Transitions in a life-world: Looking backward and forward after forty-five years of social pedagogical research and teaching in Leuven.
Keywordssocial and cultural pedagogy; historical transformations; adult education; youth education; social work
pedagogía social y cultural; transformaciones históricas; educación de adultos; educación de la juventud; trabajo social
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AbstractThe paper presents the author’s reflection on research and teaching over a period of 45 years in a social pedagogy program in the Leuven University (Belgium). While the case is interesting in its own right, it holds broader significance for its contribution to understanding developments in education, adult and community education and social work both in disciplinary terms and regarding practice. It presents the theoretical sources of inspiration from diverse linguistic, cultural, policy and academic contexts. The chronology is organized in four periods marked by turning points that were influenced by internal and external events. The first phase is the pioneering phase. The second is the crisis and recovery phase. The third is the multiplicity phase, and the last phase is that of reinvention. The paper also reflects on some of the major themes and issues that have directed developments in social and cultural pedagogy (both old and recent) such as issues of language, the emergence of a lifelong learning discourse, and the notions of community, solidarity and criticality.
Este artículo presenta la reflexión del autor a partir de su experiencia de 45 años como investigador y docente en un programa de pedagogía social de la Universidad de Lovaina (Bélgica). Si bien el caso es interesante en sí mismo, es particularmente significante por su contribución a la comprensión de la evolución de la educación de adultos, la educación comunitaria y el trabajo social, tanto en términos disciplinarios como prácticos. Se presenta las fuentes de inspiración teórica desde diversas contextos lingüísticos, culturales, políticos y académicos. La cronología está organizada en cuatro períodos marcados por puntos de inflexión influenciados por acontecimientos internos y externos. La primera es la fase pionera. La segunda es fase de crisis y recuperación. La tercera es la fase de multiplicidad, y la última fase es la de reinvención. El documento también examina algunos de los principales temas y cuestiones que han dirigido la evolución de la pedagogía social y cultural (tanto antigua como reciente), tales como lenguaje, la aparición del discurso de la educación permanente, y las nociones de comunidad, solidaridad y criticidad.
Este artigo apresenta reflexões do autor a partir de sua experiência de 45 anos como pesquisador e professor em um programa de pedagogia social na Universidade de Leuven (Bélgica). Enquanto o caso é interessante por si só, é particularmente significativa a sua contribuição para o entendimento da evolução da educação de adultos, a educação da comunidade e o trabalho social, tanto em termos disciplinares e práticos. Nós apresentamos as inspirações teóricas de diversos contextos linguísticos, culturais, políticos e acadêmicos. A cronologia está organizada em quatro períodos marcados por momentos de viragem em relação a eventos internos e externos. O primeiro é a fase pioneira. Em segundo lugar, a crise é a fase de recuperação. A terceira fase é da multiplicidade e a última fase é a reinvenção. Este trabalho também analisa alguns dos principais temas e questões que levaram a evolução (antiga e recente) da pedagogia social e cultural tais como a linguagem, a emergência do discurso da aprendizagem ao longo da vida, e as noções de comunidade, solidariedade e criticidade.
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Social Protection in Low Income Countries and Fragile Situations : Challenges and Future DirectionsOvadiya, Mirey; Zampaglione, Giuseppe; Das, Maitreyi; Andrews, Colin; Elder, John (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2013-05-28)Demand for social protection is growing in low income countries and fragile situations. In recent years, the success of social protection (SP) interventions in middle income countries (MICs) like Brazil and Mexico, along with the series of food, fuel, and financial crises, has prompted policymakers in low income countries (LICs) and fragile situations (FSs) to examine the possibility of introducing such programs in their own countries. Flagship programs in countries as diverse as Ethiopia, India, Pakistan, and Rwanda have shown the adaptability of social protection interventions to the LIC context. Yet, despite growing levels of support for these initiatives, many challenges remain. In LICs and FSs, governments are confronted with a nexus of mutually reinforcing deficits that increase the need for SP programs and simultaneously reduce their ability to successfully respond. Governments face hard choices about the type, affordability, and sustainability of SP interventions. The paper reviews how these factors affect SP programs in these countries and identifies ways to address the deficits. It supports the establishment of resilient SP systems to address specific needs and vulnerabilities and to respond flexibly to both slow and sudden onset crises. To achieve this, both innovation and pragmatism are required in three strategic areas: (i) building the basic blocks of SP systems (e.g., targeting, payments, and monitoring and evaluation); (ii) ensuring financial sustainability; and (iii) promoting good governance and transparency. These issues suggest the possibility of a different trajectory in the development of social protection in LICs than in MICs. The implications for World Bank support include the need to focus on increasing knowledge and operational effectiveness of SP programs, fostering institutional links between multiple SP programs, and using community capacity and technological innovations to overcome bottlenecks in operations.
Managing Risk, Promoting GrowthWorld Bank (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2016-02-08)A growing body of evidence demonstrates
that individuals and households experience a range of
positive outcomes from social protection. Social protection
increases productivity and growth. Countries can realize
significant benefits by creating an integrated social
protection system. Social protection is affordable in
low-income countries despite tight budgets. While overall
spending on social protection in Africa remains low by
international standards, experience suggests that social
protection programs can achieve national coverage at the
cost of only 1 to 2 percent of gross domestic product (GDP).
While this is only a portion of the financing required to
operate a social protection system, it draws attention to
what countries can achieve in the short-term. Indeed, one
way in which existing social protection spending can be made
significantly more efficient would be by reallocating
existing financing for inefficient subsidies and ad hoc
emergency food aid to predictable safety nets. At the same
time, pursuing reforms to social security systems will
ensure their fiscal sustainability, while expanding
coverage. Notably, the costs of not protecting poor families
are very high, are borne disproportionately by women and
children, and undermine the productivity of future
generations. The Strategy will be implemented by leveraging
partnerships, knowledge, and the World Bank's financing
instruments. The World Bank will continue to invest in
analytical work to fill knowledge gaps and promote an
evidence-based dialogue for social protection systems in
Africa and further innovation. It will work with governments
to build country-owned national social protection systems
with the aim of reducing fragmentation in the sector. The
Bank also will pay particular attention to institutional
development and capacity building by using its lending to
increase the coverage of successful social protection
interventions. Throughout this work, the Bank will work in
coordination with governments, development partners, the
private sector, academics, civil society, and beneficiaries.