The Australasian Journal of Educational Technology (AJET) is the journal of ASCILITE, the Australasian Society for Computers in Learning in Tertiary Education. It aims to promote research and scholarship on the integration of technology in tertiary education, promote effective practice, and inform policy.
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Library has vol. 31, no. 6, 2015 to current

Recent Submissions

  • The importance of choosing the right keywords for educational technology publications

    Corrin, Linda; Thompson, Kate; Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Lodge, Jason M. (ASCILITE, 2022-06-06)
    Keywords refer to important words or concepts that represent the research foci and theoretical backgrounds of an academic study. They enable readers to glean a quick impression about what they are going to read from an academic article. Keywords also provide valuable information for researchers who intend to search for articles related to a particular field or conduct a survey related to a specific topic. Therefore, in selected academic journals, detailed guidelines are provided to help authors choose appropriate keywords for highlighting their research. In this editorial, we examine the role of keywords from several perspectives by reviewing the keywords adopted by AJET authors in recent years. Accordingly, we attempt to provide recommendations to AJET authors for their future submissions. It is expected that, via using proper keywords, the authors and readers as well as the journal can be benefited.
  • Taxonomies of technological knowledge in higher education: A mapping of students’ perceptions

    Staddon, Rachel (ASCILITE, 2022-05-17)
    This paper presents the findings from a qualitative study exploring students’ perceptions of what constitutes technological knowledge. Technological knowledge dimensions from previous literature do not seem to be student-led, but rather suggested by the authors. It is therefore important to incorporate student views in order to create a more evidence-based taxonomy. Previous taxonomies of technological knowledge are also heavily linked to engineering-related disciplines, however definitions for use across the field of education and learning technologies would be helpful. In this study, a sample of student volunteers were interviewed about their understanding of technology enhanced learning and technological knowledge. The students were from a range of disciplines, not just engineering and science, so that technology knowledge for the general student population would be represented. An inductive thematic analysis was then carried out on the interview transcripts. Three knowledge types were derived from the thematic analysis: practical knowledge; structural knowledge; and computer science knowledge. These three empirically-derived technological dimensions were then mapped onto existing taxonomical structures from the literature. Finally, this paper discusses the implications of the student-generated dimensions for educators. Implications for practice or policy: Educators may need to consider how student-generated types of technological knowledge map onto existing technological knowledge structures and Bloom’s taxonomy. Educators can use the types of technology knowledge to target their teaching to their learners’ required knowledge level.
  • Improving instructional video design: A systematic review

    Fyfield, Matthew; Henderson, Michael; Phillips, Michael (ASCILITE, 2022-05-17)
    Instructional videos are increasingly part of the teaching practices of educators across all sectors. The most common theoretical lens used to design and evaluate instructional videos has been to apply principles emerging from the cognitive theory of multimedia learning. However, these principles have been largely developed from research using instructional media other than videos. In addition, there is no comprehensive list of principles that have been shown to improve learning from instructional videos. Therefore, this paper seeks to identify principles of video design that are empirically supported in the literature. A systematic literature review was conducted, with a final analysis of 113 papers describing 28 principles. While some of the existing cognitive theory of multimedia learning principles, notably coherence, segmenting and learner control, have been found to improve learning from instructional videos in a variety of contexts, others, such as redundancy and modality, are not supported. These findings serve as clear guidance to instructional designers creating educational video content. In addition to describing the breadth of research in the field, this paper also found that the development of the research field suffers from a lack of coherence and is in urgent need of clear nomenclature and improved reporting of media and research design. Implications for practice or policy: Instructional videos that are shorter, segmented, coherent and paired with learning activities are more likely to lead to improved learning gains in students. Researchers reporting on the use of videos should provide comprehensive descriptions of media, including links to the media where possible. Designers of instructional videos should critically evaluate design principles established for non-video media.
  • Effects of STEM-focused Arduino practical activities on problem-solving and entrepreneurship skills

    Sari, Ugur; Çelik, Harun; Pektaş, Hüseyin Miraç; Yalçın, Selinay (ASCILITE, 2022-05-18)
    In this study, the effects of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) focused Arduino practical activities on problem-solving and entrepreneurship skills were analysed using qualitative and quantitative methods. Also, the contribution of these activities to teacher candidates and their effects on the learning-teaching process were discussed by evaluating their views. The study group consisted of 31 final-year teacher candidates studying in the science teaching department of a university in Turkey. The quantitative findings reveal that STEM-focused Arduino practical activities have a positive effect on improving the problem-solving and entrepreneurship skills of teacher candidates. Their opinions also support these results. The teacher candidates stated that the practical activities contribute to their professional development, support the development of 21st-century skills such as problem-solving and creativity and positively affect the learning-teaching process. As a result, STEM-focused Arduino practical activities are of significance in terms of adopting an interdisciplinary approach to education following the requirements of the century and developing problem-solving, entrepreneurial and productive individuals. Implications for practice or policy: STEM educators should integrate Arduino into STEM education to increase STEM learning outcomes. STEM educators should attach importance to STEM-focused Arduino activities to develop students’ reflective thinking and entrepreneurial skills. Educators and researchers who want to use coding in STEM education may need to consider this article for example activities and implementation steps.
  • Learning technology acceptance and continuance intention among business students: The mediating effects of confirmation, flow, and engagement

    Tseng, Hungwei; Yi, Xiang; Cunningham, Brent (ASCILITE, 2022-05-18)
    The emergence of mobile applications has opened the door to a new kind of information and communication technology tool and educational support which is vital for students’ positive learning behaviours. The aims of this study were to examine the effects of three mediators (confirmation, flow, and student engagement) on students’ learning technology acceptance and information systems continuance intention, and to explore the functions of these variables in the mediating process between learning technology acceptance and continuance intention. Using PROCESS macro program where the bootstrap confidence interval was adopted, a parallel multiple mediation model and a serial multiple mediation model were tested. Two of the three proposed hypotheses were supported. Business students’ confirmation and flow, elicited by the m-learning app, were two mediating factors with high ratios (0.6655, 95% CI = 0.2635 to 0.6085) of the overall indirect effect to the total effect, which related to students’ decisions in continuous usages of the technology. We concluded that the continuous use of the m-learning app was driven not only by students’ flexible thinking skills in accepting new learning technology, but also by a set of cognitive attributes reflecting users’ positive experiences with the system. Implications for practice or policy: Business students who have positive mindsets for accepting new technology will try their best to overcome challenges of learning unfamiliar technologies. Business students’ confirmation and flow experience elicited by the m-learning app aids in understanding of their intention to continue using the system. Instructors must develop partnerships with instructional designers to enhance student confirmation, flow and engagement for better acceptance and continued use of mobile learning technologies.
  • Improving student academic emotions and learning satisfaction in lectures in a foreign language with speech-enabled language translation technology

    Shadiev, Rustam; Huang, Yueh Min (ASCILITE, 2022-05-18)
    Some students are unable to fully comprehend lecture content delivered in English as a medium of instruction (EMI) because of their low linguistic competence. This negatively impacts their academic emotions and learning satisfaction. Speech-enabled language translation (SELT) technology was applied in this study to simultaneously translate lecture content from English into native language of students and show translated text to students. This study investigated the effectiveness of a SELT application on perceived academic emotions and learning satisfaction of students attending lectures in EMI. Thirty-three university students participated, and perceived academic emotions and learning satisfaction were measured and compared across two groups of students: low language ability (LLA), and high language ability (HLA). The level of perceived academic emotions of LLA students was low before lectures but high during and after lectures. HLA students perceived high levels of academic emotions before lectures and low during and after lectures. LLA students’ level of learning satisfaction was much better in comparison to HLA students. The results suggest that SELT technology is beneficial for learning for LLA students. Therefore, educators and researchers may apply SELT technology to EMI lectures in order to facilitate LLA students levels of perceived academic emotions and learning satisfaction. Implications for practice or policy: SELT technology is beneficial for learning of the low linguistic competency students. Educators and researcher may apply SELT technology to EMI lectures in order to facilitate positive academic emotions and learning satisfaction of the low linguistic competency students.
  • Teacher digital competence development in higher education: Overview of systematic reviews

    Peters, Mitchell; Elasri Ejjaberi, Amal; Jesús Martínez, Maria; Fabregues, Sergi (ASCILITE, 2022-05-08)
    The scope of digital technology integration in university teaching has changed our understanding of teacher readiness and teacher competence. Recently, faced with the digitalisation of higher education (HE), the construct of teacher digital competence (TDC) has emerged. Although there are many recent systematic reviews on digital competence from a range of perspectives and geographic settings, such reviews often show a limited view of a larger digital competence landscape in HE. The current study on TDC development in HE aims to synthesise knowledge to provide an integrated and global assessment of existing evidence. We carried out a systematic overview, especially suited for identifying, synthesising and critically appraising published reviews on a given topic amidst an abundance of research. We identified three clear settings by synthesising 740 studies across 13 systematic reviews. Results reveal a significant interest in TDC in Spain, conducted by researchers in the field of educational technology concerned with teacher training and teacher professional development. We make recommendations to reorient the field by understanding TDC development through an integrated, transversal and holistic perspective; moving away from basic forms of research; and conducting and reporting research in line with methodological guidelines to ensure the highest possible standards.  Implications for practice or policy: Stakeholders interested in better fostering TDC could complement training and evaluation with an integrated and systems-based approach, including sustaining an institutional culture that strategically supports TDC development. Researchers could move away from basic forms of research design in order to advance the field beyond self-assessment and evaluation studies. Systematic review research can be improved by following rigorous methodological guidelines, including critical appraisal and transparent methods to synthesise studies, to ensure the highest academic integrity.
  • Roles and research trends of artificial intelligence in higher education: A systematic review of the top 50 most-cited articles

    Chu, Hui-chun; Hwang, Gwo-Haur; Tu, Yun-Fang; Yang, Kai-Hsiang (ASCILITE, 2022-04-19)
    Artificial intelligence (AI) in higher education has proven to be a useful learning technology; it can help learners achieve positive learning outcomes in the learning environment and can also enable teachers to better understand learners’ learning status and further improve their teaching strategies. This study reviewed the top 50 AI in higher education studies in the Web of Science database from the perspective of highly cited papers and based on a technology-based learning model. The results show that predictions of learners’ learning status (including dropout and retention, student models, and academic achievement) are most frequently discussed in the AI in higher education studies; AI technology is most commonly applied in engineering (including computer courses); AI technologies most often play the role of profiling and prediction in higher education, followed by intelligent tutoring systems and assessment and evaluation. In terms of research issues, the most frequently discussed issues are learning behaviour, accuracy, sensitivity and precision, cognition and affect. Learners’ higher order thinking skills, collaboration or communication, self-efficacy or confidence and skills are less frequently discussed in AI in higher education studies. Accordingly, we propose potential research issues and practitioner notes for AI in higher education as a reference for researchers, educators and decision-makers. Implications for practice or policy: Higher education practitioners and researchers need to be aware of the latest developments in the research and practice of AI in higher education. Teachers need to understand the role they can play in teaching and learning practices through AI technology and how to use it to assist learners. It is important for administrators of educational institutions to understand the challenges teachers face in their teaching practices with AI technology and to develop measures to support them.
  • TPACK leveraged: A redesigned online educational technology course for STEM preservice teachers

    Umutlu, Duygu (ASCILITE, 2022-04-23)
    Integration of computational thinking and programming into science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) classes is needed to promote students’ learning of twenty-first century skills. Yet, teachers are not equipped to achieve this integration successfully as teacher education curricula do not generally align with this need. With the Covid-19 outbreak, curricula also need to be adapted for online environments. This qualitative study presents the redesign of an educational technology course that introduces programming and computational thinking to STEM preservice teachers for online settings, and explores learning experiences of preservice teachers, in terms of how they combine technological knowledge with pedagogy and content. Data were collected from course artifacts, such as reading responses, coding challenges, and lesson designs and implementations. The findings showed the online course design was helpful in enhancing preservice STEM teachers’ pedagogical approaches of how to teach computational thinking and programming. Offering hands-on coding practices in the course allowed preservice teachers to improve their technological knowledge (programming), and they were able to integrate their technological pedagogical knowledge into their content area and design meaningful lessons. The study offers implications for design of online teacher education courses that promote preservice teachers’ technological pedagogical content knowledge for computational thinking and programming. Implications for practice or policy: The online course design implemented in this study can be adjusted into different contexts, considering that fully-online or blended teacher education courses will still be needed in the future. The design guidelines used in this study can be utilised to develop online teacher education modules for educational technology topics other than programming. The question prompts given to preservice teachers in the study can be refined to trigger deeper reflection on pedagogy of computing education.
  • Digital teaching competence of university teachers: A comparative study at two European universities

    Sánchez-Caballé, Anna; Esteve-Mon, Francesc Marc (ASCILITE, 2022-04-23)
    This study analysed the level of digital competence of 910 university teachers at one Spanish and one Polish university, using a self-perception questionnaire based on the DigCompEdu framework. For this purpose, a quantitative methodology was used with the aim of finding out the situation at both institutions through focusing on gender, professional category, and areas of knowledge of the participants. The results showed that the university teachers generally perceived themselves as having an intermediate level of digital competence. In this sense, it was observed that the elements selected for analysis (university, gender, and professional category) can have direct implications for the results and that there are significant differences depending on the group to which they belong. Implications for practice or policy: Digital teaching competence need to be improved in the university context. Gender influences the self-perceived level of digital teaching competence and this needs to be considered in the university practices and policies. University teachers at the levels of junior lecturer and teaching assistant show better digital teaching competence and this needs to be considered in the university practices and policies.
  • Faculty adoption of online teaching during the Covid-19 pandemic: A lens of diffusion of innovation theory

    Çakıroğlu, Ünal; Saylan, Esin; Çevik, İsak; Mollamehmetoğlu, Mehmet Zülküf; Timuçin, Emine (ASCILITE, 2022-04-23)
    During the Covid-19 pandemic, higher education shifted from face-to-face to online education and teachers had various perspectives about remedying the challenges of this mandatory situation. Drawing on the diffusion of innovation theory as a theoretical lens to better understand the change in the adoptions of the faculty during the pandemic, we surveyed 307 academics with an online questionnaire. The results indicated that the adopters in this study were innovators (11%), early adopters (23%), early majority (18%), late majority (22%), and laggards (26%), revealing somewhat different percentages from the values in the theoretical model. This can be explained by the fact that innovations that require an emergency situation bring about changes in the values of the adopter categories. Examining the questionnaire data, we categorised the results as support, functionality, guidance, interaction, adaptation and the features of synchronous lessons influencing the diffusion of innovation during the new emergency teaching condition. The adoption process was discussed through the factors influencing these dimensions. The implications of notable findings and directions for future studies have been provided. Implications for practice or policy: Academics may have better online learning experiences in various designs and applications at universities. Academics may be prepared for unexpected teaching situations with adequate and appropriate organisational, technical and learning support to achieve quality outputs. All educational institutions, academics, and universities in particular, can be guided to adopt technologies more easily and quickly in such situations as future pandemics, wars, etc.
  • Interrelated analysis of interaction, sequential patterns and academic achievement in online learning

    Yildirim, Denizer; Usluel, Yasemin (ASCILITE, 2022-04-23)
    This study aimed to examine the behaviour of learners across a whole system and in various courses to reveal the interrelation between learners' system interaction, age, programme features and course design. We obtained data from the system logs of 1,634 learners enrolled in distance learning programmes. We performed hierarchical clustering analysis to describe system interactions; then, we carried out a sequential pattern analysis to examine navigational behaviours by clusters. The results showed that the system interactions (e.g., content, live lesson, assignment, exam, discussion) across the whole system differ by age and programme. The behaviour profiles of the learners changed when different course designs were presented. Learners who interacted more with any component (e.g., live lesson or content) according to their needs were more successful than those with limited interaction and assessment-oriented (those with limited interactions outside of the assignment). In an information and communication technology course, learners whose system interactions were sufficient to receive rewards were more likely to succeed. The sequential pattern analysis showed that the assessment-oriented cluster interacted with the assignment in the midterm weeks; the award-oriented cluster interacted with the content or completed their assignment and received an award. Consequently, it is difficult to determine or generalise the intervention unless the system, programme and course design features are standard. Implications for practice or policy: Course designers can use the assessment activities or motivation factors such as awards to increase students' system interactions. Course designers should not determine or generalise interventions unless the system, programme and course design are standard. Researchers should not only focus on data but also consider the contextual characteristics of data.
  • Online faculty’s use of technology when advising doctoral capstone writers

    Gredler, Joseph; Harland, Darci (ASCILITE, 2022-04-23)
    Inadequate or ineffectively communicated feedback from faculty advisors may limit the development of cordial, collaborative relationships with doctoral capstone writers and may impede their successful outcomes. The purpose of this general qualitative study was to explore online faculty’s use of technology when advising doctoral capstone writers. Yang and Carless’s (2013) feedback triangle model, including cognitive, social-affective and structural dimensions, provided the framework for the study. Demographic survey data and Zoom interview data were collected from 10 doctoral faculty at a fully online university to explore how and why faculty use technology and what technology-related activities faculty conduct when advising doctoral capstone writers. Emergent codes were organised using a priori codes from the feedback triangle model, and themes were developed within these dimensions. Cognitive themes were ensuring accountability and providing instruction, which addressed how participants were using technology. Social-affective themes addressing why faculty use technology were enhancing communication, increasing motivation and promoting self-regulation. Structural themes indicating technology-related activities were modes, preferences, procedures and barriers. Implications for practice or policy: Online faculty advisors may use technology more effectively to support doctoral capstone writers. Administrators of online doctoral programs may provide more appropriate technology support for faculty who are advising doctoral capstone writers. Online doctoral capstone writers may experience improved relationships with faculty advisors, which may promote successful capstone outcomes. Faculty advisors and doctoral students working in face-to-face environments may benefit from enhanced application of technology in virtual communication resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic.
  • Authorship practices in educational technology research

    Thompson, Kate; Corrin, Linda; Lodge, Jason M.; Hwang, Gwo-Jen (ASCILITE, 2022-04-14)
    Authoring documents and academic articles is a key means by which researchers share new knowledge and is closely tied to academic progression, prestige for individuals and institutions, and continued funding of research. In this editorial we continue our discussion around ensuring quality research and publication practices, with a focus on authorship. There are concerning trends emerging around practices in relation to authorship across the publishing landscape. In the field of educational technology research, projects can involve teams of people in a variety of roles. This can result in a particular risk, that important contributions of learning designers and technologists are overlooked, despite their involvement in the creation of the tools tested, or the infrastructure with which we collect data. In this editorial we will consider the importance of authorship, explore the common issues related to how authorship is determined and represented, and relate the debate currently in play across different disciplines around authorship to our context of educational technology research. We will conclude by introducing our revised guidelines for authorship at AJET.
  • Where's the harm? Screening student evaluations of teaching for offensive, threatening or distressing comments

    Gibson, Matthew J.; Luong, Justin; Cho, Hanbit; Moh, Bryan; Zanin, Simone; Djatmiko, Mentari; Aandahl, R. Zach (ASCILITE, 2022-04-19)
    Student evaluation surveys provide educational institutions with important feedback regarding the student experience of teaching and courses; however, qualitative comments can contain offensive, insulting or threatening content. Large educational institutions generate thousands of comments per academic term; therefore, manual screening processes to find potentially harmful comments are not generally feasible. We developed a methodology for semi-automated screening of student comments that incorporates a machine learning decision support system and a detailed psychological assessment protocol. In a case study at a large public Australian university, our system identified 4,258 out of 62,049 (6.9%) comments as potentially harmful and requiring further review. Feedback from stakeholders demonstrates that this methodology is useful in reducing staff workload and could be broadly applied to different settings. Implications for practice or policy: Educational institutions can adopt this methodology to dramatically decrease the number of working hours required to screen harmful free-text comments. Researchers can use the proposed psychology-based assessment as an example of how to develop a protocol to categorise comments. Educators and researchers can use this case study to follow best practices to develop their own decision support system that implements free-text comment classifiers.
  • How university students negotiate cognitive-social interactions and leverage cognitive tools for mobile peer tutoring

    Tan, Seng-Chee; Cheung, Yin Ling; Looi, Chee-Kit (ASCILITE, 2022-03-31)
    This paper reports a case study of 20 university peer tutor-tutee dyads which engaged in online synchronous peer tutoring using MENTOR, a mobile application developed to support peer tutoring. Despite years of research, peer tutoring still attracts significant attention and an emerging area of research is online peer tutoring. This study aimed to contribute to research on mobile peer tutoring, which is still in its infancy stage. Underpinned by Vygotskian social-cultural learning and Wertsch's notion of mediated actions by tools, a qualitative analysis of the recorded tutees’ mobile phone screen during the peer tutoring sessions was conducted. Our findings show three different types of peer tutor-tutee social cognitive interactions, with varying degrees of tutees showing agency in seeking clarifications. While most tutees demonstrated some level of agency in seeking clarifications, fewer tutees showed agency in co-annotating on the canvas space. The findings also illuminate how the participants leveraged the canvas tools provided by MENTOR to create a shared understanding and cognitive convergence. Implications for practice or policy: University teachers could engage students in peer tutoring using mobile applications Peer tutors could engage tutees by asking questions or pause for clarifications Tutees could play an active role in seeking clarifications or offer their ideas Mobile peer tutoring participants could leverage features of the technology to create a shared understanding
  • Negotiating teacher educators' beliefs about blended learning: Using stimulated recall to explore design choices

    Bruggeman, Bram; Hidding, Kyra; Struyven, Katrien; Pynoo, Bram; Garone, Anja; Tondeur, Jo (ASCILITE, 2022-02-21)
    Teachers’ beliefs about education influence practice and vice versa. Teacher educators should be particularly attuned to the association between educational beliefs and practice. Teachers’ beliefs about education have been widely studied, but investigating how a team of teacher educators put a shared vision on blended learning into practice is less researched. Blended learning practices are subject to the four design aspects of incorporating flexibility, stimulating interaction, facilitating the learning process, and creating an affective learning climate. This qualitative study investigates a team of experienced blended learning teacher educators from two perspectives: their beliefs about blended learning, and how these beliefs are realised in practice. Seventeen screencast stimulated recall interviews revealed: (1) teacher educators express evaluative beliefs about deep and meaningful blended learning and descriptive beliefs about online flexibility and face-to-face interaction, and (2) how these beliefs are realised in practice by flexible online facilitation of learning processes, profound face-to-face interaction, and providing authentic learning experiences. Furthermore, as a result of the association between beliefs about blended learning and practice, the areas of refining student feedback, improving online structure and increasing interaction in online learning materials emerged for professional growth. Finally, recommendations are made for blended learning practitioners and teacher educators. Implications for practice or policy: Teacher educators hold evaluative beliefs about deep and meaningful blended learning and descriptive beliefs about online flexibility and face-to-face interaction. Deep and meaningful blended learning is promoted by flexible online facilitation of learning processes, profound face-to-face interaction, and providing authentic learning experiences. Areas for professional growth are refining student feedback, improving online structure and increasing interaction in online learning materials.
  • Smart classroom preferences and information literacy among college students

    Yu, Liqin; Wu, Di; Yang, Harrison Hao; Zhu, Sha (ASCILITE, 2022-02-21)
    In recent years, smart classrooms have been widely constructed in colleges and universities. To help the design of student-centred smart classroom in compliance with students’ information literacy levels and enable all students to adapt to the smart classroom smoothly, this study utilised a quantitative method to investigate the information literacy and preferences for smart classroom learning environments (PSCLE) of 873 Chinese college students. The results indicated statistically significant effects of college students’ information literacy on the eight dimensions of students’ PSCLE (student negotiation, inquiry learning, reflective thinking, usefulness, ease of use, multiple sources, connectedness, functional design). In addition, three profiles could be identified regarding students’ information literacy. Students with a high level of information literacy obtained significantly higher scores on four of the critical dimensions of PSCLE (student negotiation, inquiry learning, reflective thinking and functional design) than those students with medium or low levels of information literacy. Based on the results, we suggest that college students’ information literacy and their PSCLE should be considered by researchers and education practitioners when designing, constructing and evaluating smart classroom learning environments. Implications for practice or policy: Schools should evaluate students’ information literacy and equip smart classrooms with various information communication technology devices to cater to students’ varying levels of information literacy. Instructors or curriculum designers should develop differentiated instruction strategies and activities for students, in alignment with different levels of information literacy. Institutions and organisations should reconsider evaluation criteria for smart classrooms and incorporate the improvement of students’ information literacy as an important indicator.
  • An examination of student user experience (UX) and perceptions of remote invigilation during online assessment

    Sefcik, Lesley; Veeran-Colton , Terisha; Baird , Michael; Price, Connie; Steyn , Steve (ASCILITE, 2022-02-21)
    This study aimed to understand the effects of a custom-developed, artificial intelligence–based, asynchronous remote invigilation system on the student user experience. The study was conducted over 3 years at a large Australian university, and findings demonstrate that familiarity with the system over time improved student attitudes towards remote invigilation. Positive experiences were found to be related to ease of use and convenience for test sitting. The majority of students reported that it was important for the institution to have approaches such as remote invigilation to discourage cheating and they believed that the system was useful in this regard. Perceived technical problems were found to invoke feelings of anxiety with being remotely invigilated, and students suggested that greater clarity on expectations of appropriate behaviour, privacy and data security would help alleviate discomfort and improve the system. Implications for practise or policy: Educators can improve the student user experience of remote invigilation by ensuring that students are provided the opportunity to practise and become familiar with using remote invigilation software before any summative assessment task. Administrators should provide clear policy guidance about the management of student data collected during remotely invigilated assessment tasks.
  • Asynchronous text-based communication in online communities of foreign language learners: Design principles for practice

    Pais Marden, Mariolina; Herrington, Jan (ASCILITE, 2022-02-21)
    Effective employment of information and communication technology (ICT) in foreign language teaching and learning has become imperative as a means to support second language development when traditional face-to-face instruction and interaction is not possible. Using a design-based research approach and a theoretical framework that integrates authentic learning and online communities of practice principles, this paper examines the nature and extent of students’ contributions to computer mediated communication (CMC) tools provided in an online Italian as a foreign language learning environment. This paper describes the context of the intervention strategy, the methodology used, and presents an analysis of themes emerging from the data relating to the use of multiple discussion forums to support interaction and collaboration within the online community of foreign language learners. The findings suggest that there was a substantial development in the way students used different discussion forums over the course of two consecutive iterative implementations of the online learning environment developed. The findings also show that, as time progressed, students felt increasingly more confident about communicating their ideas in writing in the target language to different groups of participants. Implications for practice or policy: The design principles and learning environment described in this study will assist foreign language educators to create their own pedagogical frameworks for language education in technology-based, authentic learning environments. The design principles that emerged from this research will assist foreign language educators to support student interaction and collaboration in online communities of learners. Foreign language students’ engagement with peers and native speakers will be enhanced by integrating the recommendations for encouraging purposeful and authentic student online interactions.

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