The Australasian Journal of Educational Technology (AJET) is the journal of ASCILITE, the Australasian Society for Computers in Learning in Tertiary Education. It aims to promote research and scholarship on the integration of technology in tertiary education, promote effective practice, and inform policy.
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Library has vol. 31, no. 6, 2015 to current

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  • University students’ digital competence in three areas of the DigCom 2.1 model: A comparative study at three European universities

    López-Meneses, Eloy; Sirignano, Fabrizio Manuel; Vázquez-Cano, Esteban; Ramírez-Hurtado, José Manuel (ASCILITE, 2020-01-30)
    This study analysed the digital competence of 1,073 students at one Italian and two Spanish universities using the COBADI 2.0 (Basic Digital Competences/Registered Trademark 2970648) questionnaire. A quantitative methodology was applied to university students’ use of, and competence in, three areas of DigCom 2.1: information and data literacy, communication and collaboration, and digital content creation. The results showed that these future graduates had an upper intermediate level of competence in information and digital literacy, and communication and collaboration, but a lower intermediate level in terms of digital content creation, particularly in the creation and dissemination of multimedia content using different tools. Two student profiles were identified for time spent online: those who dedicated a lot of their time to gaming or interacting on social media, and those who used most of their online time to searching for information and completing academic work.
  • Simulation acceptance scale (SAS): A validity and reliability study

    Sezer, Baris; Teker, Gulsen Tasdelen; Sezer, Tufan Asli; Elcin, Melih (ASCILITE, 2020-01-28)
    A review of literature reveals serious problems in the validity and reliability of the measurement tools used in simulation technology acceptance studies conducted in the context of various technology acceptance models. To address this gap in literature, this study proposes a measurement tool that will allow a valid and reliable measurement of students’ acceptance levels. The study was conducted in the 2017–2018 academic year and involved a group of 409 health sciences students. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was conducted to examine the construct validity of the conclusions based on gathered measurements. At the end of the EFA, a construct with a single factor and 24 items which explained 54.87 percent of the total variance was obtained. Based on the findings of the research, it was concluded that simulation acceptance scale produced from the EFA could be used for valid and reliable measurements regarding the general acceptance of simulation technologies by the health sciences students.
  • Perceptions of learning management system quality, satisfaction, and usage: Differences among students of the arts

    Koh, Joyce Hwee Ling; Kan, Rebecca Yen Pei (ASCILITE, 2020-01-28)
    The model of information system success has been used to evaluate students’ satisfaction with the system quality, information quality, and service quality of learning management systems. This study extends the model by considering the pedagogical dimensions of instructional quality, learning quality, and interaction quality as well as how perceived usage frequency influences students’ quality perceptions. Through a sample of 376 higher education students, this study validated a five-factor quality structure for the evaluation of learning management systems with respect to the perceptions of students of the arts. Regression analyses showed differences among the quality factors that predicted satisfaction for arts students perceiving infrequent, average frequency, and frequent use. Although the quality of instructional experiences predicted satisfaction for all student groups, information quality significantly predicted satisfaction for only infrequent and average frequency users. System quality was a significant predictor of satisfaction for only average frequency and frequent users, whereas only frequent users perceived the quality of learning outcomes to be a significant predictor of satisfaction. The theoretical, instructional, and institutional implications for higher education institutions are discussed.
  • Effects of instructors’ academic disciplines and prior experience with learning management systems: A study about the use of Canvas

    Fathema, Nafsaniath; Akanda, Mohammad H (ASCILITE, 2020-01-29)
    This study examines the effects of instructors’ academic disciplines and prior experience with the learning management system (LMS), Canvas, on current use. Our mixed method study collected data via an online survey from 557 instructors at two United States universities. Quantitative analyses found significant differences in instructors’ use of Canvas by their academic discipline and prior Canvas experience. Content analysis of the open-ended responses revealed that, when reporting the strengths and weaknesses of Canvas, while instructors across disciplines reported common strengths, the weaknesses they identified varied according to the features they used for their specific disciplines. Our findings lead us to recommend routine evaluation and assessment of instructors’ needs related to LMS. We suggest that, together with general LMS training, campuses design and offer discipline-specific LMS training to ensure instructors’ needs for LMS based on their academic fields are addressed. Also, we propose that universities should design and offer basic and advanced LMS training programs for instructors with different levels of LMS experience.
  • Facilitating student engagement through educational technology in higher education: A systematic review in the field of arts and humanities

    Bedenlier, Svenja; Bond, Melissa; Buntins, Katja; Zawacki-Richter, Olaf; Kerres, Michael (ASCILITE, 2020-01-26)
    Understanding how educational technology can enhance student engagement is becoming increasingly necessary in higher education, and particularly so in arts and humanities, given the communicative nature of courses. This narrative systematic review synthesises 42 peer-reviewed arts and humanities articles published between 2007-2016, indexed in four international databases. The results indicate that the majority of research has been undertaken in language learning, predominantly in East Asian countries, with limited grounding of research in theory. This review found that educational technology supports student engagement, with behavioural engagement by far the most prevalent dimension. Affective engagement was the lowest observed dimension, with affective disengagement the most prevalent negative dimension. Blogs, mobile learning, and assessment tools were the most effective at promoting engagement. However, caution and education in how to use technology are needed, as any use not underpinned by effective and informed pedagogy can also lead to students feeling overwhelmed and disengaging from learning. Further research is needed on online collaboration, as well as international courses that offer cross-cultural opportunities for language use, and the increased use of qualitative methods is also advised.
  • Tracking reading strategy utilisation through pupillometry

    Wong, Aaron Y.; Moss, Jarrod; Schunn, Christian D. (ASCILITE, 2016-12-15)
    Explicit reading strategies help low-knowledge readers make the inferences necessary to comprehend expository texts. Self-explanation is a particularly effective strategy, but it is challenging to monitor how well a reader is applying self-explanation without requiring the reader to externalise the self-explanations being generated. Studies have shown that different reading strategies vary in the amount of cognitive control required as well as the engagement of brain regions involved in internally-directed attention. Pupil diameter is related to task engagement and cognitive control via the brain’s locus coeruleus-norepinephrine system. Therefore, pupil diameter could be a method to unobtrusively measure a reader’s use of self-explanation. The current study assessed whether pupil diameter can be used to distinguish between the use of different reading strategies and whether it is linked to the quality and effectiveness of the strategy in terms of learning gains. Participants reread, paraphrased, and self-explained texts while pupil diameter was recorded, and completed comprehension tests. Average pupil diameter differed between all three reading strategies, and pupil diameter was related to learning gains and the quality of strategy use. The results suggest that pupil diameter could be used to track effective reading strategy utilisation.
  • Eye tracking and early detection of confusion in digital learning environments: Proof of concept

    Pachman, Mariya; ARGUEL, Amaël; Lockyer, Lori; Kennedy, Gregor; Lodge, Jason (ASCILITE, 2016-12-15)
    Research on incidence of and changes in confusion during complex learning and problem-solving calls for advanced methods of confusion detection in digital learning environments (DLEs). In this study we attempt to address this issue by investigating the use of multiple measures, including psychophysiological indicators and self-ratings, to detect confusion in DLEs. Participants were subjected to two intrinsically confusing insight problems in the form of visual digital puzzles. They were asked to solve problems while their eye trajectories were recorded and these data were triangulated with self-ratings of confusion and cued retrospective verbal reports. All participants had a significant increase in fixations on relevant (i.e., related to the solution) and not-relevant areas at an early stage of the problem-solving process. However, only fixations on not-relevant areas were positively correlated with confusion ratings. Moreover, participants who significantly solved the problem differed in their fixations duration on relevant and not-relevant areas from non-solvers. The importance of early detection of confusion and the affordances of emerging technologies for this purpose are discussed.
  • Editorial: Brain, mind and educational technology

    Lodge, Jason M; Kennedy, Gregor; Lockyer, Lori (ASCILITE, 2016-12-15)
    The emergence and growth of research in cognitive neuroscience over recent decades has led to important discoveries about how the brain and mind work. These discoveries have potential implications for the use of educational technologies and provide insight into possibilities for improving student learning in digital environments. Despite the promise of the emerging field of educational neuroscience, it is difficult to translate findings from the laboratory to the physical or virtual classroom. The articles in this special issue of AJET are attempts to bridge this gap. We hope that this special issue will serve as a catalyst for further work on the translation of foundational research on the brain and mind to learning design and teaching with educational technologies.
  • Measuring cognitive load in the presence of educational video: Towards a multimodal methodology

    Kruger, Jan-Louis; Doherty, Stephen (ASCILITE, 2016-12-15)
    The use of video has become well established in education, from traditional courses to blended and online courses. It has grown both in its diversity of applications as well as its content. Such educational video however is not fully accessible to all students, particularly those who require additional visual support or students studying in a foreign language. Subtitles (also known as captions) represent a unique solution to these language and accessibility barriers, however, the impact of subtitles on cognitive load in such a rich and complex multimodal environment has yet to be determined. Cognitive load is a complex construct and its measurement by means of single indirect and unidimensional methods is a severe methodological limitation. Building upon previous work from several disciplines, this paper moves to establish a multimodal methodology for the measurement of cognitive load in the presence of educational video. We show how this methodology, with refinement, can allow us to determine the effectiveness of subtitles as a learning support in educational contexts. This methodology will also make it possible to analyse the impact of other multimedia learning technology on cognitive load.
  • Learning number sense through digital games with intrinsic feedback

    Laurillard, Diana (ASCILITE, 2016-12-15)
    The paper proposes a new interdisciplinary approach to helping low attaining learners in basic mathematics. It reports on the research-informed design and user testing of an adaptive digital game based on constructionist tasks with intrinsic feedback. The approach uses findings from the neuroscience of dyscalculia, cognitive science research on conceptual understanding in mathematics, and mathematical education research to inform the detailed pedagogic design. It is interdisciplinary in the sense that it synthesises the results from multiple disciplines in the design principles. It then exploits the new capabilities of digital technologies to develop the design for testing with learners, and capturing appropriate data. The initial pilot has shown that the game supports learners age 5-7 years for independent learning of the kind that low attaining learners will need in order to keep pace with mainstream learners. The experimental work will evaluate this and similar games for learners of all ages who have low numeracy. In general, the approach is to (i) focus on a problem at the intersection of robust evidence in both education and neursocience; and (ii) use this data to design and test a digital intervention that fully exploits the adaptive and interactive features of learning technology.
  • What if learning analytics were based on learning science?

    Marzouk, Zahia; Rakovic, Mladen; Liaqat, Amna; Vytasek, Jovita; Samadi, Donya; Stewart-Alonso, Jason; Ram, Ilana; Woloshen, Sonya; Winne, Philip H; Nesbit, John C (ASCILITE, 2016-12-15)
    Learning analytics are often formatted as visualisations developed from traced data collected as students study in online learning environments. Optimal analytics inform and motivate students’ decisions about adaptations that improve their learning. We observe that designs for learning often neglect theories and empirical findings in learning science that explain how students learn. We present six learning analytics that reflect what is known in six areas (we call them cases) of theory and research findings in the learning sciences: setting goals and monitoring progress, distributed practice, retrieval practice, prior knowledge for reading, comparative evaluation of writing, and collaborative learning. Our designs demonstrate learning analytics can be grounded in research on self-regulated learning and self-determination. We propose designs for learning analytics in general should guide students toward more effective self-regulated learning and promote motivation through perceptions of autonomy, competence, and relatedness.
  • Tertiary students’ understandings and practices of informal learning: A New Zealand case study

    Lai, Kwok-Wing; Smith, Lee Ann (ASCILITE, 2017-06-09)
    In 2013, we undertook research in a New Zealand University to gain insights into students’ understandings of informal learning, its connection to formal learning and how they engaged in informal learning using digital and mobile technologies. A total of 765 students (postgraduate, undergraduate and first-year students) completed a questionnaire. Follow-up interviews were conducted with 30 of these students. A total of 90% of the questionnaire participants undertook informal learning to support their formal learning or for their personal development. The undergraduate and first-year interview participants reported that they primarily engaged in informal learning to support their formal coursework. However, the postgraduate participants made arbitrary links between their informal learning and formal learning. The three groups of participants used the same digital technologies to engage in informal learning, including laptops, desktop computers and mobile phones, while the dominant means of conducting informal learning was accessing the Internet and using online tools such as Google and Wikipedia. Fewer students used social networking sites (such as Facebook or Twitter) or mobile digital technologies (such as iPads and tablets) for informal learning.
  • Elements of satisfactory online asynchronous teacher behaviour in higher education

    Smits, Anneke; Voogt, Joke (ASCILITE, 2017-06-09)
    In this study, differences were analysed between two groups of online teachers in a Master of Special Educational Needs program. One group scored high on student satisfaction and the second group received low student satisfaction ratings. Findings indicate that high satisfaction is associated with relatively long and pedagogically complex messages that are most often addressed to the whole group. These messages are characterised by careful listening to the students, elaborate on content knowledge, and show online personality and social behaviour. The research resulted in preliminary guidelines for crafting asynchronous teacher messages that positively affect student satisfaction and a scoring guideline that can be used to score the quality of online teaching as expressed in online asynchronous messages.
  • Examining pre-service teachers’ design capacities for web-based 21st century new culture of learning

    Chai, Ching Sing; Tan, Lynde; Deng, Feng; Koh, Joyce Hwee Ling (ASCILITE, 2017-06-09)
    Although there is an established body of work arguing that teachers’ technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) is necessary for designing ICT-integrated lessons, little is known about the relationships among teachers’ beliefs about learning, their design dispositions, learning design practices and TPACK. Critical inquiry in this aspect is timely as a new culture of learning is emerging from the informal contexts of learning and challenging how school-based learning should be designed to foster 21st century competencies. In this study, a survey instrument was developed to assess and investigate the relationships among pre-service teachers’ beliefs about the new culture of learning and school-based learning, their design dispositions, learning design practices and relevant factors of TPACK. Based on the sample size of 223 pre-service teachers in Singapore, the validation shows that the relevant factors pertaining to TPACK, teachers’ beliefs and design were distinctive. The study shows that teachers’ beliefs about learning and their design capacities changed along with their TPACK efficacy. It also identified factors that might affect teachers’ competencies needed to design lessons that could cultivate a new 21st century culture of learning. Implications of the relationships among teachers’ beliefs about learning, their design capacities and TPACK to foster 21st century competencies are discussed.
  • I See What You Are Doing: Student Views on Lecturer Use of Tablet PCs in the Engineering Mathematics Classroom

    Maclaren, Peter; Wilson, David; Klymchuk, Sergiy (ASCILITE, 2017-06-09)
    Mathematically intensive engineering subjects at a tertiary level have traditionally been taught in classroom environments using whiteboards or blackboards. This paper reports on student views of the effectiveness of board and alternative technologies used within existing classroom contexts. Students in this study revealed a strong preference for the use of pen-enabled Tablet PCs as a delivery technology. The maintenance of a handwritten approach, combined with ready visibility of material, support for inclusion of other digital outputs and post-class access to material, were key factors influencing student preferences. Although this introduction of technology did not involve substantive changes in classroom pedagogical approaches, the study suggests that the Tablet PC technology may facilitate future development of more flexible approaches.
  • Conditions for the successful implementation of teacher educator design teams for ICT integration: A Delphi study

    Becuwe, Heleen; Pareja Roblin, Natalie; Tondeur, Jo; Thys, Jeroen; Castelein, Els; Voogt, Joke (ASCILITE, 2017-06-09)
    Teacher educators often struggle to model effective integration of technology. Several studies suggest that the involvement of teacher educators in collaborative design is effective in developing the competences necessary for integrating information and communication technology (ICT) in teaching. In a teacher educator design team (TeDT), two or more teacher educators (re-)design curriculum materials together. For the successful implementation of TeDTs, conditions at both team and institutional levels have to be taken into account. However, there is little consensus among stakeholders about which of these conditions are of highest priority. Most studies present priority or critical conditions from the viewpoint of just one group (e.g., school leaders). A Delphi study was set up aiming at synthesising the knowledge and views of various stakeholders about the conditions for the successful implementation of TeDTs for ICT integration. Consensus about the importance of ten conditions was reached in the entire sample after three rounds. These conditions include a long-term vision, trust, ownership, time and supportive institutional policies.
  • Investigating the effect of learning styles in a blended e-learning system: An extension of the technology acceptance model (TAM)

    Al-Azawei, Ahmed; Parslow, Patrick; Lundqvist, Karsten (ASCILITE, 2017-06-09)
    This study assesses learner perceptions of a blended e-learning system (BELS) and the feasibility of accommodating educational hypermedia systems (EHSs) according to learning styles using a modified version of the technology acceptance model (TAM). Recently, Moodle has been adopted by an Iraqi university alongside face-to-face (F2F) classrooms to provide flexible learning and improve understanding. Based on TAM, individual differences and perceptions were explored in relationships between learner satisfaction and technology adoption. The model was extended to include e-learning self-efficacy, perceived satisfaction, and learning styles. Although other variables can be integrated, the proposed framework is to investigate the effect of learning styles in predicting satisfaction and BELS acceptance. A total of 210 undergraduate students voluntarily took part in the research. Data was gathered using a survey instrument and the Index of Learning Styles (ILS) Questionnaire. Partial least squares structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) technique was used to examine the path associated between dependent and independent constructs. Unlike prior TAM literature, this research highlights the integration of perceived satisfaction and technology acceptance in accordance with psychological traits and learner beliefs. Overall, the model achieved an acceptable fit and successfully integrated intention to use (ITU) and perceived satisfaction (PS). However, psychological differences did not indicate positive impacts on learner satisfaction and e-learning adoption.
  • Blended learning citation patterns and publication networks across seven worldwide regions

    Spring, Kristian J; Graham, Charles R (ASCILITE, 2017-06-09)
    The field of international blended learning (BL) is primed to benefit from stronger communication and collaboration. Collaboration is currently limited, and regions vary greatly in terms of citations. However, BL is growing worldwide and each region is an important part of the community. The goal of this research is to explore where the most impactful conversations about BL worldwide are occurring and how, if at all, are they connected to one another in terms of citations and publications. We present here the most cited BL articles from each region, the journals that publish these articles, and citation and publication patterns for each in order to construct a broad overview of impact and publication within the field.
  • Blended learning and team teaching: Adapting pedagogy in response to the changing digital tertiary environment

    Crawford, Renee; Jenkins, Louise (ASCILITE, 2017-06-09)
    Increased accessibility of advanced technology, the targeted use of online learning platforms, student flexible learning expectations and the pressures of faculty budget constraints and priorities have called into question the effectiveness of traditional tertiary teaching and learning models. The tertiary education context must evolve at a pace consistent with the growing expectations and requirements of an innovative society. A teacher-led research project was devised to navigate through some of the complexities and implications associated with necessary pedagogical change in response to the transitioning digital tertiary environment. The development and implementation of blended learning and team teaching strategies were introduced into the pedagogy of a tertiary pre-service teacher education methods class. This paper reports on three sequential years of findings, which will explore student understandings of blended learning and team teaching and the overall impact they had on their learning in this context.
  • Does proactive personality matter in mobile learning?

    Huang, Rui-Ting; Tang, Tzy-Wen; Lee, Yi Ping; Yang, Fang-Ying (ASCILITE, 2017-06-09)
    Increasing attention has been paid to mobile learning studies. However, there is still a dearth of studies investigating the moderating effect of proactive personality on mobile learning achievements. Accordingly, the primary purpose of this study is not only to investigate the key elements that could improve the effectiveness and efficiency of mobile learning, but also to examine the moderating role of proactive personality in mobile learning outcomes. The findings indicate that continuance intention will have a positive influence on mobile learning performance, whereas perceived playfulness will have a limited influence on mobile learning outcomes. Moreover, perceived flexibility advantages will positively affect mobile learning continuance intention and perceived playfulness. With respect to the role of perceived usefulness in perceived playfulness, the results indicate that although perceived usefulness has a positive influence on continuance intention, it has a limited impact on perceived playfulness. Finally, the results indicate that proactive personality plays a moderating role in the relationship between perceived playfulness and mobile learning performance, the connection between perceived flexibility advantages and mobile learning continuance intention, the nexus between perceived usefulness and mobile learning continuance intention, as well as the connection between perceived usefulness and playfulness.

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