客家課程與多元文化教育之落實－以臺北市社區大學為例;The Implementation of Hakka Courses and Multicultural Education – A case study of Taipei Community Colleges
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Abstract[[abstract]]本研究以臺北市十二所社區大學歷年開設之客家課程為研究範圍，試圖梳理客家課程的開課歷程，探討理想的課程內容，分析課程之現況、困境與未來發展方向。同時也探究社區大學、教師及學員對多元文化教育理念之理解，及落實於客家課程的看法。在研究方法上以深度訪談為主要研究方法，總共訪談九所社區大學的主管或行政人員、十一位客家課程教師及二十六位學員，彙整教師及學員對課程設計及課程內容的理念與期望。研究結果發現，社區大學的客家課程是隨著客語政策而開始開設，課程內容及學分費是影響學員報名意願的重要因素。以往講授客語為主的客家課程，在持續發展上出現瓶頸，課程應轉型為結合客家文化及客語，可依學員的需求，由教師設計具客家主體性且生動豐富的課程，教師也應充實客家知能與教學技巧，亦可將多元文化教育之理念適度落實於課程中。客家課程能否順利成班，與客家行政機關重視程度及補助經費多寡直接相關，隨著補助款逐年減少，課程無法開班的現象逐漸增加。建議客家行政機關應增加補助金額，放寬課程須以教授客語為主之限制，賦予教師調整教學內容的彈性，觀察課程轉型後之成效。客家課程之未來發展仍有賴客家行政機關、社區大學、教師及學員共同重視及努力。;This study recruits the historical Hakka courses taken by 12 community colleges of Taipei city as examples, aims to consolidate their commencing process, explore the ideal course content and analyze the current status, challenges and future development of the curriculum. In the meantime, this study further discusses the understanding of multicultural education concept and its implementation in Hakka courses by investigating the perception of community colleges, lecturers and trainees. An in-depth interview was employed as the primarily research method. A total 9 school executives/administrators, 11 lecturers of Hakka courses and 26 trainees were interviewed to congregate the concepts and expectations for curriculum content and design. Research findings indicate that community colleges initiate to launch Hakka courses follow the promotion of Hakka language policy; the content and credit fees of a training course are essential to trainees’ enrollment willingness. Former Hakka courses focused on language teaching and limited its development; however, the courses should be transformed into an integration of Hakka culture and Hakka language. Lecturers would design Hakka subjectivity, vivid and rich curriculum based on the needs of students, moreover, enhance Hakka knowledge, ability and teaching skills, as well as apply the concept of multicultural education to courses. Whether a Hakka course be commenced or not directly influenced by the degree of attention of Hakka Administrative Agencies and the amount of subsidies. With the decreasing of subsidiary grants, the courses which not been issued are increased. It is suggested that Hakka Administrative Agencies might raise the amount of subsidies, relax the restriction against Hakka courses must language-based regulation, authorize lecturer to adjust teaching contents; and then observe the effectiveness of the courses transformation. The future development of Hakka course shall continuous relying on the emphases and joint efforts of Hakka Administrative Agencies, community colleges, lecturers and trainees.