• 'But you can't compare Malawi and Ireland!' - shifting boundaries in a globalised world

      Gaynor, Niamh (Routledge, 2010)
      Although global influences - in the form of international finance coupled with discourses of partnership, participation, good governance, and democracy - exercise an increasing influence on national and local governance arrangements worldwide, comparative studies across the traditional South/North divide remain extremely rare. Drawing on findings from a comparative study of Malawi's PRSP and Ireland's national Social Partnership process, this article demonstrates that a shifting of conceptual boundaries beyond traditionally delineated geographic borders is not just valid but essential, in that it helps to reveal new perspectives on the politics underlying globalised development processes and the transformative potential of those processes.
    • 'Global civil society' and hegemonic global governance: a Gramscian analysis of the NGO campaigns to ban landmines and cluster munitions

      Connolly, Eileen; O'Dwyer, Diana (Dublin City University. School of Law and Government, 2014-11)
      This thesis uses a historical materialist Gramscian framework to develop an alternative, critical analysis of two post-Cold War international arms control campaigns by non-governmental organisations (NGO) – the International Campaign to Ban Landmines (ICBL) in the early to mid-1990s and the Cluster Munitions Coalition (CMC) a decade later. Dominant liberal and liberal-constructivist narratives portray the campaigns as indicative of a broader ‘power shift’ in the international system towards traditionally less influential actors, including NGOs as representatives of an emerging ‘global’ or ‘transnational’ civil society, small and middle power states, and intergovernmental organisations (IGOs). This is seen to have arisen from the decreased polarisation of the international system since the end of the Cold War and the globalisation of the information revolution, which are said to have enhanced the salience of soft or communicative power and contributed to an emergent, more multi-actor and more democratic system of global governance networks in which NGOs, small and middle powers and IGOs can increase their influence by working in ‘partnership’ – yet all concerned maintain their fundamental autonomy and independence. By contrast, drawing on Gramsci’s understanding of civil and political society as integral components of capitalist states that are dominated by elite interests and interact in the reproduction of capitalist hegemony, this thesis shows how both campaigns were driven by large, professionalised Western NGOs despite their ‘global civil society’ appearance; depended on likeminded sections of the Western donor community of Western governments, IGOs and private foundations for support; and ultimately exerted international influence through reconstructing the legitimacy of existing Western- dominated international military and economic power structures on an alternative ‘humanitarian’, more pluralistic, and ostensibly more democratic basis. This reflected the normally hegemonic, non- autonomous role of civil society from a Gramscian perspective in generating consent to states’ monopoly of force and the class interests this protects, but also the neoliberal restructuring of states since the 1980s towards privatisation and outsourcing of governance functions to NGOs, including at the international level. This has increased the resources available to NGOs and their international influence, while simultaneously reducing their autonomy from the Western donor community and integrating them more tightly into international governance structures and the increasingly transnationalised interests of Western states.
    • 04 ブータンのGNH(国民総幸福)国家経営に学ぶ -日本の小規模自治体でもとり組める-

      Ohashi, Terue; 大橋, 照枝 (神奈川大学国際経営研究所, 2011-11-24)
      ヒマラヤ山脈の東側の内陸国で人口67万人の小国ブータン、先代のジグメ・シンゲ・ワンチュク第四代国王が1976年に提唱した「GNP (国民総生産)よりGNH (国民総幸福)が大事」との国家方針にもとづいて、貧困率23.2% (ブータン生活水準調査2007)にもかかわらず、97%の国民が“幸福”(2005年国勢調査)と答える幸福立国を実現している。 憲法でGNHを国是とうたい、国の行政機関10省及び複数の庁で、その業務の中でGNHを実践し、上部組織GNH委員会が統括する組織体制はもちろんのこと、第四代国王が1972年16歳で即位後、国連を初めUNDP、世界銀行など多くの国際機関に加盟し、GNHへ賛同を得、国家予算の30%もの援助を獲得、教育と医療を無料にするなどの“良き統治”を行使している。チベット仏教の浸透による互助・互恵が、GDP (国内総生産)には計上されないがしかし幸福や満足の源泉となっていることなどがある。日本でも東京都荒川区がブータンにならってGAH (グロス・アラカワ・ハッピネス)をかかげて実践に入るなど、小規模な自治体単位での取り組みの広がりが期待できる。 Himalayan small and poor country with 670thousand population Bhutan, 97% of people answered "happy" by sensus 2005, according to the good governance by the 4th king Jigme Singye Wangchuck. He announced that Gross National Happiness is more important than Gross National Product after the international conference at Colombo. In the Constitution article 9, Bhutan declare that The State shall strive to promote those conditions that will enable to pursue the Gross National Happiness. And all the administration endeavor to fulfill GNH in their daily work, and GNH commission supervise the result. The 4th king joined many International organizations such as UN, UNDP, IMF, FAO, World Bank, WHO, UNESCO and so on, and drew economic aid. That's amount 30% of Bhutanese budget and achieve free education and free medical care. By the strong Buddhism, people help each other for free, that's not counted GDP. Arakawa Tokyo declared Gross Arakawa Happiness followed to Bhutan. So small local government of Japan can learn much about Bhutan.

      Uniwersytet Ekonomiczny we Wrocławiu; Kwiecińska, Monika (Seria SWSPiZ w Łodzi: Studia i Monografie, nr 18, 2008, 2016-05-31)
      This paper aim at identifying types oforganizationał culture in non-profit organizations on the basis of the authors own research conducted over the period of 2005-2006. The research covered 120 associations and foundation in the Lower Silesi area. Various research techniiques were used including participative observation, documcntation analysis and research surveys.
 The object of study involved assorted manifestations of organizational culture, such
 as norms, values, degree of formalization , management style, participation power approach to changes approach to human resources.
 Analysis and typology of organizational culture, as applied for the purpose of
 the study, was based on a model introduced by Ł. Sułkowski in "Procesy kulturowe worganizacjach. Koncepcja, badania i typologia kultur organizacyjnych [Cultural processes in organizalions. Concept, research and typology of organizalional cultures].
 The research finding demonstrate that organizational culture manifested in the
 organizations under study falls under the so -called "dynamiec community" category.
 The issues presented in this paper are significant. as an attempt at bridging the gap
 in subject literature with regard to non-profit organizations in genera as well as selected problems of organizational culture.
    • 1 GOOD GOVERNANCE AND THE EMERGENCE OF A PUBLIC SPHERE: Gazing Upon the Reform of Islamic law in Indonesia

      The Pennsylvania State University CiteSeerX Archives (2016-09-07)
      Tulisan ini menyorot fenomena good governance dikaitkan dengan munculnya ruang public (public sphere) di tengah-tengah masyarakat Indonesia. Penulis mengambil kasus gagasan Counter Legal Draft Kompilasi Hukum Islam dan berbagai corak reaksi dan respon masyarakat sebagai contoh ruang publik yang patut diapresiasi. Sebagai kesimpulan, dapat dikatakan bahwa ketersediaan ruang publik tidak lebih dari sekadar penciptaan iklim/atmosfir yang kondusif dan kokoh untuk melanjutkan agenda pembangunan good governance yang masih belum berjalan seutuhnya. ƨǏȐŬơ
    • 1 World Manga : Passages

      Ng, Leandro; Wong, Walden; Roman, Annette (San Francisco: VIZ Media and World Bank, 2007)
      The first World Manga series offers a premise where the hero must grapple with social problems of a global magnitude that are set in the real world. Fifteen year-old orphan Rei survives by his wits and guts on the mean streets of the world. His fortunes take a strange turn when he meets a trainer wielding some powerful transformational magic who offers to coach him to achieve his dream of becoming the greatest marital artist in the world! But it seems Rei's trainer is more interested in developing his mind, spirit and ugh! Heart than his thrashing, raging, and fighting moves! The stakes get higher when Rei meets a young woman fighting just to survive! Can Rei meets vanquish the specter of poverty? This publication includes some of the following headings: poverty - a ray of light; HIV/AIDS - first love; child soldiers of boys and men; global warming - the lagoon of the vanishing fish; girl's education - life lessons; corruption - broken trust; and interview with the author of the first World Bank Manga (passage one to passage six).
    • 1. A Look at the Relevant Literature

      Finiguerra, Anna (Graduate Institute Publications, 2020-06-30)
      1.1 Migration, Security and Order How to contextualise the study of resistance, through the concept and practice of solidarity, and in the larger scope of migration studies? Firstly, it is necessary to review how migration has become a crucial security issue in recent decades, justifying draconian measures to keep mobile people outside national borders or at least to keep them in place. In this larger process of securitisation, humanitarian initiatives and interventions can be understood less...
    • 1. Introduction

      Beerli, Monique Jo (Graduate Institute Publications, 2013-11-25)
      This vicarious responsibility for things we have not done, this taking upon ourselves the consequences for things we are entirely innocent of, is the price we pay for the fact that we live our lives not by ourselves but among our fellow men, and that the faculty of action, which, after all, is the political faculty par excellence, can be actualized only in one of the many and manifold forms of human community. – Hannah Arendt In an international initiative published in fourteen languages, Pal...
    • 1. Introduction

      Rix, Meredydd (Graduate Institute Publications, 2021-03-22)
      This study sets out to do two things. Firstly, it seeks to contribute to the burgeoning literature on ontological security in International Relations (IR). In much of the literature to date, there has been a conflation of identity and selfhood and the casualty of this has very often been the ontological. Drawing on the work of Huysmans and Bauman, among others, I seek to sketch an account of ontological security that recentres the role of ontology and selfhood, which is what separates ontolog...
    • 1. Introduction

      Yap, Zong Yao Edison (Graduate Institute Publications, 2021-04-08)
      “I say simply: Germany is a strong country. The mindset in which we tackle these things [the 2015 so-called “refugee crisis”] should be: we have achieved so much – we can do this! We will manage this and what stands in our way will be overcome and worked on.” (German Chancellor Angela Merkel at the Sommerpressekonferenz on 31 August 2015) “Wir schaffen das” or “we will manage this” has come to be one of the defining statements of German Chancellor Angela Merkel’s political career. It marked t...
    • 1. Political Sci IJPSLIR Innovation And Transformation In ISIFE CHIMA THERESA

      This paper discussed how innovation and transformation in conflict resolution in Nigeria will enhance sustainable development using secondary data. It also reviewed theories and models in conflict resolution, the African methods of conflict resolution, Grassroots community-based activities, good governance, communication, collaboration, negotiation, conciliation, mediation and crisis management as methods of conflict resolution that require innovation and transformation in conflict resolution. The paper concluded that it is important that innovation and transformation in communication, collaboration, dialogue, conciliation, mediation and proper crisis management are equally needed to resolve conflict in other to achieve sustainable development in Nigeria. Recommendations that the government should be actively involved in transforming peacemaking through formal processes and institutions of government such as policy making and peace building activities, among others which prevent conflict.
    • 1. Theory

      Hohmann, Sebastian (Graduate Institute Publications, 2012-07-25)
      This section presents a model of the political economy of sovereign borrowing. I show that changes in the sizes of two sets – one composed of the group of people potentially with political say in a country, the other, a subset of the former, containing the government’s supporters – have an unambiguous influence on sovereign borrowing. Everything else equal, governments maintained in power by smaller (and thus more loyal) groups of supporters tend to default more often. Since lenders expect to...
    • 1. « L’européanisation » progressive des politiques d’immigration et d’asile

      Breton, Léa (Graduate Institute Publications, 2012-06-08)
      Alors que l’autorisation d’entrée et de sortie sur un territoire constitue traditionnellement une prérogative des États, la convention de Genève de 1951 donne une définition des réfugiés (article 1) et impose à ses signataires des obligations internationales à leur égard, notamment le principe de non-refoulement (article 33). En parallèle à ce système international, des discussions en matière d’immigration et d’asile ont lieu entre les États européens tout au long du xxe siècle, jusqu’à ce qu...
    • 1. Introduction

      Biffi, Leopoldo (Graduate Institute Publications, 2021-02-09)
      The late 2000s represented a phase of forward-looking reform for the trade policy of the European Union (EU). A European “possibility space” arose whereby Treaty of Lisbon reforms (2009) intertwined with policy strategies such as “Global Europe,” calling for greater proactiveness in the conclusion of bilateral free trade agreements (FTAs) (European Commission 2006). However, the legacy of Global Europe and Lisbon has also been accompanied by an unprecedented contentiousness of trade issues in...
    • 11.701 Introduction to International Development Planning, Fall 2010

      Rajagopal, Balakrishnan (2014-11-14)
      This introductory survey course is intended to develop an understanding of key issues and dilemmas of planning in non-western countries. The topics covered in this course will include state intervention, governance, law and institutions in development, privatization, participatory planning, decentralization, poverty, urban-rural linkages, corruption and civil service reform, trade and outsourcing, labor standards, post-conflict development, and the role of aid in development. The course will illuminate current development challenges through published research in the field. The literature is rich, and across many disciplines in the social sciences. Case studies and real world examples through interaction with planning practitioners are drawn from around the world.
    • 11.701 Introduction to Planning and Institutional Processes in Developing Countries, Fall 2004

      Sanyal, Bishwapriya (2007-03-16)
      The planning process in developing countries. Interaction between planners and institutions at both national and local levels. Overview of theories of state, organizational arrangements, implementation mechanisms, and planning styles. Case studies of planning: decentralization, provision of low-cost housing, and new-town development. Analyzes various roles planners play in different institutional contexts. Professional ethics and values amidst conflicting demands. Restricted to first-year M.C.P. and SPURS students.
    • 11.701 Introduction to Planning and Institutional Processes in Developing Countries, Fall 2004

      Sanyal, Bishwapriya (2004-12)
      The planning process in developing countries. Interaction between planners and institutions at both national and local levels. Overview of theories of state, organizational arrangements, implementation mechanisms, and planning styles. Case studies of planning: decentralization, provision of low-cost housing, and new-town development. Analyzes various roles planners play in different institutional contexts. Professional ethics and values amidst conflicting demands. Restricted to first-year M.C.P. and SPURS students.
    • 11.701 Introduction to Planning and Institutional Processes in Developing Countries, Fall 2005

      Sanyal, Bishwapriya (2012-03-09)
      This introductory course is structured to cultivate the key sensibilities necessary for effective planning practice in newly industrializing countries. The word "sensibility" refers to an awareness of key developmental issues, interdependent causalities, and anticipated as well as unanticipated consequences of social action which mark most planning efforts. In cultivating such sensibilities, this course will use examples from varying institutional settings, ranging from the local to the international levels, and probe how the particularities of each setting call for an awareness of particular institutional opportunities and constraints that planners need to account for when devising planning strategies.

      © Impact Journals
      With the introduction of economic reforms in the early 1990s and a greater integration of the Indian economy into the global markets, there has been an increasing strategic importance of cities from an economic, political, and demographic perspective. This has led to the promotion of decentralization governance policies as part of the reform triptych ‘decentralization-privatization-participation’. In India, this is apparent in the landmark 74th Constitutional Amendment Act on urban local self-governance. In this paper, we shall attempt to examine how this evolving shift towards cities as economic and decision-making actors has led to the rearticulation of claims and a renewed form of mobilization of urban dwellers. However, many scholars have emphasized that instead of a more egalitarian imagination of citizenship this has created gentrified channels of participation by the introduction of elite discourses and strategies by the Indian middle class. This has been increasingly located within the realm of ‘new politics’, which has come to define forms of governmentality of the post-liberalization state. This paper aims to investigate the impact of middle-class activism on local governance by understanding the contextual factors leading to the emergence of Resident Welfare Associations (henceforth referred to as RWAs) and umbrella RWA organizations in Delhi, and how they have influenced various public policy outcomes at the local and state level. Although these mobilizations are rooted in the local, certain generalizations can be culled from it as neighborhood associations are on the rise in all large cities in India. By examining the spatial politics and contestations located in ‘new politics’, it is argued that an analysis of the political practices of the new Indian middle class deepens our understanding of the political dynamics of economic reform in contemporary India. This also provides us with an analytical frame to understand citizen negotiations with the state, market and the civil society in the backdrop of newer cultural and political economies of liberalization. By undertaking an analysis of participatory urban governance schemes such as Bhagidari and Mohalla Sabhas, this paper would also attempt to investigate the transformations that have taken place in local democratic politics of Indian cities and questions of inclusion/exclusion located within it.
    • 2. A Roadmap to Transnational Solidarity in the Occupied Palestinian Territories

      Beerli, Monique Jo (Graduate Institute Publications, 2013-11-26)
      In September 1993, Yitzhak Rabin, the Prime Minister of Israel, and Yasser Arafat, the leader of the Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO), famously shook hands on the White House lawn following the signing of the Oslo Accords. Yet, as peace between the Israelis and the Palestinians finally seemed within reach after nearly 25 years of ongoing military occupation and conflict, practices on the ground attested to another reality. Throughout the 1990s, Israel endorsed land expropriation in t...