Responsible leadership Collection focuses on various key aspects of leadership, as firstly, developing individual leadership understood as a typology: from charismatic leadership to responsible leadership (RL) including the description of the ethical values and rules underlying the leadership typology. Secondly, responsible leadership is understood in the framework of organisations. It has administrative and governance aspects and needs to be open to an understanding of corporate and organizational cultures, technological and information science related challenges impacting the life of the organisation, and crucial ethical holistic dimensions such as to "walk the talk". Thirdly, leadership between organisations is presented trough different sectors; the economic, the political, the education and research, faith based organizations, or the environment.

Recent Submissions

  • SOE Reform : Time for Serious Corporate Governance

    Speakman, John (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2017-06-01)
    This policy paper is motivated by the
 Government's 'Pakistan: framework for Economic
 Growth (FEG) 2011' which places weak corporate
 governance at the top of the 'software'
 constraints to growth. The efforts to reform the State-Owned
 Enterprises (SOEs) have stalled in Pakistan for almost five
 years with significant negative implications not only in
 terms of fiscal losses, but also deteriorated and
 cost-ineffective service delivery. The paper suggests a
 number of urgent policy measures designed to improve the
 efficiency and effectiveness of SOEs. These include basic
 governance reforms, revamped commercialization processes and
 enhanced market regulations. The paper also provides some
 perspectives on international experience on SOE reforms
 combined with some suggestions on how the Government can
 move forward.
  • Philippines Quarterly Update, June 2011 : Generating More Inclusive Growth

    World Bank (Manila, 2017-08-14)
    The Philippines quarterly update
 provides an update on key economic developments and policies
 over the past three months. It also presents findings from
 recent World Bank work on the Philippines. It places them in
 a longer-term and global context, and assesses the
 implications of these developments and other changes in
 policy for the outlook for the Philippines. Its coverage
 ranges from the macro-economy to financial markets to
 indicators of human welfare and development. It is intended
 for a wide audience, including policy makers, business
 leaders, financial market participants, and the community of
 analysts and professionals engaged in the Philippines.
 Though the revised gross domestic product (GDP) growth
 estimates show small deviation from the old base year and
 methodology, the revision has resulted in a nominal GDP
 which is 6 percent larger and hence, lower fiscal statistics
 as a percentage of GDP (e.g., lower tax effort, but improved
 debt ratio), but also important sectoral growth changes.
 Investment is now noticeably higher due to improved coverage
 and transfer of items previously booked under consumption
 (e.g., military goods) the investment-to-GDP ratio in 2010
 is now 20.5 percent instead of 15.6 percent. The demand side
 growth continues to post a remarkable uptick in investment.
 Investment grew by 37 percent year-on-year and contributed
 6.8 percentage points to GDP growth, mostly driven by
 durable equipment and private construction. Private
 construction grew by 22 percent, albeit at a slower pace
 than the preceding three quarters, and compensated for the
 contraction in public construction which shrank by 37.3
 percent due to continued fiscal tightening and a high base
 effect. Investment in durable equipment grew 17 percent with
 the building up of inventory in industrial machineries and
 road vehicles.
  • A Palestinian State in Two Years : Institutions for Economic Revival

    World Bank (Washington, DC, 2017-08-29)
    On August 25, 2009, the 13th Government
 of the Palestinian Authority (PA) presented a program
 entitled "Palestine: ending the occupation,
 establishing the state" (hereafter referred to as the
 program) outlining several national goals, including the
 achievement of 'economic independence and national
 prosperity'. The program accords high priority to the
 development of the public institutions of the PA in order to
 achieve the stated national goals. It acknowledges that
 maintaining an efficient and effective public sector that
 provides citizens with high quality services and value for
 money is a constant challenge. No amount of well-functioning
 institutions, will, however, lead to economic growth in the
 absence of access to markets, whether within the West Bank
 and Gaza, in Israel, or in the rest of the world. In this
 regard, the recent developments in easing of movement and
 access restrictions by the Government of Israel (GoI)
 represent a welcome first step. The GoI has taken steps to
 ease movement restrictions in the West Bank and to allow
 greater access to West Bank markets for Arab citizens of
 Israel. In the first half of 2009, the political stalemate
 in Gaza continued and the economy stagnated. The West Bank
 economy is showing signs of new growth, so that it is
 possible that for the first time in years, West Bank and
 Gaza (WB&G) may have positive per capita Gross Domestic
 Product (GDP) growth in 2009.
  • Impact of the Ebola Crisis : A Perspective from the Countries

    Kim, Jim Yong; Lagarde, Christine; Ki-moon, Ban; Kaberuka, Donald; Conde, Alpha; Koroma, Ernest; Sirleaf, Johnson; Frieden, Tom (2016-05-23)
    This panel discussion addresses the Ebola crisis in West Africa and how the
 crisis has already had a profound impact on millions of
 people in Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone. Participants discussed the urgent issues that must be handled, including urgent financing.
  • Economic Growth and Development in Malaysia : Policy Making and Leadership

    Aznam Yusof, Zainal; Bhattasali, Deepak (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2017-08-28)
    Malaysia is a multiethnic,
 upper-middle-income country that has relied heavily on
 income from its natural resources to engineer successful
 diversification into manufacturing and sharply increased
 incomes for all ethnic groups. This paper examines the role
 of the policy-making process and national leadership in
 effecting this structural change and growth with equity. It
 discusses the government's role in transforming
 corporate ownership patterns while nurturing industrial
 enterprises into niche products within complex value-added
 chains. At the same time, the paper underscores the
 difficulties and costs of attempting to move into areas
 where an economy has no strong advantages, in this case
 heavy industries. Privatization is seen to have been a
 powerful tool for expanding private enterprise despite
 limited entrepreneurial skills, but it is questionable as a
 sustainable strategy; the aggressive formation of new firms
 seems to offer better long-term prospects. An appropriate
 regime of policy making and implementation is required,
 characterized by political determination, stability, high
 attention to growth with equity, experimentation, and an
 ability to learn through implementation, both at home and
 from the experience of others. These are key factors
 accounting for the relative success of Malaysia. Nothing in
 the Malaysian experience suggests that it is possible or
 desirable to undertake reforms serially; in fact, the
 evidence suggests that the "reform cluster"
 approach to policy implementation is more effective because
 it addresses several coordination problems at the same time.
  • Track Record : Lessons from IFC's Corporate Governance Experience

    International Finance Corporation (Washington, DC, 2017-08-16)
    This book of SmartLessons is a compendium of our knowledge on implementing corporate
 governance projects. The lessons represent an impressive body of work, with individual
 contributions written by our staff—the people who really know what they are talking
 about, because they are out there, engaged in the work on a day-to-day basis. It reflects the
 evolution of our project approach as the world has changed. In the early years of our work,
 efforts focused on the newly independent and newly market-driven nations of the former
 Soviet Union. More recently, projects have addressed the sometimes rocky road to stability
 for emerging market countries as they struggle to regain economic momentum in the wake
 of the global financial crisis. Meanwhile, new opportunities and new challenges lie ahead as
 events in the Middle East and North Africa underscore the broader importance of IFC’s core
 mission to drive job creation and economic development by supporting expansion of well-governed, sustainable, and thriving private sectors.
  • Fertility Decline in Botswana 1980-2006 : A Case Study

    World Bank (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2017-06-30)
    Botswana has had a stable democratic
 government and good governance since independence in 1966.
 With a sustained high average economic growth (about 9
 percent) fueled by the diamond mining industry, it is the
 only country in Africa listed among the 13 'economic
 miracles' of the world for 1960-2005. The total
 fertility rate remains high in Sub-Saharan Africa, with 25
 countries showing a rate greater than 5.0. In contrast,
 Botswana experienced the greatest fertility decline in the
 region during 1980-2006, with the total fertility rate
 decreasing from 7.1 in 1981 to 3.2 in 2006. The Botswana
 national family planning program, judged the strongest in
 Africa, contributed to this decline. The government strongly
 committed to meeting family planning needs, integrated
 maternal and child health/family planning (MCH/FP) and
 sexually transmitted infection (STI) services in 1973. The
 government spends about 18 percent of its total budget on
 health, a higher proportion than the Abuja
 declaration's target of 15 percent.
  • Vietnam : Developing a Modern Pension System--Current Challenges and Options for Future Reform

    World Bank (Washington, DC, 2017-06-15)
    With declining fertility and rising life
 expectancy, the Vietnamese population is expected to age
 rapidly, making the development of a modern social security
 system a pressing priority for Vietnam. The current system
 faces a number of major challenges, including low coverage
 rates in both the formal and informal sectors, inequities
 between different participant groups, lack of financial
 sustainability, and weak capacity for management and
 implementation of social insurance programs. Reforms are
 needed urgently to expand coverage, promote fairness,
 improve financial sustainability, and modernize the social
 security administration in order to help ensure income
 security for Vietnam's aging population in the coming
 decades. This note aims to contribute to the policy
 discussions around possible revisions to the social
 insurance code foreseen for 2013 by reviewing some of these
 challenges and possible reform options.
  • Mongolia Quarterly Economic Update, August 2011

    World Bank (Washington, DC, 2017-06-13)
    The Mongolian economy is experiencing
 rapid growth in 2011 the second quarter saw the economy
 growing at a whopping 17.3 percent year on year, compared to
 9.9 percent in the first quarter. Transportation and
 construction grew at 39.9 percent and 38.4 percent,
 respectively, while retail and wholesale trade grew at 24.7
 percent, with Mongolians spending more on consumption as a
 result of higher incomes. The mining and manufacturing
 sectors recorded respectable growth rates of 8.3 and 12.9
 percent yoy in the second quarter, respectively. Reflecting
 the higher growth, unemployment declined from 13 percent in
 December 2010 to 8.7 percent in June. Informal labor markets
 for unskilled workers are also booming, with real wages
 nearly doubling between December 2010 and June 2011.
 Mongolia's economic outlook depends heavily on global
 macroeconomic factors: the current uncertainty and poor
 growth prospects for the global economy are cause for
 concern. If there is another global recession,
 Mongolia's small, open economy will be affected. In
 that case, China's policy reaction will be crucial for Mongolia.
  • Improving Trade and Transport for Landlocked Developing Countries : A Ten-Year Review

    World Bank Group; UN-OHRLLS (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2015-04-28)
    Landlocked developing countries (LLDCs)
 are completely dependent on their transit neighbors 
 infrastructure and administrative procedures to transport
 their goods to port. This publication provides a
 comprehensive ten-year review in order to assess the
 progress made in improving access of LLDCs to global
 markets, identify the remaining challenges faced by LLDCs,
 and present improved and innovative ways to overcome them.
 This publication is based on the practical knowledge from
 implementing the Almaty Program policies, shared by both of
 our institutions. It provides a snapshot of the economic
 trends in LLDCs, with regard to trade costs, connectivity
 constraints and trade diversification. It reviews the key
 access policies in the Almaty Program of Action framework
 that include infrastructure, transport and logistics
 services, regional integration, trade and transit
 facilitation. It combines data and substantial feedback from
 implemented projects and policy changes. The focus of the
 document is general in scope and does not include detailed
 economic or policy analysis of all the potential components
 of reforms. The publication is organized as follows:
 Chapter1: Economics of Landlockedness; Chapter 2:
 Connectivity Constraints; Chapter 3: Hinterland Connections;
 Chapter 4: Transit and Trade Facilitation, Regional
 Integration; Chapter 5: Physical Connectivity, Corridors.
 This document is based primarily on the experience of
 project implementation by the World Bank, and on analytical
 work on trade corridors and LLDCs, including reports and
 presentations on progress in implementing the Almaty Program
 of Action.
  • Economic Reforms, Growth, and Governance : The Political Economy Aspects of Bangladesh's Development Surprise

    Mahmud, Wahiduddin; Ahmed, Sadiq; Mahajan, Sandeep (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2017-08-28)
    Bangladesh has in recent decades
 achieved reasonably rapid economic growth and significant
 progress in social development indicators despite many
 impediments: the desperate initial conditions after gaining
 independence, lack of resources, natural disasters,
 widespread corruption, and a record of systemic governance
 failure. By identifying the sources of growth stimulus and
 the drivers of social transformation, the paper addresses
 what it calls Bangladesh's development surprise. The
 policy-making process is analyzed as the outcome of
 incentives created by patronage politics as opposed to the
 compulsion for the government to play an effective
 developmental role. The paper examines the governance-growth
 nexus as affecting the pace and quality of growth and its
 inclusiveness. If the governance environment has been barely
 adequate to cope with an economy breaking out of stagnation
 and extreme poverty, it increasingly may prove a barrier to
 putting the economy firmly on a path of modernization and
 global integration. Bangladesh's experience also shows
 that it is possible to make rapid initial progress in many
 social development indicators by creating awareness through
 successful social mobilization campaigns and by reaping the
 gains from affordable low-cost solutions. Further progress,
 however, will require increased public social spending and
 improved quality of public service delivery.
  • Institutional Development and Good Governance in the Highway Sector : Learning from Gujarat

    Bandyopadhyay, Arnab; Stankevich, Natalya (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2017-08-15)
    The World Bank financed the Gujarat
 State Highway Project (GSHP) during 2001-07. The project
 development objective was to enhance the capacity of the
 Government of Gujarat (GOG) for effective and efficient
 planning and management of road infrastructure, while
 concurrently maximizing existing road infrastructure asset
 productivity through priority investments and increased
 maintenance funding. The project not only achieved its
 objective and targets successfully, but also was implemented
 with a significant cost reduction (about 23 percent). The
 GSHP resulted in a reduction in the backlog of major
 maintenance and an improved network to meet rapidly growing
 transport demand in the state. The project had the unique
 distinction of no contract disputes, a rarity among the
 highway development projects in India. The project also set
 best practices in developing and managing a very
 comprehensive asset management system, state of the art
 quality assurance framework and a very comprehensive
 training and capacity building program. The annual road
 sector allocation has grown from USD 30 million in 1995-1996
 to an impressive USD 610 million in 2010-11, currently the
 second largest among all the Indian states. This study
 attempts to identify the key elements of the Gujarat road
 sector reforms and explores whether and, if so, how such
 reforms can be replicated across other Indian states and
 possibly even in other countries in the region.
  • Unhappy Development : Dissatisfaction with Life on the Eve of the Arab Spring

    Arampatzi, Efstratia; Burger, Martijn; Ianchovichina, Elena; Röhricht, Tina; Veenhoven, Ruut (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2015-12-18)
    Despite progress in economic and social
 development in the 2000s, there was an increasing
 dissatisfaction with life among the population of many
 developing Arab countries. At the end of the decade, these
 countries ranked among the least happy economies in the
 world—a situation that fits the so-called “unhappy
 development” paradox. The paradox is defined as declining
 levels of happiness at a time of moderate-to-rapid economic
 development. This paper empirically tests the strength of
 association of a range of objective and subjective factors
 with life evaluation in the Middle East and North Africa
 region in the years immediately preceding the Arab Spring
 uprisings (2009–10). The findings suggest a significant,
 negative association between life satisfaction levels in the
 region during this period and each of the main perceived
 reasons for the 2011 uprisings—dissatisfaction with the
 standard of living, poor labor market conditions, and corruption.
  • When Elites Meet : Decentralization, Power-Sharing, and Public Goods Provision in Post-Conflict Sierra Leone

    Clayton, Amanda; Noveck, Jennifer; Levi, Margaret (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2015-07-17)
    Over the past decade, decentralization
 of fiscal and policy-making authority has become a
 cornerstone of development organizations’ recommendations
 for good governance. Yet the institutional design of
 multilayered government can create tensions as new elites
 attempt to fill governing spaces long occupied by
 traditional patrons. This paper uses the case of
 post-conflict Sierra Leone to explore the power-sharing
 dynamics between traditional hereditary chiefs and newly
 elected community councilors, and how these dynamics affect
 the provision of local public goods. The paper uses data on
 several measures of local service provision and finds that
 councilor/chief relationships defined by competition are
 associated with higher levels of public goods provision as
 well as greater improvements in these goods between council
 areas over time. Relationships defined by frequent contact
 in the absence of disputes as well as higher frequencies of
 familial ties between the two sets of actors are associated
 with worse local development outcomes. This evidence
 suggests that greater competition between elite groups is
 beneficial for local development, whereas collusion or
 cooption between old and new elites harms the provision of
 local public goods.
  • Scaling Up and Sustaining Innovation Policies and Projects : Schumpeterian Development Agencies in Small Open Economies

    Breznitz, Dan; Ornston, Darius (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2017-05-30)
    This paper examines how two historically
 low-technology economies, Finland and Israel, assumed
 leadership in new, rapid innovation-based industries. The
 paper argues that Schumpeterian development agencies, the
 Finnish Fund for Research and Development and the Israeli
 Office of the Chief Scientist in the Ministry of Trade and
 Industry played a transformative role, introducing new
 science and technology policies and facilitating industrial
 restructuring. In contrast to literature on the
 developmental state, however, argues that these agencies
 were located the periphery of the public sector, with few
 hard resources. The paper describes how their peripheral
 location facilitated successful experimentation. It also
 explains how ostensibly marginal agencies could successfully
 scale and monitor new initiatives. More specifically, it
 argues that reform-oriented policy-makers in small states
 could leverage extensive inter-personal networks to
 facilitate scaling and international openness to facilitate
 monitoring. In identifying specific mechanisms by which
 policy-makers introduced, scaled and monitored policies, it
 also explains why these two historically innovative
 economies have struggled to support experimentation in
 recent years.
  • Homicide Data, Third Revision

    Fearon, James D. (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2017-06-27)
    This brief paper summarizes results from
 an analysis of the World Development Report (WDR) homicide
 dataset (February 24, 2010), which is based primarily on
 estimates from the United Nations Office against Drugs and
 Crime (UNODC), with some changes or additions from national
 sources and the World Health organization (WHO). Although
 homicide rates appear to be the most reliable cross-national
 measure of crime, the best estimates have are still probably
 much less reliable than parallel measures have for presence
 and scale of civil conflict involving organized armed
 groups. This is so for two main reasons. First, the data are
 collected and reported by country agencies (police,
 usually), and procedures, definitions, and competence can
 vary greatly across countries and over time within them.
 Looking at the time series for particular countries suggests
 in many cases that large changes must be due to changed
 procedures or data collection policies, rather than changes
 in actual homicide rates. Second, there is a great deal of
 missing data.
  • Latin America and the Caribbean : Getting Fit for the Next Big Challenge

    Kim, Jim Yong (2016-05-23)
    Jim Yong Kim, President of the World Bank Group, discusses how to boost Latin America’s growth. 
 The region needs to increase productivity, spur innovation, and adapt its productive
 structure to changing circumstances which must become a
 national priority for all countries, independent of their
 political cycles and ideologies. Improving
 logistics and infrastructure, education, and the contractual
 environment are critical to advance development in the
 region. World Bank Group is working with the Haitian Government
 and the private sector to introduce best practices in
 public-private partnerships and to create opportunities for
 the Haitian people who have been waiting so long for them.
 He concludes by saying that providing disadvantaged children
 access to a quality education raises their productive
 capacity and enhances social inclusion through higher
 employability leading to higher growth and improved 
 quality of life.
  • The World Bank Annual Report 2003 : Volume 2. Financial Statements and Appendixes

    World Bank (Washington, DC, 2013-06-13)
    The World Bank Annual Report for 2003,
 reviews the strategy and action pursued by the Bank, based
 on the Strategic Framework, and Strategic Directions (and
 Management Action Plan), focused on meeting the development
 challenges embodied in the Millennium Development Goals
 (MDGs). To this end, the Bank sharpened its policies,
 programs, and instruments to support its central mission of
 reducing poverty, through improved performance monitoring,
 and management, and improved harmonization of operational
 policies, procedures, and practices among donors. The Bank
 also considered other issues, such as its role in the
 reconstruction of Iraq, the introduction of the grants
 component in the 13th Replenishment of the International
 Development Association (IDA), the Operation Evaluation
 Department's (OED) review of the Heavily Indebted Poor
 Countries (HIPC) Initiative, and, market access for exports
 from developing countries. Methods for combating terrorism,
 and money laundering were also considered during the period
 under review. The document presents thematic (and regional)
 perspectives based on two pillars - poverty reduction and
 economic management - and how to invest in people, towards
 an environmentally, and socially responsible growth, that
 supports private sector development, infrastructure
 development, financial management, and, promotes appropriate
 legal and judicial systems. The second Volume presents the
 financial statements for the period July 1, 2002 to June 30,
 2003, reporting development activities (loans, guarantees,
 and other activities), including liquidity management,
 funding resources, and financial risk management.
  • The Road Traveled : Dubai's Journey towards Improving Private Education - A World Bank Review

    Thacker, Simon; Cuadra, Ernesto (2016-03-29)
    As Dubai has grown over the last two
 decades, the demand for private education has grown with it,
 a reflection of the number of expatriates settling in the
 city. Today, 88 percent of all students attend private
 schools. The surge in demand over this period had in fact
 been so significant that authorities, recognizing the need
 to establish a specific governmental entity to oversee the
 sector s expansion, moved to create the Knowledge and Human
 Development Authority (KHDA) in 2007. Given the city-state s
 unique context (in which a majority of the population are
 expatriates, not Emiratis), the immediate challenge for this
 new public institution was to identify an appropriate
 approach for regulating a private education sector. The main
 objective of the present review is to understand what has
 motivated KHDA s policy initiatives, what principles have
 guided design, how they were operationalized, and how they
 function in real life situations today. In what follows, we
 look first at the broader context of the issue by giving a
 brief overview of: (i) the growth of private sector
 education; and (ii) the rise of public governance reform
 initiatives in the global education policy agenda. The
 authors then turn to the case of Dubai: the authors present
 the argument in the road not traveled before reviewing how
 that policy framework was translated into its present
 institutional configuration in Dubai through the development
 of the institutions that came into being. The authors then
 reflect on the policy framework in operation, showing how
 the constituent components function together. The authors
 end by suggesting some options on potential ways forward
 that will further enhance the system.

    Alexandru ARSENI; Veronica POZNEACOVA (Moldova State University, 2021-03-01)
    <p>Viața parlamentară ca și cea politică de astăzi operează permanent cu sintagmele „republica parlamentară” și „republica prezidențială”, fără a cunoaște esența autentică și semnificația lor. Forma de guvernământ ca organizare a puterii de stat este cunoscută și pe larg expusă încă din Antichitate în lucrările, mai cu seamă, ale lui Aristotel. Respectiv, pornind de la cele expuse mai sus, putem concluziona că ideile lui Aristotel sunt esențiale pentru știința dreptului, în general, și cea a dreptului constituțional, în particular. Studiului dat este dedicat cercetării formelor de guvernământ prin prisma ideilor exprimate de marele filosof, fiindcă anume capitolele <em>Politicii </em>și ale<em> Eticii nicomahice</em>, în care gânditorul certetează schim­barea formelor de guvernământ, oglindesc, pe de o parte, originalitatea gândirii lui Aristotel, iar, pe de altă parte, reprezintă și o actualitatea practică în cadrul științei dreptului constituțional contemporan.</p><p> </p><p><strong>STATE ORGANISATION OF POWER - FROM ARISTOTLE TO THE PRESENT</strong></p><p> The parliamentary life, like today's political life, constantly operates with the phrases “Parliamentary Republic” and “Presidential Republic” without knowing their true essence and meaning. The form of government, as an organisation of the state power, has been known and widely described since ancient times in a large number of works, in particular those of Aristotle. So, we could conclude that Aristotle’s ideas are crucial for the legal science in general and constitutional law in particular. This research is dedicated to the study of different forms of government through the prism of the ideas expressed by the great philosopher. The Nicomachean Ethics and Politics, in which the thinker investigates the changing forms of government, reflect, on the one hand, the originality of Aristotle’s thinking and, on the other hand, has practical relevance in the science of modern constitutional law.</p>

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