Responsible leadership Collection focuses on various key aspects of leadership, as firstly, developing individual leadership understood as a typology: from charismatic leadership to responsible leadership (RL) including the description of the ethical values and rules underlying the leadership typology. Secondly, responsible leadership is understood in the framework of organisations. It has administrative and governance aspects and needs to be open to an understanding of corporate and organizational cultures, technological and information science related challenges impacting the life of the organisation, and crucial ethical holistic dimensions such as to "walk the talk". Thirdly, leadership between organisations is presented trough different sectors; the economic, the political, the education and research, faith based organizations, or the environment.

Recent Submissions

  • The role of council committees in promoting financial accountability: a case study of Stellenbosch municipality

    School of Government; Davids, Gregory; Miso, Fundiswa Thelma (University of the Western Cape, 2014-03-04)
    Municipal councils are vested with the legal authority to promote financial accountability in their respective municipalities. To accomplish this responsibility, municipal council establishes committees to enable a structured and coordinated mechanism through which it can promote financial accountability effectively. However and despite the available legal and institutional mechanisms established to enable council committees to promote financial accountability, the lack of effective financial accountability in municipalities has persisted. This study focused on the role of council committees in ensuring financial accountability. It was guided by the following research questions: What are the major factors that contribute to financial accountability at local level, what is the role of council committees in promoting financial accountability and how can council committees be strengthened to play an effective role in Stellenbosch municipality’s municipal financial accountability. Stellenbosch Local Municipality was used as a case study for this research. The data was collected from primary and secondary sources. Primary data was sourced from members of relevant council committees through structured and unstructured interviews. Secondary data was obtained from relevant municipal reports, internet sources, government department publications, journals and Auditor - General’s reports which contributed to the reliability, validity and objectivity of the findings. The findings showed that political instability, a lack of a culture of accountability, lack of clearly defined authority for accountability, lack of relevant capacity and willingness are some of the major factors that have impacted negatively on council committees from promoting effective financial accountability. The study opens up the possibility of future research to include a wider number of municipalities.
  • Democratisation via elections in an African 'narco state'? The case of Guinea-Bissau

    Kohnert, Dirk (ZBW - Deutsche Zentralbibliothek für Wirtschaftswissenschaften Kiel und Hamburg, 2010)
    Recent development cooperation with Guinea-Bissau, focusing on good governance, statebuilding and conflict prevention, did not contribute to democratization nor to the stabilization of volatile political, military and economic structures. The portrayal of Guinea- Bissau as a failed “narco-state”, as well as Western aid meant to stabilize this state, are both based on dubious concepts. Certainly, the impact of drug trafficking could endanger democratization and state-building if continued unchecked. However, the most pressing need is not state-building facilitated by external aid that is poorly rooted in the social and political fabric of the country. Rather, it is grassroots nation-building that is a pre-condition for the creation of viable state institutions.
  • Causes for post-election-violence 2007/2008 in Kenya reconsidered

    Tutzer, Mirjam (2010)
    Die Studie "Causes for Post-Election-Violence 2007/2008 in Kenya reconsidered. Critical analysis of the Discourse Formation 'Good Governance' and its implementation by the World Bank" behandelt den Einfluss von Diskursen und damit verbundenen Machtstrukturen auf die nationale kenianische Politik. Der Fokus liegt auf der Good Governance Agenda und der praktischen Implementierung derselben von der Welt Bank und folgt dem Argument, dass die Diskursformation v.a. eine Weiterfuehrung der Strukturanpassungsprogramme darstellt und Ungleichheiten auf der nationalen Ebene nicht behandelt. Die eingefuehrten policies und zugeschriebenen Rollen der verschiedenen Akteure muessen deshalb bei der Interpretation von Geschehnissen auf der nationalen Ebene mit einbezogen werden, wenn die unterliegenden Ursachen fuer den Ausbruch der Gewalt nach den Wahlen in 2007/2008 betrachtet werden: die Bereitschaft, sich an den Gewaltausbruechen zu beteiligen, wurde mitbeeinflusst vom nicht eingehaltenen Versprechen auf Veraenderung, wobei die WB und GGA der NARC Regierung half , keine weitreichenden Veraenderungen durchzufuehren. Gleichzeitig gab es kaum Verbesserung der Lebensumstaende eines grossen Teils der Bevoelkerung.
 Die Analyse zeigt den Einfluss von Diskursen und damit verbundenen Handlungen, welche die Rolle von Akteuren und moegliche Interpretationsweisen innerhalb der internationalen Beziehungen definieren. Geschehnisse in Kenya als 'Entwicklungsland' muessen daher in den groesseren Kontext von internationalen Organisationen, Akteuren und Diskursen gebettet werden anstatt nur auf nationaler Ebene diskutiert und analysiert zu werden. Dies wuerde zu einer infrage stellung der internationalen Gemeinschaft als 'helfende Hand' fuehren und den Einfluss von externen Einfluessen wie auch die agency (Handlungsmacht) der nationalen Akteure beachten.
  • Challenges for the Democratisation Process in Tanzania. Moving Towards Consolidation 50 years after independence?

    Ewald, Jonas (2011-11-28)
    Tanzania has been independent in 2011 for 50 years. While most neighbouring states have gone through violent conflicts, Tanzania has managed to implement extensive reforms without armed political conflicts. Hence, Tanzania is an interesting case for Peace and Development research. This thesis analyses the political development in Tanzania since the introduction of the multiparty system in 1992, with a focus on the challenges for the democratisation process in connection with the 2000 and 2005 elections. The question of to what extent Tanzania has moved towards a consolidation of democracy, is analysed through an analysis of nine different institutions of importance for democratisation, grouped in four spheres, the state, the political, civil and economic society. Focus is on the development of the political society, and the role of the opposition in particular. The analysis is based on secondary and primary material collected in the period September 2000 to April 2010. The main conclusion is that even if the institutions of liberal democracy have gradually developed, in practice single-party rule has continued, manifested in the 2005 election when the CCM won 92% of the seats in the parliament. Despite an impressive economic growth, poverty remains deep and has not been substantially reduced. On a theoretical level this brings the old debate between liberal and substantive democracy back to the fore. Neither the economic nor the political reforms have apparently brought about a transformation of the political and economic system resulting in the poor majority gaining substantially more political influence and improved economic conditions. Hence, it is argued that the interface between the economic, political and administrative reforms has not been sufficiently considered in the liberal democratic tradition. Liberal democracy is necessary for a democratic development, but not sufficient for democracy to be consolidated. For that a substantive democratic development is necessary.
  • An Exploratory Investigation of Stakeholders' Perceptions of Political Leaders' Behavior and Outcomes

    Piatt, Edward S. (Digital Commons @ Olivet, 2011-05-01)
    This was an exploratory and descriptive study on stakeholders’ perceptions of political leaders’ behavior and outcomes. A purposeful sample comprised of 471 respondents whom were highly engaged in the political process was conducted on five distinct stakeholder groups, consisting of government employees, elected officials, union-building trades, business professionals, and college students. Two emergent results were identified: political party affiliation was a major indicator of stakeholder differences, and the inversion of agency theory. Contributing factors of the inversion of agency theory whereby a political agent begins to acts as a principle have led the researcher to develop the Corrupt-Unethical Behavior (CUB) model. Future research would focus more on the salient differences between political party affiliations rather than differences between stakeholder groups.
  • Afghan Sub-National Governance: Enabling Success by 2014

    The situation in Afghanistan is incredibly complex, with challenging time constraints to produce strategic success. Only through a revised approach that enables Afghan sub-national governance to develop legitimacy and capacity can the international community achieve its strategic end-state of a stable and politically viable Afghan state. This paper will argue that Afghanistan's current legitimacy vacuum was created by a lack of appreciation of the historical and cultural aspects of Afghan governance, the impact of a hastily ratified constitution, misaligned U.S. policy and strategy of a top-down versus bottom-up methodology, and the absence of effective local justice. An adjusted approach that creates the governance missing middle and systems to support good governance will enable sustainable legitimacy by 2014. A failure to recognize the importance of sub-national governance and its role in improving legitimacy places the future of Afghanistan and U.S. strategic interests in jeopardy.
  • A Case of Political Clientelism in a Decentralized State

    Gowthaman, Balachandran; Rose, Jonathan (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2015-11-04)
    Professional civil service recruitment is a core component of governance for development, as it is necessary for ensuring the capacity of civil servants, service delivery, fiscal sustainability, and proper salary management. Through an ambitious mixed method approach, this study seeks to provide a political economy analysis of civil service recruitment in Comoros—a fragile and decentralized state with a relatively large portion of spending on government salaries. More specifically, it aims to explain the recent dramatic increases in the number of civil servants in Comoros. The paper presents three main findings from the analysis. First, in 2010, elections at the national and local levels were associated with the largest recruitment in the past decade, due in part to the interplay of informal institutions such as political clientelism with the current public financial management system. Second, the institutions involved in recruitment are not permanent; they are evolving with the balance of power between the national and island governments. Third, civil service recruitment respects qualification standards.
  • Right to Information

    Trapnell, Stephanie E.; Trapnell, Stephanie E. (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2015-08-20)
    This first round of eight case studies was completed in 2012. The case studies were prepared examining the experience of a number of countries that have passed Right to Information (RTI) legislation within the last 15 years: Albania, India, Mexico, Moldova, Peru, Romania, Uganda, and the United Kingdom. Each country case study assesses four dimensions critical to the effective implementation of RTI legislation as follows: 1. The scope of the information that the law covers, which determines whether an RTI law can serve as the instrument of more transparent and accountable governance as envisaged by its advocates. For example, a law that leaves too many categories of information out of its purview, that does not adequately apply to all agencies impacting public welfare or using public resources, or that potentially contradicts with other regulations, like secrecy laws, will not be effective. 2. Issues related to public sector capacity and incentives, additional key functions and demands within the public sector created by RTI, entities responsible for these functions, and various organizational models for fulfilling these functions. 3. Mechanisms for appeals and effective enforcement against the denial of information(whether it be an independent commission or the judiciary); the relative independence, capacity, and scope of powers of the appeals agency, and the ease of the appeals process; and the application of sanctions in the face of unwarranted or mute refusals, providing a credible environment. 4. The capacity of civil society and media groups to apply the law to promote transparency and to monitor the application of the law, and a regulatory and political environment that enables these groups to operate effectively. The in-depth research presented in these case studies was conducted to examine factors that promote the relative effectiveness of these four key dimensions when implementing RTI reforms, including institutional norms, political realities, and economic concerns. An analysis was conducted to determine which models have the potential to work in different contexts and what lessons can be drawn from these experiences to help countries currently in the process of setting up RTI regimes.
  • Democratisation via elections in an African 'narco state'? The case of Guinea-Bissau

    Kohnert, Dirk (ZBW - Deutsche Zentralbibliothek für Wirtschaftswissenschaften Kiel und Hamburg, 2010)
    La démocratisation par le biais des élections dans un «narco-État» de l'Afrique? Le cas de la Guinée-Bissau: La coopération de développement récente avec la Guinée-Bissau, en se concentrant sur les élections, la consolidation de la bonne gouvernance et l'état de prévention des conflits, ni contribué à la démocratisation, ni à la stabilisation des structures politiques, militaires et économiques volatiles du pays. Tant la représentation de la Guinée-Bissau comme un échec «narco-État» ainsi que l'aide occidentale destinée à stabiliser cet état grâce à l'appui des élections multipartites sont basées sur des concepts et des hypothèses douteuses. Certes, l'impact du trafic de drogue pourrait mettre en danger la démocratisation et le renforcement de l'État si il se poursuit sans frein. Cependant, le besoin le plus urgent n’est pas le renforcement de l'État, mal ancré dans le tissu social et politique du pays, facilitée par l'aide extérieure, mais la construction d’une nation par le bas comme une condition préalable à la création d'institutions étatiques viables.
  • Electoral Rules and Political Selection

    Beath, Andrew; Egorov, Georgy; Enikolopov, Ruben; Christia, Fotini (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2015-08-17)
    Voters commonly face a choice between competent candidates and those with policy preferences similar to their own. This paper explores how electoral rules, such as district magnitude, mediate this trade-off and affect the composition of representative bodies and policy outcomes. The paper shows formally that anticipation of bargaining over policy causes voters in elections with multiple single-member districts to prefer candidates with polarized policy positions over more competent candidates. Results from a unique field experiment in Afghanistan are consistent with these predictions. Specifically, representatives elected in elections with a single multi-member district are better educated and exhibit less extreme policy preferences.
  • When Elites Meet

    Levi, Margaret; Clayton, Amanda; Noveck, Jennifer (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2015-06)
    Over the past decade, decentralization of fiscal and policy-making authority has become a cornerstone of development organizations’ recommendations for good governance. Yet the institutional design of multilayered government can create tensions as new elites attempt to fill governing spaces long occupied by traditional patrons. This paper uses the case of post-conflict Sierra Leone to explore the power-sharing dynamics between traditional hereditary chiefs and newly elected community councilors, and how these dynamics affect the provision of local public goods. The paper uses data on several measures of local service provision and finds that councilor/chief relationships defined by competition are associated with higher levels of public goods provision as well as greater improvements in these goods between council areas over time. Relationships defined by frequent contact in the absence of disputes as well as higher frequencies of familial ties between the two sets of actors are associated with worse local development outcomes. This evidence suggests that greater competition between elite groups is beneficial for local development, whereas collusion or cooption between old and new elites harms the provision of local public goods.
  • Context Is Everything

    Campos, Nauro F. (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2000-01)
    The author presents measures with which to map institution building during the transition from centrally planned to market economies. Data collection and indicators are measured in terms of five institutional dimensions of governance: a) accountability; b) quality of the bureaucracy; c) rule of law; d) character of policy-making process; and e) strength of civil society. The author highlights the differences over time and between Central and Eastern European countries and those of the former Soviet Union. In terms of effects of per capita income and school enrollment, he finds the rule of law to be the most important institutional dimension, both for the sample as a whole and for differences between the two regions. In terms of life expectancy, however, the quality of the bureaucracy plays the most crucial role. One important message the author draws from the results is that institutions do change over time and are by no means as immutable as the literature has suggested. The range of feasible policy choices (for changing institutions) may be much wider than is often assumed.
  • Community Based Paralegalism in the Philippines

    Soliman, Hector; Franco, Jennifer; Roda Cisnero, Maria (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2015-04-13)
    Community-based paralegalism has been active in the Philippines for the past 30 years, and yet its contribution to access to justice and the advancement of the rights and entitlements of the poor has been largely undocumented. This paper attempts to provide a framework study on the history, nature, and scope of paralegal work in the Philippines, based on the experience of 12 organizations that are active in the training and development of community-oriented paralegals. The study first provides a working definition of a community-based paralegal, and then examines the work of paralegals, their systems of accountability or lack thereof, and issues regarding recognition by the state and civil society actors. It also explores facilitating and hindering factors that aid or impinge upon the paralegals effectiveness. A major contributor to the work of paralegals was the democratization process after the overthrow of the dictatorship of Ferdinand Marcos and the continuing evolution of legal rights spurred by the relatively progressive constitution ratified in 1987. Three dimensions of paralegal s work are identified and explored, namely, building rights awareness, settling private disputes, and increasing state and corporate accountability. The study ends with conclusions and recommendations with regard to sustainability, monitoring and evaluation, funding, and the prospects for paralegal work over the long term.
  • Toward More Effective and Legitimate Institutions to Handle Problems of Justice in Solomon Islands

    Isser, Deborah; Venning, Philippa; Porter, Douglas (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2015-03-12)
    This policy note summarizes key lessons and conclusions from the World Bank's engagement in Solomon Islands under the justice for the poor program, which has been active in that country since 2009. It interprets what has been learned in connection with a question posed at the start of this program: what can be done to support more effective and legitimate institutions to handle problems of justice in Solomon Islands?. To answer this question, the note is organized around a set of three questions. First, what are Solomon Islanders' main justice concerns? Second, how are these concerns being handled today, to what extent are people satisfied, and why? Third, what can Solomon Islanders and their development partners do to improve justice outcomes? This note is an effort to shift the standard discourse on building justice institutions to a problem driven approach that seeks to grapple with the contextual peculiarities of Solomon Islands. The approach, which this note aims to illustrate, begins with an assessment of how problems are experienced by citizens and then examines how these issues are being handled by public authorities, whether secular, religious, chiefly, or kastom in nature. It then considers the conditions under which these authorities may work differently and also the likelihood that powerful players and citizens will invest in the forms of institutions needed to incrementally, but appreciably, deliver better results.
  • Trade and Civil Conflict : Revisiting the Cross-Country Evidence

    Mulabdic, Alen; Cali, Massimiliano (World Bank Group, Washington, DC, 2014-11)
    This paper revisits and expands the evidence on the impact of trade shocks on intra-state conflict with a large sample of developing countries in the 1960-2010 period. The results suggest that increases in the prices of a country's exported commodities raise the country's risk of civil conflict and its duration. The effect on conflict risk is mainly driven by the price of point-source commodities, in line with the rapacity effect theory of conflict. However, the paper does not find support for the opportunity cost theory via exported commodities. The analysis also finds that intense trading with contiguous countries is associated with lower duration of intra-state conflict, consistent with the idea that such trade reduces the incentive of contiguous countries to fuel conflict in their neighbor. Trading with neighbors is also associated with a lower risk of conflict, when such trade occurs under trade agreements. By contrast, neither imported commodity prices nor the economic cycle in export markets appears to exert any influence on the probability or duration of conflict. The paper identifies several conditions under which changes in the value of exported commodities cease to matter for conflict probability.
  • Political Economy and Forced Displacement : Guidance and Lessons from Nine Country Case Studies

    World Bank (Washington, DC, 2014-12-18)
    This report was produced for the Global Program on Forced Displacement and describes why and how to conduct political economy analysis (PEA) of forced displacement. It also illustrates how PEA may contribute to understanding forced displacement crises with nine case studies: Casamance (Senegal), Colombia, Cote dapos;Ivoire, Democratic Republic of Congo, Liberia, the Philippines, Somalia, South Sudan, and Zimbabwe. Forced displacement is understood here as a situation where persons are forced to leave or flee their homes due to conflict, violence, or human rights violations. The key elements of forced displacement PEAs include: i) a review of the historical context and displacement characteristics; ii) durable solutions prospects; iii) environmental, geographic, social, political, and economic drivers, constraints and opportunities; (iv) needs of the displaced and hosts; v) existing policies, government/institutional context, and operations; and vi) recommendations. Recommendations on development policies and programs that result from a PEA characteristically fall into at least four categories, namely: i) improving access to land, housing and property; ii) reestablishment of livelihoods; iii) improving delivery of services; and iv) strengthening accountable and responsible governance. PEAs of forced displacement analyze the contestation and distribution of power and resources along with the development challenges associated with forced displacement crises. By nature of their marginalization and the frequently protracted nature of their exile, the forcibly displaced are especially vulnerable as power and resources are disputed. The purpose of conducting a PEA on forced displacement is to inform policy dialogue and operations so that the interests of vulnerable forcibly displaced populations and their hosts are effectively accommodated in resource allocation decision-making and in poverty alleviation initiatives. From the earliest design phase to dissemination of the results, the PEA is essentially an exercise in effectively collecting relevant data, analyzing these, and then marketing the analysis and its operational implications to the right stakeholders. This report is intended to be an aid in navigating these decision points and activities and to encourage more frequent and better use of political economy analysis in evaluating and addressing forced displacement.
  • Women as Agents of Change : Having Voice in Society and Influencing Policy

    Markham, Susan (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2014-12-30)
    The World Bank's World Development Report (WDR) on gender equality and development identified women's voice, agency, and participation as a key dimension of gender equality and as a major policy priority. Agency, as defined in the WDR2012, is the ability to use endowments to take advantage of opportunities to achieve desired outcomes. In particular, WDR2012 focused on five expressions of agency: women's access to and control over resources; freedom of movement; freedom from the risk of violence; decision-making over family formation; and having voice in society and influencing policy. An important expression of women's agency is women's political participation and their ability to fully engage in public life. This background paper focuses on women s ability to play a public role in politics and to influence policy-making. Using the data available, it examines the current status of women in politics and makes the case for the full and equitable participation of women in public life. It reviews the direct and indirect barriers that exist to prevent women's political participation and analyzes strategies that have been used to increase it. Finally, the paper identifies the connections between the five expressions of agency and priorities for future work.
  • Strengthening Governance and Institutions in MENA : Issues and Priorities

    Heidenhof, Guenter (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2014-01)
    Governance has been an explicit part of the Bank s developmental agenda since the latter part of the 1990s, though elements of good governance have always played a role in the institution s work on development. These ranged from project focused work on financial management and procurement to the various sector governance components embedded in many of the Bank s adjustment and sector operations since the 1980s. More recently, the Bank has evolved towards a more explicit acknowledgment that inefficiencies and weaknesses in the institutional environment have a direct impact on the achievement and the quality of development results.
  • Generating Genuine Demand for Accountability through Communication : Trainer's Guide

    Arnold, Anne-Katrin; Garcia, Helen (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2011)
    The trainer s guide starts with an introduction into the conceptual framework of accountability and communication. Theoretical basics are illustrated by relevant case studies, mostly taken from CommGAP s volume accountability through public opinion. This conceptual narrative is designed to familiarize trainers with the issue and its foundations, and is followed by a suggested training structure that includes learning objectives, presentation slides and key points to be communicated to an audience of a capacity building effort. The second part of this manual contains case studies that display communication for accountability in action in developing countries. These case studies and a related exercise may be used by trainers to demonstrate and exemplify how communication can be used in order to empower citizens to hold their governments accountable. In addition to the conceptual introduction and case studies, this manual provides a brief for trainers suggesting a structure for a course on generating genuine demand for accountability through communication. Presentation slides and core lessons are proposed to enable development practitioners to launch a training session of approximately one day.
  • La problématique de l'Etat de droit en Afrique de l'ouest : analyse comparée de la situation de la Côte d'Ivoire, de la Mauritanie, du Libéria et de la Sierra Léone

    Université Paris-Est; LARGOTEC ; Institut de Mathématiques de Bourgogne (IMB) ; Université de Bourgogne - CNRS - Université de Bourgogne - CNRS; Pierre-Henri Chalvidan; Cisse, Losseni (HAL CCSD, 2009-05-28)
    La question de l'Etat de droit se pose de plus en plus avec beaucoup d'acuité en Afrique en général et en Afrique de l'ouest en particulier. Le déficit observable d'Etat de droit dans certains pays de cette sous région, est une des causes fondamentales de situations de belligérance et de crise avec leurs conséquences dramatiques : violation des droits de l'homme, désinstitutionnalisation, refus d'alternance démocratique, impunité, pauvreté, insécurité etc.La Côte d'Ivoire, la Mauritanie, le Liberia et la Sierra Léone n'échappent pas à ce constat. Ces pays se caractérisent par des situations particulières au regard des crises qu'ils connaissent et ont connu, ainsi que par des enjeux communs dans la longue et difficile quête de l'établissement de l'Etat de droit.Ce processus, émaillé d'obstacles majeurs, donne naissance à une production normative réelle avec les interventions combinées des communautés sous régionales, panafricaine et internationale. Et pour autant, des " conflits de normativité " ne sont pas à exclure. D'où la nécessité d'envisager des perspectives d'harmonisation normative dans les dynamiques de gestion et de règlement des crises, en vue d'établir l'Etat de droit en Afrique de l'ouest.

View more