joking, confused, and neutral sentiments in blended learning contexts. Particularly in relation to deep interactions, student sentiments might change from negative to insightful ones. In contrast, the sentiment network built from social-emotion interactions shows stronger connections in joking-positive and joking-negative sentiments than the other two interaction levels. Most notably, the changes of co-occurrence sentiment reveal the three periods in a blended learning process, namely initial, collision and sublimation, and stable periods. The results in this study revealed that students’ sentiments evolved from positive to confused/negative to insightful.
  • Adaptive learning module for a conversational agent to support MOOC learners

    González-Castro, Nuria; Muñoz-Merino, Pedro J.; Alario-Hoyos, Carlos; Delgado Kloos, Carlos (ASCILITE, 2021-05-10)
    Massive open online courses (MOOCs) pose a challenge for instructors when trying to provide personalised support to learners, due to large numbers of registered participants. Conversational agents can be of help to support learners when working with MOOCs. This article presents an adaptive learning module for JavaPAL, a conversational agent that complements a MOOC on Java programming, helping learners review the key concepts of the MOOC. This adaptive learning module adapts the difficulty of the questions provided to learners considering their level of knowledge using item response theory (IRT) and also provides recommendations of video fragments extracted from the MOOC for when learners fail questions. The adaptive learning module for JavaPAL has been evaluated showing good usability and learnability through the system usability scale (SUS), reasonably suitable video fragments recommendations for learners, and useful visualisations generated as part of the IRT-based adaptation of questions for instructors to better understand what is happening in the course, to design exams, and to redesign the course content.
  • The choice of customisation strategies in training: An overview of parameters and their systematisation

    Anikieva, Marina (ASCILITE, 2021-05-01)
    This paper discusses the factors that determine the customisation of e-learning programmes. The process of customisation depends on many parameters, such as the objectives of the programme, the quantity and order of the learning materials, the personality and abilities of the student, and the resources within the learning system. Curriculum developers are able to put together these parameters in varying combinations, reflecting differing educational strategies. Because of this possibility it has become important to study how one can determine an appropriate strategy or learning path for any individual student. This is becoming particularly relevant because curriculum developers have to consider large numbers of already developed learning courses, modules, and technologies. One of the approaches to addressing this problem is the classification, or taxonomy, of customisation parameters. This paper reviews published material from highly-rated journals dealing with customisation of learning. As a result of this review the groups of customisation parameters are identified and a generalised scheme of grouped parameters, and their sequence, corresponding to the inner logic of the learning process are developed. This taxonomy allows the educational activities to be arranged so that learners can achieve their learning goals more efficiently.
  • Flipped learning design fidelity, self-regulated learning, satisfaction, and continuance intention in a university flipped learning course

    Kim, Nam Hui; So, Hyo-Jeong; Joo, Young Ju (ASCILITE, 2021-04-10)
    For effective flipped learning, beyond simply switching the sequence of lectures and homework, it is important to understand and implement the fundamental design principles of flipped learning. A new notion is proposed called flipped learning design fidelity, defined as the degree to which a class is faithfully designed to be close to an ideal flipped learning class operationalised with four proxy indicators of the F-L-I-P™ model (flexible environment, learning culture, intentional content, and professional educator). This study empirically examines the effect of both learner-related factor (self-regulated learning) and design-related factor (design fidelity) on learning outcomes (satisfaction, continuance intention) in a university flipped course. We hypothesised that flipped learning design fidelity and self-regulated learning affect student satisfaction and intention to continue participating in a flipped learning course. The participants were 134 Korean students of a university course taught in a flipped learning mode. The results revealed that the level of flipped learning design fidelity had a significant effect on satisfaction, but did not affect continuance intention. In addition, the level of self-regulated learning had a significant effect on satisfaction and continuance intention. Drawn from the key findings, we suggest implications for the design of flipped learning courses in a university context.
  • Structural relationships between self-regulated learning, teachers’ credibility, information and communications technology literacy and academic performance in blended learning

    Yu, Liang; Chen, Shijian; Recker, Mimi (ASCILITE, 2021-04-10)
    This study investigated the structural relationships between self-regulated learning, teachers’ credibility, information and communications technology (ICT) literacy and academic performance in blended learning. The study sample comprised of 449 undergraduates who completed blended courses within the past 3 years and consisted of 53% males (N = 238) and 47% females (N = 211). Participants anonymously completed a 41-item questionnaire examining their self-regulated learning, perceptions of their teachers’ credibility, ICT literacy, academic performance and demographic background. Path analyses indicated that the relationship between subscales of teacher credibility (caring and trustworthiness) significantly related to academic performance except for competence. In addition, caring positively predicted trustworthiness, and ICT literacy predicted self-regulated learning. Self-regulated learning positively related to caring, trustworthiness and academic performance. The findings also highlighted that both caring and trustworthiness mediated the impact of self-regulated learning on academic performance.

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