Education Research International is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that considers scholarly, research-based articles on all aspects of education. As an international journal aimed at facilitating the global exchange of education theory, contributions from different educational systems and cultures are encouraged. The journal publishes research articles as well as review articles.


Library has vol. 1(2011) to current.

Recent Submissions

  • On Translating and Drafting Sharia Legal Terms and Expressions in Saudi Contracts

    Ghassan Nawaf Jaber Alhomoud (Hindawi Limited, 2022-01-01)
    The difficulty in translating legal sharia expressions and terminologies used in contracts arises from semantic, syntactic, pragmatic, contextual, and cultural features of the Islamic sharia expressions. The present study aims to address the problems arising when translating these contracts from Arabic into English and vice versa. It also aims to reassess the translations of several international business contracts translated from Arabic into English and vice versa to verify whether the legal Islamic terms and expressions have been accurately rendered or not. The Saudi legal system is based completely on sharia law. The Saudi contracts abound with religious expressions and terms, which sometimes have no equivalence in the English language. There is a crystal-clear cultural–religious gap between Arabic and English. The language of contracts must be accurate, precise, meaningful, and comprehensible. Any slight difference in translating these contracts might result in the loss of individual rights, which affects the foreign investments and the social life of residents and citizens. The present study is a qualitative study that adopts a critical hermeneutic method to address the highly controversial issues relating to the translation of Islamic legal terms and expressions. The study has found that the Islamic legal terms and expressions are translatable providing that the translator could use a hermeneutical translational approach. The study is original in the sense that it deals with the problems of translating the religious expressions embedded and constituted in the Saudi contracts.
  • The Level of Universities Students’ Test Wiseness in Jordan during Distance Learning in Light of Some Variables

    Mo’en Salman Alnasraween; Marwan Saleh Alsmadi; Habis Saad Al-zboon; Taha Oklah Alkurshe (Hindawi Limited, 2022-01-01)
    This study aimed to determine the level of students’ test wiseness during remote learning. The study sample included (391) students from Amman Arab University. A scale consisting of (28) items was deployed to the participants after assuring its validity and reliability. The results showed a high level of students’ test wiseness. Moreover, there were no statistically significant differences at (α=0.05) between the arithmetic means of the total degree of test wiseness attributed to the study variables, while there were statistically significant differences at (α=0.05) between the means of the dimension “Using of Time” on favor of male students. In addition, the findings elucidated that there were statistically significant differences at (α=0.05) between the arithmetic means of the dimension “Avoidance of Error” attributed to faculty in favor of the humanities faculties. Finally, the results showed statistically significant differences at (α=0.05) between the arithmetic means of the dimension “Deductive Thinking” attributed to the academic program in favor of master and bachelor students.
  • Effects of Explicit Reading Strategy Instruction on Grade 9 Students’ Achievement in Reading Comprehension

    Geleta Dugasa; Tamiru Olana; Sherif Ali (Hindawi Limited, 2022-01-01)
    The main objective of the study is to investigate the effects of explicit reading strategy instruction on students’ achievement in reading comprehension. In two intact classes, the treatment group received reading lessons accompanied by the three basic reading instructions, i.e., the pre-, the while, and the post-reading instructions through explicit reading strategy instruction, but the nontreatment group received reading lessons in the usual way of learning/teaching reading. The study employed an embedded design since data were collected using quantitative data-gathering instruments through reading comprehension tests before and after the intervention, and an interview was also employed to gather data about the treatment from the randomly selected participants from the treatment group. Statistical results were analyzed with an independent sample t-test and paired sample t-test from nontreatment (33) and treatment (35). The findings emphasized the importance of employing explicit reading strategy instruction in enabling readers to comprehend reading comprehension questions, especially it lets students properly handle reading comprehension questions that seek higher level thinking. On the top priority, to be good readers at comprehending reading comprehension questions that seek higher level thinking, classroom reading teachers are required to create opportunities for the readers while delivering reading lessons by presenting activities that go with the pre-, while, and post-reading instructions. Being one of the most important instructions in reading lesson presentations, secondary school language teachers are expected to present reading lessons through explicit reading strategy instruction.
  • Psychological Factors Affecting Language-Learning Process in Saudi Arabia: The Effect of Technology-Based Education on High School Students’ Motivation, Anxiety, and Attitude through Flipped Learning

    Khaled Ahmed Abdel-Al Ibrahim; Abeer Ahmed Ali; Salama Aqeel Al-mehsin; Poupak Alipour (Hindawi Limited, 2022-01-01)
    In recent years, technology-based tools have been used frequently in learning English as a foreign or second language. In addition, many studies have been conducted to examine the effects of technology-based tools on developing different types of language skills and subskills. Along the same line, this research examined the impacts of flipped learning as a kind of technology-based instruction on Saudi Arabia students’ motivation, anxiety, and attitude. To reach this objective, 58 students at the intermediate level from one high school in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia, were selected and assigned to two equal classes (flipped class and traditional class). After that, both classes were pretested with a motivation questionnaire and an anxiety questionnaire. Next, the flipped class received the treatment by applying the flipped instruction and the students of the other class received traditional instruction. After teaching six texts from Active Reading 1, the abovementioned motivation and anxiety questionnaires were readministered to both classes. Additionally, a questionnaire was given to the flipped class to find out how they felt about using flipped instruction for English language development. The results of independent samples and paired samples t-tests revealed that the flipped class outdid the traditional class both on the motivation and anxiety posttests. The outcomes discovered that using flipped instruction increased the students’ motivation and reduced their learning anxiety. Also, the results of the one-sample t-test depicted that the students of the flipped class presented a positive attitude toward the flipped instruction. This research may encourage English as a foreign language instructors to integrate technology into their teaching to improve learning results.
  • A Literature Review of Digital Literacy over Two Decades

    Danhua Peng; Zhonggen Yu (Hindawi Limited, 2022-01-01)
    The COVID-19 pandemic has forced online learning to be a “new normal” during the past three years, which highly emphasizes students’ improved digital literacy. This study aims to present a literature review of students’ digital literacy. Grounded on about twenty journal articles and other related publications from the Web of Science Core Collection, this paper focused on the definition of digital literacy; the factors affecting students’ digital literacy (age, gender, family socioeconomic status, and parent’s education level); the relationship between students’ digital literacy and their self-control, technostress, and engagement; and the three approaches to gauge the level of students’ digital literacy. The study also provided some advice for educators and policymakers. Finally, the limitations and implications were presented.
  • The Effects of Processing Instruction and Output-Based Activities on Grammar Learning: The Mediating Role of Working Memory

    Indrajit Patra; Tirto Suwondo; Aisha Mohammed; Tawfeeq Alghazali; Doaa Abd AL-Hadi Mohameed; Ibnu Rawandhy N. Hula; Hossein Kargar Behbahani (Hindawi Limited, 2022-01-01)
    Processing instruction (PI) is an input-based approach to grammar education based on input processing theory, and output is another element needed for second-language acquisition to be successful. This study sought to examine the impact of PI and output-based activities with the mediating role of working memory (WM) capacity on learning English future tense. To this end, 99 subjects with preintermediate command of English based on an Oxford Placement Test were recruited for the study, and they were divided into three groups: PI, output, and control, with 33 learners in each group. Using a reading-span test, it was revealed that 14 subjects in the PI group, 15 participants in the output group, and 13 learners in the comparison group had low WM, while the rest individuals had high WM capacity. Then, a two-way between-group analysis of variance and a Bonferroni adjustment post hoc test were performed. The results of the analyses showed that both PI and output groups outperformed the control group. Additionally, there was no difference in grammar gain between PI and output groups. Besides, learners with high WM outperformed low WM individuals. The pedagogical implication of this research is that PI and output-based activities can assist teachers in implementing effective strategies to raise L2 learners’ knowledge and consciousness.
  • Status of ICT Integration in Secondary Schools: Dire Dawa City Administration in Focus

    Solomon Molla; Yilfashewa Seyoum (Hindawi Limited, 2022-01-01)
    The purpose of this study was to explore the status of information and communication technology integration in Dire Dawa City Administration secondary schools’ curriculum. The study was conducted using a survey design. A total of 563 respondents (374 students and 189 teachers), four school supervisors, and 12 school principals and vice principals were selected using systematic random and purposive sampling techniques from the eight secondary schools. Data were gathered by questionnaire, interview, and observation. The data were analyzed using mean, standard deviation, and an independent sample t-test. The findings revealed that the integration of information and communication technology was minimal and inconsistent across secondary schools. It was found that there was a significant mean difference in the integration of information and communication technology between private and government secondary schools. The study revealed that lack of training and technical knowledge, the high cost of technological devices and internet service, and a lack of internet connectivity were major challenges. A shortage of computers in private schools and a lack of enthusiasm in government secondary schools were particular problems mentioned by respondents. As a result, it is critical to establish a rigorous monitoring and control mechanism to improve the current practices through the provision of necessary facilities. It is recommended that schools, in partnership with the Dire Dawa City Administration Education Bureau, should arrange training on raising awareness and developing the necessary skills for effective integration of information and communication technology into the curriculum.
  • The Impact of Morphological Awareness Intervention in Enhancing L2 Postgraduate Students’ Productive Vocabulary Breadth

    Hani Qasem Mohammed Asaad; Md. Kamrul Hasan; Narges Alidoust; Ahmad Affendi Shabdin; Amine Ounissi; Md. Didar Hossain (Hindawi Limited, 2022-01-01)
    The significance of vocabulary knowledge in academic development and having a sufficient vocabulary in language learning cannot be overstated. Research has shown that postgraduate students studying English as a second language (L2) lack vocabulary and require improving it. This research study was conducted to investigate the role of morphological awareness and its relation to productive vocabulary breadth and explore the function of teaching L2 postgraduate students in intervention for improving their productive vocabulary breadth. Thirty L2 postgraduate participants were involved in an intervention. The intervention included 11 sessions of morphological awareness instructions. The students’ morphological awareness was tested using the Morphological Identification Test (MIT) and the Morphological Structure Awareness Test (MSAT), while productive vocabulary breadth was tested using the Productive Vocabulary Level Test (PVLT). A significant relationship was found between morphological awareness and productive vocabulary breadth. The synthetic aspect of morphological awareness was more closely related to the participants’ productive vocabulary breadth than the analytic aspect. The morphological awareness intervention was effective and beneficial in increasing the students’ productive vocabulary breadth. The results may indicate the benefits of teaching and learning morphology to L2 postgraduate students, especially for effective vocabulary building.
  • Mixed Methods Research in Employability Discourse: A Systematic Literature Review Using PRISMA

    Amrita Sharma; Prakash C. Bhattarai (Hindawi Limited, 2022-01-01)
    Studies on employability using a mixed methods (MM) design have been published in relevant journals in recent years, paving the way for a meaningful engagement with these published articles so that researchers can create milestone documents dedicated to exploring employability. This study explored the trend of utilizing mixed methods research (MMR) in the literature and the resultant methodological insights in 34 MMR articles on employability, which were selected from the 744 articles published during 2010–2019 in five major journals. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) technique was followed for systematic review, and analysis was conducted. The analysis reveals an increasing trend by using an MMR approach in employability studies. The robust analysis of a body of qualitative and quantitative data with personal reflection from deeper understanding supported the outcomes of most of these studies. However, informed engagement of both qualitative and quantitative strands and additional efforts in integration and data merging can contribute meaningfully to the examination of the employability notion. In conclusion, MMR adds rigor to the discourse of employability, serving as a guide to ensure the connection between education and employment. It also offers insights into reforming higher education.
  • The Effectiveness of Hybrid and Pure Problem-Based Learning in the Productive Skills and Critical Thinking of Iranian Undergraduate Students through MALL Application

    Jamal Montafej; Ahmad Reza Lotfi; Azizeh Chalak (Hindawi Limited, 2022-01-01)
    Hybrid problem-based learning (HPBL) as a learner-oriented method involves learning through collaboration while finding solutions to real-world problems. It has been employed in the education of English as a foreign language (EFL) students recently. Implementation of it in an EFL classroom, though might be a challenging task, has been approved a useful method for improving learning of the students. The current study, using a quasi-experimental design, IELTS pretests-posttests, and Honey’s critical thinking questionnaire, attempted to find out the effectiveness of HPBL method in the productive skills and critical thinking of the students by implementing it in an EFL classroom using eight teacher’s made problems through Mobile Assisted Language Learn (MALL) application. The subjects were 60 Iranian undergraduates grouped as one control group (CG) being instructed based on the traditional lecture-based method and two experimental groups being instructed based on HPBL and Pure Problem-Based Learning (PPBL) methods conveniently. Findings of one-way MANOVA, one-sample, and paired-samples t-test revealed that HPBL students had significantly higher mean scores than the PPBL students who were in turn superior to their CG counterparts in terms of productive skills and critical thinking. This study has the potential to advance new ideas and perceptions which can be implemented by EFL learners in improving the productive skills and critical thinking of the learners. Therefore, the findings might bear implications for students, teachers, university curriculum designers, and decision-makers to design more effective curriculums for the teaching of productive skills to the students.
  • The Effectiveness of Learning Mathematics according to the STEM Approach in Developing the Mathematical Proficiency of Second Graders of the Intermediate School

    Sahar Abdo Mohamed Elsayed (Hindawi Limited, 2022-01-01)
    This study explored the effectiveness of learning mathematics according to the STEM approach in developing mathematical proficiency with its five components (conceptual understanding, procedural fluency, strategic competence, adaptive reasoning, and productive disposition) in some mathematical concepts among second graders of intermediate school. The quasi-experimental method with the experimental and control group design was used. The participants were 40 second graders of the intermediate school in the second semester of the school year 2021-22. The experimental group (N = 20) was taught according to the STEM approach, while the control group (N = 20) was taught according to the conventional approach. Data were collected by a researcher-developed mathematical proficiency test measuring conceptual understanding, procedural fluency, strategic competence, adaptive reasoning, and productive disposition. Results of the t-test revealed significant differences in mathematical proficiency between the post-test mean scores for the experimental and control groups in favor of the experimental group. Implications drawn from the results are offered.
  • How to Write a Contemporary Scientific Article?

    Vladimir M. Krasnov (Hindawi Limited, 2022-01-01)
    Today, scientists are drowned in information and have no time to read all publications, even in a specific area. Information is sifted and only a small fraction of articles is read. Under these circumstances, scientific articles have to be properly adjusted to pass through the superficial sifting. Here, I present instructions for PhD students with almost serious advice on how to write (and how not to write) a contemporary scientific article. I argue that it should “tell a story” and should answer on the three main questions: Why, What, and So what?
  • The Impact of a Contrastive Lexical Approach in Formulaic Expressions’ Perception on University EFL Learners’ Writing Proficiencies

    Mohammad Awad Al-Dawoody Abdulaal; Sayed Sadek; Madani Osman Ahmed; Amal Zakaria Mahmoud Hal; Said Elsayed Ahmed Saleh (Hindawi Limited, 2022-01-01)
    The purpose of this study was to look at how the contrastive lexical approach influenced Saudi EFL learners’ writing proficiencies. Forty-six Saudi EFL learners from the College of Science and Humanities at Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University were randomly selected for this study. The study sample was then divided by the block randomization method into two equal groups: an experimental group (EG) and a control group (CG). All the EFL learners were males, aged between 16 and 19. First, a pretest was administered to the two groups to gauge their writing proficiency. The experimental group then received writing instructions using the Contrastive Lexical Approach (CLA) over the course of 12 sessions, precisely, two fifty-minute sessions a week. While the participants in the EG were given L1 equivalents for L2 formulaic codes, the CG received conventional instructions and regulations during which participants began to skim and scan texts comprising the same formulaic codes as for the EG without being given any kind of translation and were then requested to write on the same subject matters as the experimental group. The two groups each received a posttest at the end of the treatment. After confirming the normal distribution of the data, the paired sample t-test was used to strike a comparison between the mean scores of the two posttests. The results demonstrated that adopting a contrastive lexical approach had a considerably significant impact on Saudi EFL learners’ writing proficiencies. The implication, as the size effect results showed, was that there was a strong correlation between CLA and writing skill development.
  • Correlation and Prediction of Students’ Level of Reading Comprehension through Their Perception of the Application of Transition Words

    Md. Nurul Anwar; Md. Nurul Ahad; Choiril Anwar; Hani Qasem Mohammed Asaad; Md. Kamrul Hasan; Boonyarit Omanee (Hindawi Limited, 2022-01-01)
    The role of reading comprehension and its correlation and prediction to other skills in terms of enhancing the proficiency level of students in English language has been widely recognized by researchers. However, research conducted on reading comprehension in roughly the last fifteen to twenty years shows no concrete evidence of identifying the knowledge of the transition words with the understanding of reading comprehension. This study was particularly designed to fill that gap and to measure students’ ability to differentiate among various categories of expressions in English language, such as descriptive, narrative, sequence, comparison and contrast, and cause and effect, and to identity the functions of their derivative transitions in the reading comprehension task. The current study adapted a quantitative method and collected data from 100 male and female EFL students at the tertiary level in a Bangladeshi university to conduct this study. To be specific, this research used transition words as the predictor variable/independent variable and reading comprehension as the dependent variable. The findings of the research suggested that there were positive and significant correlations between students’ knowledge of the transition words and their level of understanding the reading comprehension. In addition, the transitional word was found to be a strong predictor of reading comprehension. This study strongly suggests that students with a better understanding of transition words can perform equally better in their reading comprehension tasks. For tertiary level students, the knowledge of transitional words would be useful, and it would also have significance for lexical scholars and curriculum designers.
  • Effectiveness of Need-Based Teacher’s Training Program to Enhance Online Teaching Quality

    Suman Ahmmed; Jashodhan Saha; Maruf Ahmed Tamal (Hindawi Limited, 2022-01-01)
    The COVID-19 pandemic drastically transformed the global education system forever. To sustain the education system, e-learning has been adopted as an alternative teaching-learning strategy in most countries. Due to this sudden transition, teachers had practically no time to prepare themselves for distance learning, especially in developing countries. Consequently, teachers faced numerous challenges while teaching online. The present study aimed to explore the effectiveness of need-based teachers’ training programs to address online teaching challenges faced by primary and secondary level teachers. Adopting a mixed-method research approach, this study was conducted between January and July 2021 at 6 primary and secondary level institutions in 4 different districts of Bangladesh. Primary data were collected through face-to-face surveys, electronic surveys, and one-to-one semi-structured interviews. Descriptive analysis and bivariate correlational analysis were carried out for quantitative data exploration. On the other hand, qualitative data were coded and analyzed thematically. Findings highlight that less familiarity with online teaching tools, lack of digital skills, unstable Internet connectivity, difficulties with time management, insufficient teaching materials, lack of satisfaction, heavy workload, and poor self-confidence were the key barriers to online teaching. However, in this study, a proper need-based teacher training program is found to be considerably effective in improving online teaching quality by increasing teachers’ technological skills, confidence, satisfaction, motivation, time management skill, and behavioral changes. The overall findings of this study are expected to assist the devolved authorities in implementing synchronized policies to improve online teaching quality.
  • Playing with AI to Investigate Human-Computer Interaction Technology and Improving Critical Thinking Skills to Pursue 21st Century Age

    null Muthmainnah; Prodhan Mahbub Ibna Seraj; Ibrahim Oteir (Hindawi Limited, 2022-01-01)
    As part of the human-computer interaction (HCI) that artificial intelligence has, it has a specific effect on developing critical thinking skills, which is what this study is looking at. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of AI friend apps on EFoLLe (English foreign language learners) interactions with technology. The primary focus of this paper is on a new artificial intelligence-based immersion teaching method for university-level English. Students’ English proficiency and CT are the primary goals of this course. This study employs mixed methods research design using an online survey and classroom observation. Both quantitative and qualitative data collection and analysis techniques helped researchers to understand deeply. Still, little research was used to look at the survey and how people acted while they were learning how to use AI to improve CT skills. The participants in this paper were polled using an online survey. A total of 453 people participated in the survey. According to the outcomes of the study, AI friends to enhance students’ critical thinking abilities has a positive impact among the participants. Because AI-based instruction promotes students’ trust, self-confidence, open-mindedness, and maturity in English, it can help them improve their critical thinking skills. This is because critical thinking skills are the foundation for 21st-century skills, and AI-based instruction helps students learn these skills. This study helped AI-based instruction because it helps nonnative English students become more trusting, self-confident, open-minded, and mature in English. It also helps them learn the CT skills that are the foundation of critical thinking, so they can learn new skills in the 21stcentury.
  • Factors Affecting Social Science Students’ Career Choices: A Web-Based Cross-Sectional Study in Bangladesh

    Sadia Sharmin Suhi; Md. Abdul Jabbar; Fariha Farjana; Nishad Nasrin; Md. Tanvir Hossain (Hindawi Limited, 2022-01-01)
    This web-based cross-sectional study aimed to investigate university students’ career choices and their determinants. Data were collected from four disciplines within the Social Science School at the Khulna University of Bangladesh. The findings from Pearson’s Chi-square revealed a significant association between career choice and age, sex, discipline, level of education, and socioeconomic status. Exploratory factor analysis indicated a three-factor solution, explaining the variance of over 50% and the overall reliability of α = 0.748. The findings from a multinomial logistic regression showed that older and male students had a lower likelihood of becoming teachers, while Sociology students were more interested in teaching. Furthermore, career choices were substantially influenced by students’ level of education, job quality, job prospect, and job motive. Considering the global demand for specific skills and knowledge, universities should revise their curricula, integrating the cognitive domain of students with practical knowledge-based education in order to widen the horizon of employment options for university graduates.
  • Development of Authentic Assessment in Local Wisdom-Based Reading Learning

    null Sukma; Asriani Abbas; null Nurhayati; null Kaharuddin; Asma Gheisari (Hindawi Limited, 2022-01-01)
    This study aims to establish a reading learning evaluation model based on local wisdom. This type of research is development research that refers to the ADDIE (analyze, design, development, implementation, and evaluation) development model. The study subjects were conducted at two junior high schools with 65 students and 4 Indonesian teachers. The data collection techniques used in this study are tests, interviews, observations, and questionnaires. The results obtained through the preliminary research show that there is no evaluation model for reading learning and the materials used are still based on Indonesian books. Based on preliminary research, a real evaluation model of reading learning based on local wisdom is established. The feasibility of the assessment guide is assessed through materials/content, language, and presentation. Validation results from materials and learning experts included 88% for content feasibility, 87% for language, and 85% for presentation. Meanwhile, linguists’ evaluations of products included 88% in content feasibility, 85% in language, and 86% in expressiveness; while media experts include the image/graphic aspect by 85%, the language aspect by 86%, and the display aspect by 85%. The results of the analysis of teacher response data amounted to 84% with a positive category and student response of 80.70%. From this, it can be concluded that it is very feasible to develop a product based on the real evaluation model of reading learning based on local wisdom. The implication of the application of authentic assessment to student learning outcomes, in general, is a change in behavior for the better, students become more active and creative in the teaching and learning process.
  • Preparing Vocational High School Students’ 21st Century Skills Needed through Pair Work Strategy and YouTube Channel Integration

    Riswanto Riswanto; Santiana Santiana; Rita Inderawati; Bambang Parmadi; Pebri Prandika Putra; Kasmaini Kasmaini; Noni Purnama Sari (Hindawi Limited, 2022-01-01)
    There is no denying that the usage of digital media has extended throughout all parts of life as we enter the era of digital transformation. YouTube is the social media app on Android phones that people use the most, both in terms of total time and average time per user. Predicted outcomes of teaching and learning English with the use of YouTube are considered positive. This research aimed to get empirical evidence of the effect of a pair work strategy integrated with YouTube channels in increasing students’ speaking performance. This study applied a quasi-experimental design. The population of this research was the tenth-grade students at a State Vocational High School in Indonesia. There were 64 students who participated in this study. The instrument used in this research was the speaking test. A paired sample t-test was conducted to evaluate the impact of the intervention on students’ speaking performance. There was statistically significant improvement on students speaking score from Time 1 (M = 69, 41, SD = 5.988) to Time 2 (M = 86.16, SD = 4.444), t(31) = 15.516, P<0.0005. The eta squares statistic (eta squared = 0.886) indicated a large effect size. An independent sample t-test was also conducted to compare the score between experimental and control groups. The result indicated that there was significant difference in score between experimental (M = 86.16, SD = 4.444) and Control group (M = 78.50, SD = 42.65; t(62) = 7.031, p=0.001). The magnitude of the difference in the means was large (eta squared = 0.443). It indicated that 44.3% of students’ speaking score was influenced by the integration of paired work strategies and YouTube channels.
  • Synthesis of the Types and Trends of Review Articles

    Xiuwen Zhai; Abu Bakar Razali; Tajulripin Sulaiman (Hindawi Limited, 2022-01-01)
    The practice of review writing is an essential component of postgraduate students’ academic studies for graduation requirement and especially for those who are undergoing their postgraduate studies by theses by publication. However, very few studies have focused on review genres. In this review, the researchers would like to offer an overview of different types of review articles and identify the trend in the development of the review article genre. The researchers of this study employed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. They identified the published articles specific to the review genres via a structured keyword search in Web of Science, Scopus, and Google Scholar (from the years 2019–2022). A mixed analysis approach (e.g., qualitative analysis combined with quantitative analysis) was conducted to further examine the selected articles using the data visualization software CiteSpace. The results showcased that there were currently a limited number of review types in social science disciplines. The researchers call for more effort to discover new models for writing review genres in the EFL/ESL context. This study also discusses the theoretical and practical implications.

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