• 4FAD: A framework for mapping the evolution of artefacts in the learning design process

      Muñoz-Cristóbal, Juan A.; Hernández-Leo, Davinia; Carvalho, Lucila; Martinez-Maldonado, Roberto; Thompson, Kate; Wardak, Dewa; Goodyear, Peter (ASCILITE, 2018-04-27)
      A number of researchers have explored the role and nature of design in education, proposing a diverse array of life cycle models. Design plays subtly different roles in each of these models. The learning design research community is shifting its attention from the representation of pedagogical plans to considering design as an ongoing process. As a result, the study of the artefacts generated and used by educational designers is also changing: from a focus on the final designed artefact (the product of the design process) to the many artefacts generated and used by designers at different stages of the design process (e.g., sketches, reflections, drawings, or pictures). However, there is still a dearth of studies exploring the evolution of such artefacts throughout the learning design life cycle. A deeper understanding of these evolutionary processes is needed – to help smooth the transitions between stages in the life cycle. In this paper, we introduce the four-dimensional framework for artefacts in design (4FAD) to generate understanding and facilitate the mapping of the evolution of learning design artefacts. We illustrate the value of the framework by applying it in the analysis of an authentic design case.
    • A caution about causation

      Henderson, Michael; Redmond, Petrea; Heinrich, Eva (ASCILITE, 2018-11-25)
      Educational technology research, like all education research, is dominated by explicit or implicit claims of causation.  The dominance of cause-effect models in research is not surprising, and for many it is unnoticed and unquestioned. However, regardless of the cause-effect model being applied or the methodology in measuring it, we are unable to detect cause-effect directly. It is in this context that we need to be cautious in our interpretations of educational technology interventions and their implications for the future. Claims of causation are unlikely to decrease in the face of the increasing calls for “evidence-based” policy and practice. With this in mind it is even more important to consider how we can resist deterministic or mechanical claims of cause and effect. This dilemma should not stop our drive for evidence based approaches, but it is a reminder that we need to take care in the rigour of our research, and equally, in the way we describe it. 
    • A clinical educator’s experience using a virtual patient to teach communication and interpersonal skills

      Banszki, Frank; Beilby, Janet; Quail, Michelle; Allen, Peter; Brundage, Shelley; Spitalnick, Joshua (ASCILITE, 2018-07-20)
      The purpose of this study was to explore one novice clinical educator’s experiences with training essential communication and interpersonal skills using a virtual patient. Over 3 weeks, the clinical educator (CE) delivered a series of half-day clinical placements to students using an educator-controlled virtual patient, depicting an older adult male with mild dementia. Students completed one 15-minute session interacting with the virtual patient in the virtual learning environment (VLE), followed by a group debrief/discussion session. Prior to, during and after delivering the clinical placements, the CE engaged in semi-structured interviews, where she was prompted to reflect on her pedagogic approach and practice. Thematic analysis revealed six themes underpinning the CE’s unique narrative: pedagogical control, validation of pedagogical practice, safety in the virtual learning environment, learning pedagogical practices, self-reflection, and adult education. The CE described how being immersed in the VLE allowed her to confidently deliver training. The findings have implications for the future training of CEs who will provide clinical education using VLEs in clinic settings.
    • A collaborative digital pedagogy experience in the tMOOC “Step by Step”

      Marta-Lazo, Carmen; Frau-Meigs, Divina; Osuna-Acedo, Sara (ASCILITE, 2019-02-18)
      This research analysed social MOOCs (sMOOCs), which are characterised by the involvement and the interaction of participants in a model based on intercreativity, with the final objective of transferring knowledge by an agile replicating process. The fieldwork focused on the analysis of the sMOOC “Step by Step” of the European Commission-funded Elearning, Communication and Open-data (ECO) Project, which aims to build and apply an innovative pedagogical model for the the training of e-teachers. This sMOOC reaches out to a specific academic community, providing learners with digital competences in order to transform them in e-teachers. The quantitative analysis was done via an online questionnaire. One of the most significant conclusions, which answers the research questions regarding why and how to make a successful sMOOC, is that the design of collaborative activities increases the involvement of learners with the course and the interaction between participants, independent of age but dependent on area of work. This formative process in turn generates transfer of learning together with the embedded pedagogical transformation in e-teachers. This validates the addition of the transferMOOC (tMOOC) model to the existing typologies of MOOCs.
    • A comprehensive investigation of TPACK within pre-service teachers’ ICT profiles: Mind the gap!

      Tondeur, Jo; Scherer, Ronny; Siddiq, Fazilat; Baran, Evrim (ASCILITE, 2017-07-24)
      This study aims to identify profiles of pre-service teachers in order to explore their readiness to integrate technology in education. The assumption is that pre-service teacher characteristics such as technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK), go together with the influence of their teacher training. Specifically, this study examines whether pre-service teachers can be clustered on the basis of their TPACK, a typical set of ICT-related characteristics (e.g., general ICT attitudes, attitudes towards ICT in education, ease of use, ICT self-efficacy), and the perceived support at their training institution to adequately integrate ICT in education. Data were collected from a sample of 688 last-year pre-service teachers in 18 teacher training institutions in Flanders (the Dutch-speaking part of Belgium). Using correlational and latent profile analysis, the results suggest that: (1) two profiles can be distinguished, (2) TPACK and other individual ICT-related characteristics are positively correlated, and (3) pre-service teachers in a profile with strong TPACK, attitudes, and self-efficacy scores also report high scores on the support they perceive at their teacher training institution. Implications for the role of teacher training institutions are discussed with a specific focus on how to close the gap between the two identified profiles.
    • A DBR framework for designing mobile virtual reality learning environments

      Cochrane, Thomas Donald; Cook, Stuart; Aiello, Stephen; Christie, Duncan; Sinfield, David; Steagall, Marcos; Aguayo, Claudio (ASCILITE, 2017-11-29)
      This paper proposes a design based research (DBR) framework for designing mobile virtual reality learning environments. The application of the framework is illustrated by two design-based research projects that aim to develop more authentic educational experiences and learner-centred pedagogies in higher education. The projects highlight the first two phases of the DBR framework, involving the exploration of mobile virtual reality (VR) to enhance the learning environment, and the design of prototype solutions for the different contexts. The design of the projects is guided by a set of design principles identified from the literature.
    • A framework for self-determination in massive open online courses: Design for autonomy, competence, and relatedness

      Martin, Neil; Kelly, Nick; Terry, Peter (ASCILITE, 2018-04-27)
      In this paper, we propose a framework for the design of massive open online courses (MOOCs) based upon the principles of self-determination theory, which posits a relationship between intrinsic motivation and the basic psychological need for autonomy, competence, and relatedness. We also report the results of design-based research that evaluates the application of the framework to a MOOC titled “Elite Sport Performance: Psychological Perspectives”. Satisfying basic psychological needs is theorised as central to course design in order to foster intrinsic motivation, optimise engagement, and improve the retention of course participants. We chronicle the design, implementation, and evaluation of the course, providing examples of support features and learning activities. The course was offered over a period of four months, receiving more than 1000 registrations from across the world. Engagement measures, completion indices, and intrinsic motivation scores are reported as well as sample testimonies from learners. Results offer preliminary evidence that a design framework incorporating self-determination theory has utility in the development of MOOCs that successfully engage learners.
    • A model-driven approach to e-course management

      Savić, Goran; Segedinac, Milan; Milenković, Dušica; Hrin, Tamara; SEGEDINAC, Mirjana (ASCILITE, 2018-03-28)
      This paper presents research on using a model-driven approach to the development and management of electronic courses. We propose a course management system which stores a course model represented as distinct machine-readable components containing domain knowledge of different course aspects. Based on this formally defined platform-independent source course model, the system programmatically generates a final course in different platform-specific target models. Currently, our system supports the generation of IMS learning design, SCORM, LAMS and Sakai courses. The case study presents a formal model of the Web programming course and its transformation to the supported target models.
    • A MOOC on universal design for learning designed based on the UDL paradigm

      Herrara Nieves, Liliana; Crisol Moya, Emilio; Montes Soldado, Rosana (ASCILITE, 2019-12-28)
      This article presents the design and pilot of an open online course, based on the principle of universal design for learning (Center for Applied Special Technology, 2011), to promote inclusive virtual education as an improvement transferable to other contexts. The course constitutes the first massive open online course (MOOC) training proposal of the University of Atlántico in Colombia. In this case study, we employed the instructional design methodology of analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation (Branch, 2009) and the universal design for learning guidelines. The design of this online training activity enhances the quality of inclusive virtual education, improves accessibility with no need for platform adjustments, and involves participants in their learning. This educational initiative complements the academic offer for students, graduates, administrators, teachers, and external guests, and contributes to the democratisation of education. The result is the creation of a MOOC, “Inclusive Educational Contexts: Design for all”, which is accessible to a diverse range of learners.
    • A student-constructed test learning system: The design, development and evaluation of its pedagogical potential

      Yu, Fu-Yun; Su, Chia-Ling (ASCILITE, 2015-12-24)
      Although research has found that student-constructed tests (SCT) have some potential for promoting cognitive elaboration, as yet there are no systems available to support the associated activities. This study designed and developed an SCT learning system guided by the ideology of contribution-based pedagogies, accentuating the principles of adaptability and flexibility. To assess its learning potential, a group of 54 student teachers used the system, and data on their perceptions, generated work, and online log files were collected and analysed. The constant comparative method, descriptive and inferential statistics, and content analysis were employed in the data analysis. Several important findings were obtained. First, a global and macro view accentuating the integration and inter-connectedness of the study material was obtained by the participants based on the SCT activity. Second, a significant proportion of the participants considered SCT as their preferred assessment and learning approach, highlighting its affective and cognitive potential, in comparison to the traditional teacher-constructed tests. Third, SCT encouraged a majority of students to generate questions involving cross-chapter topics and engage in question revision behaviour to different extents, indicative of knowledge integration and elaboration. Significance of this study and suggestions for instructional implementations, online system development, and future study are provided.
    • A study of students’ attitudes towards using ICT in a social constructivist environment

      Silin, Yang; Kwok, David (ASCILITE, 2017-10-31)
      This study aims to examine the factors that support or hinder students’ attitudes towards using information and communication technology (ICT) in problem-based learning (PBL) using the technology acceptance model (TAM) (Davis, 1989) among polytechnic students. A total of 737 first-year polytechnic students in Singapore participated in the cross-sectional survey study by completing a questionnaire (The assessment of attitude and intention to use ICT tools among polytechnic students), which gathered both quantitative and qualitative data. Based on the analysis of the quantitative data, perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use are found to be significantly and positively correlated with attitudes towards using ICT. Results from the analysis of the qualitative data suggest five major themes (engagement, communication, information gathering, collaboration and efficiency) on what students enjoyed most about using ICT. On the other hand, Internet connectivity, usability, technical issues and ICT competency are the four other themes that categorised the difficulties students faced using ICT. An important implication is to develop polytechnic lecturers’ competency in the use of ICT-enabled learning tools as a priority to enable them to successfully integrate ICT in their PBL lessons. 
    • A Tale of Three Cases: Examining Accuracy, Efficiency, and Process Differences in Diagnosing Virtual Patient Cases

      Doleck, Tenzin; Jarrell, Amanda; Poitras, Eric G; Chaouachi, Maher; Lajoie, Susanne P (ASCILITE, 2016-12-01)
      Clinical reasoning is a central skill in diagnosing cases. However, diagnosing a clinical case poses several challenges that are inherent to solving multifaceted ill-structured problems. In particular, when solving such problems, the complexity stems from the existence of multiple paths to arriving at the correct solution (Anonymous, 2003). Moreover, the approach one employs in diagnosing a clinical case is in some measure dependent upon the complexity of the case. This leads us to the question: Are there differences in the manner in which novices solve cases with varying levels of complexity in a computer based learning environment? More specifically, we are interested in understanding and elucidating if there are clinical reasoning differences in regards to accuracy, efficiency, and process across three virtual patient cases of varying difficulty levels. Examining such differences may have implications from both a learner modeling and system enhancement perspective. We close by discussing the implications for practice, limitations of the study, and future research directions.
    • A tale of two MOOCs: How student motivation and participation predict learning outcomes in different MOOCs

      Brooker, Abi; Corrin, Linda; de Barba, Paula; Lodge, Jason; Kennedy, Gregor (ASCILITE, 2018-03-28)
      Recent scholarly discussions about massive open online courses (MOOCs) highlight pedagogical and practical issues that separate MOOCs from other learning settings, especially how theories of learning translate to MOOC students’ motivation, participation, and performance. What is missing from these discussions is the purpose of the MOOC. We report a comparative study of two MOOCs that differ in educational purpose, but are similar in design. Our sample consisted of 983 students in a professional development MOOC, and 648 students in a MOOC focused on general interest. We first report differences between the two MOOCs, in terms of student demographics, achievement motivation, and participation. For each MOOC, we ran a two-stage regression analysis to determine the extent to which motivation variables (stage 1) and participation variables (stage 2) predicted performance. Patterns in demographic background and motivation differed in ways that were consistent with the MOOCs' purposes. Motivation and participation predicted performance, but this relationship differed between the two MOOCs and reflected the patterns of participation. Professional development motivation contributed to final grade in the professional development MOOC, but not the general interest MOOC. The findings have implications for how MOOC designers think about their target audience, and for students who aim for high final grades.
    • A virtual internship for developing technological pedagogical content knowledge

      Oner, Diler (ASCILITE, 2020-01-01)
      This study examines the use of a virtual internship (an epistemic game) for developing preservice teachers’ technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK). TPACK aims to capture the essential qualities of teacher knowledge that are needed for integrating technology into teaching. Virtual internships are computer-based professional practicum simulation games where participants assume the role of a professional, work collaboratively on authentic tasks, and engage in complex professional thinking. The online collaborative chat records of 33 preservice teachers who played the game over the course of 8 weeks were analysed using epistemic network analysis (ENA), which made it possible to examine the dynamic connections between various TPACK domains over time. The analysis showed that participants’ TPACK representations gradually became more complex in terms of the number of pedagogical considerations and the strength of connections between pedagogical considerations, technology, and content. Suggestions are made for designing learning environments that aim to develop preservice teachers’ TPACK.
    • Academic leaders’ perspectives on adopting ePortfolios for developing and assessing professional capabilities in Australian business education

      Holt, Dale Manning; McGuigan, Nicholas; Kavanagh, Marie; Leitch, Shona; Ngo, Leanne; Salzman, Scott; Watty, Kim; McKay, Jade (ASCILITE, 2016-12-01)
      This paper represents a major stage of data collection and reporting on an Australian Office for Learning and Teaching Innovation and Development grant investigating the adoption of ePortfolios for developing and assessing professional capabilities in Australian undergraduate business education. Assessing desired capabilities with and through ePortfolios does not have strong traction in business education courses and disciplines. The status of ePortfolio use in business education in the sector is profiled through the perspectives of academic business leaders. The reasons why ePortfolio use is limited are explored, along with the possible benefits through greater and more systematic use in the curriculum. Various technological, training and support implementation issues are highlighted. The framing of key elements of effective implementation are summarised at the end of the paper.
    • Academic success is about self-efficacy rather than frequency of use of the learning management system

      Broadbent, Jaclyn (ASCILITE, 2016-11-07)
      Previous studies have investigated the association between the frequency of student learning management system (LMS) use (logins, discussion board use, resources used, etc.) and academic achievement. These studies indicate that low LMS use by students is likely to result in less academic success. However, these models fail to take into account self-beliefs that may also increase the explanatory value of learning analytics from the LMS. This study surveyed 310 students (M = 22.10 years, SD = 6.30 years) undertaking a first year health psychology subject. Results show the central role of self-efficacy in predicting student performance. Online activity was not predictive of performance, suggesting the primacy of psychological factors more so than online engagement in determining outcome. Of the motivational factors, amotivation was the single significant predictor of academic achievement. Proposed future research directions include the need to evaluate whether these results are sustained over time.
    • Addressing technology integration concerns: Asynchronous video mentoring between pre-service teachers and exemplary technology-using in-service teachers

      Ottenbreit-Leftwich, Anne Todd; Glazewski, Krista D.; Brush, Thomas A.; Aslan, Sinem; Zachmeier, Aaron (ASCILITE, 2018-09-16)
      Research has identified that pre-service teachers have concerns about technology integration (e.g., their future school would lack technology resources; technology is not applicable in their subject areas). Mentoring has been highlighted as a means of overcoming these concerns. In this study, we present and investigate one strategy – an asynchronous video mentoring session between a class of 199 pre-service teachers and four exemplary award-winning technology-using in-service teachers. A small group of the pre-service teachers (n = 31) voluntarily expressed their concerns. The four in-service teachers were videotaped as they responded to these concerns. All 199 pre-service teachers watched the videos and described how the in-service teachers’ responses either alleviated or increased their concerns. A majority of the pre-service teachers (58%) reported that their primary concerns regarding technology integration were less acute after they watched the teachers’ presentation. Teacher education programs might consider the use of digital technologies to support student voices and increase the opportunities for interaction between pre-professionals and practising professionals.
    • Advancing teacher technology education using open-ended learning environments as research and training platforms

      Poitras, Eric G; Doleck, Tenzin; Huang, Lingyun; Li, Shan; Lajoie, Susanne P (ASCILITE, 2017-07-24)
      A primary concern of teacher technology education is for pre-service teachers to develop a sophisticated mental model of the affordances of technology that facilitates both teaching and learning with technology. One of the main obstacles to developing the requisite technological pedagogical content knowledge is the inherent challenge faced by teachers in monitoring and controlling certain aspects of their own learning while navigating the web and designing a lesson plan. This paper reviews preliminary findings obtained in our research with nBrowser, an intelligent web browser designed to support pre-service teachers’ self-regulated learning and acquisition of technological pedagogical content knowledge. Case examples of data mining techniques are presented that allow the discovery of knowledge regarding pre-service teachers’ information-seeking and acquisition behaviours and how to support them. The first case illustrates the use of simulated learner experiments, while the second involves the creation of a model to detect learner behaviours. We discuss the implications in terms of design guidelines recommendations for nBrowser as well as the broader impacts for future research on technological pedagogical content knowledge research and development.
    • Affective variables and informal digital learning of English: Keys to willingness to communicate in a second language

      Lee, Ju Seong; Drajati, Nur Arifah (ASCILITE, 2019-04-01)
      This study examined the under-researched relationship between informal digital learning of English (IDLE) activities (receptive IDLE activities and productive IDLE activities), affective variables (grit, motivation, self-confidence and second language speaking anxiety) and willingness to communicate in a second language. Data (N = 183) were collected through a questionnaire from one state university in an English-as-a-foreign-language Indonesian context. The results showed that students’ willingness to communicate correlated significantly with all of the IDLE activities and affective variables. However, only productive IDLE activities, grit, self-confidence, and motivation were identified as the significant predictors of students’ willingness to communicate. Findings suggest that students’ IDLE engagement and affective states play a significant role in a second language communication. In particular, pedagogical benefits of affective variables (e.g., grit, self-confidence, and motivation) and productive IDLE activities should be emphasised to facilitate students’ willingness to communicate in a second language. These results will broaden current knowledge of IDLE and second language communication behaviour, which can contribute to bridging the interdisciplinary gap between computer assisted language learning, second language acquisition, and psychology.
    • AJET Bibliometrics

      Heinrich, Eva; Henderson, Michael; Redmond, Petrea (ASCILITE, 2020-03-20)
      The bibliometric data in this editorial provide readers with information about the journal’s publication, review and article access statistics, the articles attracting the most interest over the past year and the citation performance of the journal.