Education Research International is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that considers scholarly, research-based articles on all aspects of education. As an international journal aimed at facilitating the global exchange of education theory, contributions from different educational systems and cultures are encouraged. The journal publishes research articles as well as review articles.

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  • Self-Directed Learning: A Core Concept in Adult Education

    Svein Loeng (Hindawi Limited, 2020-01-01)
    In adult education, the concept of self-directed learning has great importance. This term arose in the field of adult education in the 1970s and is still a widely used term in the field. Annual symposiums have been held by the International Society for Self-Directed Learning since 1986, dedicated to the promotion of self-directed learning. The society also publishes an international journal of self-directed learning. A term of more recent origin is self-regulation, used by some authors sometimes interchangeably with self-direction. This review article focuses on the term self-directed learning, which is the term most frequently used in adult education. Many consider the tendency for self-direction to be a fundamental difference between children and adults in a learning situation. This article deals with some factors that affect the understanding of self-directed learning. At the beginning is given a short case story and an account for different perceptions of self-directed learning. This is followed by a clarification of different aspects of self-directed learning, such as why it is advisable, what affects the tendency to self-directed learning, and if self-direction is essentially innate or learned. The situational aspect is dealt with separately as a relatively self-contained aspect of self-directed learning. The presentation is based on a literature study.
  • Medical Students’ Career Choice and Attitudes towards Family Medicine in Morocco

    Majda Sebbani; Adil Mansouri; Latifa Adarmouch; Mohamed Amine (Hindawi Limited, 2020-01-01)
    Background. The motivation of this work is driven on the one hand from the need to understand the medical students’ attitude towards medical training in the context of the reform in Morocco and the creation of “family medicine” as a specialty. This study aims to explore the expectations of medical students regarding family medicine and to identify the factors that may influence setting their choices after graduation. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional study among Moroccan medical students from public faculties during the month of August 2019. The data collection was based on an online self-administered electronic questionnaire. The quantitative data were analyzed by SPSS version 16. The analyses were descriptive univariate (Fisher’s test) and multivariate (binary logistic regression) with a P value of 5%. The qualitative data were synthesized according to a thematic analysis grid. Results. The medical students in Morocco have a positive perception of family medicine as an important specialty but low interest in it as a future career. Only 6.4% had the intention to choose it as a future career. However, 27.5% chose to become a general practitioner if it is a specialty (family medicine, as part of the new medical reform). The factors associated with the choice of career in general practice were mainly the ambition for career development (OR = 4.8; 95% CI [2.46; 9.51]), income (OR = 2.6; 95% CI [1.11; 6.29]), or the personal experience as a student or patient in contact with a general practitioner (OR = 0.48; 95% CI [0.25; 0.92]). Conclusion. The practical experience with family medicine seems to have an important influence on being attracted to family medicine careerwise. The study findings will inform future planning to introduce the residency program.
  • The Relationship between Agricultural Teaching Approaches and Food Security in Kenya

    Hellen Joseph Njura; Kaberia Isaac Kubai; Simon Thuranira Taaliu; Kakai Shem Khakame (Hindawi Limited, 2020-01-01)
    The continued food insecurity, despite the teaching of agriculture amidst the novel coronavirus (Covid-19), is a major global concern especially in Africa. There is food shortage in Africa and Kenya in particular despite the teaching of agriculture as a major subject in secondary schools. Many youth who have graduated from Kenyan secondary schools cannot adequately employ the agricultural skills developed during and after school for food security. The teaching approaches employed in secondary school agriculture should be able to develop skills of students on the aspects of food production, its accessibility, food safety, and nutrition as well as production economics. Towards this direction, this paper investigates the relationship between the agricultural teaching approaches employed in secondary schools and food security in Kenya. The study adopted descriptive survey design where data were collected using an Agriculture Teachers’ Interview Schedule, a Students’ Focus Group Discussion Guide, and a Parent’s Questionnaire and were then analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The research findings established that the lecture method, class discussions, class projects, problem solving, and tours and field trips were the common methods in agriculture classes. Though recommended in the literature review section, digital learning was hardly mentioned as a teaching approach for this study. A major conclusion for this study is that there is statistically insignificant relationship between the teaching approaches and food security. There are other factors not in the scope of this study that could be affecting food security and can be tackled at secondary school level. This paper makes a contribution to the growing body of knowledge by highlighting research gaps worth investigation on the relationship between the agricultural teaching approaches and food security that were beyond the scope of the study.
  • Assessing the Impact of Morphological Knowledge on Lexical Acquisition and Processing

    Baraa A. Rajab (Hindawi Limited, 2020-01-01)
    The mastery of morphological structure and vocabulary acquisition are significantly associated. However, the association between the abilities of L2 learners to manipulate morphological elements and develop vocabulary size with native Arabic speakers needs to be assessed. This study assesses the impact of morphological knowledge on lexical acquisition and processing among English-speaking learners of Arabic. The study focused on gender (masculine/feminine) and the complete number system (singular/dual/plural) by native English speakers. The error rates and error patterns were analysed carefully to provide insight into the learner’s interlanguage grammar through the experiment. The experimental study design was used. The study sample included 40 of L2 Arabic speakers from Arabic language courses at major universities in Northern Virginia and Maryland. These were native English speakers with no exposure to Arabic before their enrolment in the university. The sample was divided into three groups (Group I, individual in the second year of Arabic program, Group II, individual in 3rd or 4th year of the program, and Group III control group, five native speakers of Arabic). Different tasks were presented to the groups, where PsychoPy software was used for task presentation. Audacity Version 2.0 was audio-recorded, transcribed, and coded by the experimenter. The production and comprehension test revealed that morphological problems are prevalent at the advanced proficiency level. It showed the role of animacy for the morphological variability and higher agreement accuracy for human targets. It concluded that morphological variability in L2 Arabic remains a persistent problem even at advanced levels of proficiency, extending to comprehension.
  • Erratum to “Online Learning Resources Enhanced Teaching and Learning of Medical Mycology among Medical Students in Gulu University, Uganda”

    Felix Bongomin; Bernard Erima; Richard Kwizera; Emmanuel I. Odongo-Aginya; David W. Denning (Hindawi Limited, 2020-01-01)
  • Cognitive Styles and Gender as Predictors of Students’ Achievement in Summary Writing in Selected Secondary Schools in Ibadan, Nigeria

    Oladotun Opeoluwa Olagbaju (Hindawi Limited, 2020-01-01)
    Performance in the English language especially in public examinations in Nigeria has been very poor with summary writing identified as one of the dreaded aspects of the subject. Research efforts have shown that instructional practices in English studies are not tailored to learners’ personality traits such as cognitive style and gender. Cognitive style is an individual’s preferred means of receiving, processing, and making use of information. Gender also plays an important role in the teaching-learning process. This study considered the global and analytic dimensions of cognitive style. This study determines to what extent cognitive style and gender can predict students’ achievement in summary writing. The research design is descriptive with 350 participants drawn from four senior secondary schools in Ibadan. Data were analyzed using regression analysis, and the results show that cognitive style and gender are predictors of students’ achievement in summary writing. Teachers are encouraged to individualise instruction through the knowledge of learner-related variables.
  • Online Learning Resources Enhanced Teaching and Learning of Medical Mycology among Medical Students in Gulu University, Uganda

    Felix Bongomin; Bernard Erima; Richard Kwizera; Emmanuel I. Odongo-Aginya (Hindawi Limited, 2020-01-01)
    Background. The burden of serious fungal diseases has significantly increased in the past few decades; however, the number of health-care workers with expertise in the management of fungal diseases remains low, especially in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). This study aimed to evaluate the use of freely available online teaching material to enhance teaching and learning of medical mycology among medical students in Gulu University Medical School, Uganda. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional study among second year medical students undertaking Medical Mycology course on antifungal agents in the department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology in the academic year 2017-2018. The materials were synthesized and peer-reviewed by experts in fungal diseases and were made freely available on the Leading International Fungal Education website (http://www.LIFE-Worldwide.org). A local faculty in the department delivered the lectures, and pre- and posttest scores were evaluated statistically. Results. Sixty medical students participated in the study of which 78% were male. The average score was 41% for the pretest and 52% for the posttest (p<0.0001). There was no significant difference in the scores of males and females. Majority of the students gave an above-average rating for the course material; however, 54% preferred prerecorded videos. Conclusion. Using freely available online materials on medical mycology can enhance teaching and learning of medical mycology. Because of this, there is need to incorporate up-to-date information about the subject into the curriculums of medical schools especially in LMICs.
  • Effects of Interventions with Manipulatives on Immediate Learning, Maintenance, and Transfer in Children with Mathematics Learning Disabilities: A Systematic Review

    Anne Lafay; Helena P. Osana; Marion Valat (Hindawi Limited, 2019-01-01)
    Manipulatives are concrete or virtual objects (e.g., blocks and chips) often used in elementary grades to illustrate abstract mathematical concepts. We conducted a systematic review to examine the effects of interventions delivered with manipulatives on the learning of children with mathematics learning disabilities (MLD). The outcomes observed in the sample (N = 38) were learning, maintenance, and transfer in a variety of mathematical domains. Interventions using manipulatives were reported to be effective for a range of learning objectives (e.g., conceptual understanding and computational fluency), but several methodological weaknesses were observed. Analyses also highlighted considerable heterogeneity in the studies reviewed in terms of participant characteristics, intervention approaches, and methodology. We discuss overall effects of interventions with manipulatives in the MLD population, the methodological quality across the sample, and implications for practice.
  • Using Video Modeling to Teach a Meal Preparation Task to Individuals with a Moderate Intellectual Disability

    Philip M. Kanfush; Jordan W. Jaffe (Hindawi Limited, 2019-01-01)
    A single-subject study implementing an AB design with 3 replications was conducted with 4 adolescents having multiple disabilities, including moderate cognitive impairments, to demonstrate the efficacy of a video modeling and video-prompting intervention to teach a food preparation skill. Each participant was taught to prepare a different food item using a task analysis comprising 50 to 64 steps. Within 12 training sessions, each participant achieved criterion performance, completing at least 90% of their cooking task steps independently. Three out of 4 participants maintained their food preparation skill in a maintenance probe taken 6 weeks after instruction ended. The fourth participant completed 89% of the task’s steps independently during the maintenance probe. The findings of this study are consistent with those of earlier studies and suggest that video modeling may be a very effective and efficient method for promoting independence, participation, and self-determination among individuals with moderate intellectual disabilities. This study extends the literature base by focusing on longer, more complex meal preparation tasks than earlier studies.
  • Integrating Scientific English into Biological Sciences PhD Programs in Developing Countries: Strategies from Trainees and Mentor

    Camila H. Coelho; Gaspar E. Canepa; Gunjan Arora; Patrick E. Duffy (Hindawi Limited, 2019-01-01)
    Successful researchers in the biological sciences communicate their work to a global audience and must do so in English to be widely recognized and cited. This applies equally to scientific talks, posters, and published articles; thus, scientific English must be prioritized in nonnative English-speaking (NNES) academic institutions to prepare their trainees for successful careers. Here, we propose strategies for integrating scientific English into PhD programs operating in NNES countries. Many graduate students from NNES countries strive for an international career and encounter English as an important barrier. Based on our own experiences as NNES postdoctoral fellows at a US institution, or as a US mentor of these trainees, we contend that conventional learning processes at home institutions do not sufficiently prioritize scientific English as the medium for regular discussions of laboratory-generated data. Principal investigators, mentors, and supervisors are key in promoting English language usage as a structured component of PhD training. If these stakeholders routinely integrate English training and education within the research laboratory program, graduates will be equipped to pursue international academic careers. The ideas presented here are intended for NNES PhD students (and their mentors) who seek an international scientific career in the biological sciences.
  • Causal Attributions as Correlates of Secondary School Students’ Academic Achievement

    Susan Ngunu; Theresia Kinai; Philomena Ndambuki; Peter Mwaura (Hindawi Limited, 2019-01-01)
    The purpose of this study was to establish the relationship between causal attributions and academic achievement. Weiner’s Model of Achievement Attribution guided this research. Five-hundred and eighty-five students (315 males, 270 females) participated in the study. The participants completed the Multidimensional Multiattributional Causality Scale (MMCS) while academic achievement was obtained from the participants’ academic records. Majority of the students attributed both success and failure to internal, uncontrollable, and unstable attributions. The results indicated that causal attributions were significantly correlated to academic achievement. Taking into account that students can form maladaptive causal attributions, the study made recommendations to the stakeholders on intervention measures.
  • Differences in College Engagement Benchmark Scores as a Function of Honors Course Enrollment for Community College Students: A Nationwide Study

    Abraham Korah; John R. Slate; George W. Moore; Frederick C. Lunenburg (Hindawi Limited, 2019-01-01)
    In this investigation, the extent to which differences were present in benchmark scores as a function of community college student honors course enrollment status was investigated using data from the Community College Survey of Student Engagement. Statistically significant differences were revealed for all 5 benchmark scores (i.e., active and collaborative learning, student effort, academic challenge, student-faculty, and support for learners). Students who had been enrolled in an honors course had benchmark scores that were 9 to 16 points higher than their peers who had not been enrolled in an honors course, reflecting higher levels of scholastic engagement, deeper connections with instructors and peers, and greater use of academic and student support services.
  • Teaching Mathematics through Concept Motivation and Action Learning

    Sergei Abramovich; Arcadii Z. Grinshpan; David L. Milligan (Hindawi Limited, 2019-01-01)
    This is a practice-led, conceptual paper describing selected means for action learning and concept motivation at all levels of mathematics education. It details the approach used by the authors to devise insights for practitioners of mathematics teaching. The paper shows that this approach in mathematics education based on action learning in conjunction with the natural motivation stemming from common sense is effective. Also, stimulating questions, computer analysis (internet search included), and classical famous problems are important motivating tools in mathematics, which are particularly beneficial in the framework of action learning. The authors argue that the entire K-20 mathematics curriculum under a single umbrella is practicable when techniques of concept motivation and action learning are in place throughout that broad spectrum. This argument is supported by various examples that could be helpful in practice of school teachers and university instructors. The authors found pragmatic cause for action learning within mathematics education at virtually any point in student academic lives.
  • Preservice Teachers’ Learning to Respond on the Basis of Children’s Mathematical Understanding

    Mary Gichobi; Alejandro Andreotti (Hindawi Limited, 2019-01-01)
    This study examined the extent to which preservice teachers (PSTs) develop their capacity to attend to children’s strategies and interpret and respond on the basis of children’s mathematical understanding in the context of two well-designed assignments: Inquiry into Student Thinking assignment and tutoring assignment. The two assignments were assigned after 6 and 10 weeks of instruction, respectively. The analysis revealed that PSTs attended to children’s strategies and interpreted children’s mathematical understanding but struggled with the component skill of responding to children’s mathematical understanding in the two assignments. Although the nature of tasks selected differed across the two assignments, generally PSTs focused on tasks that would develop children’s mathematical understanding. The findings have theoretical implications for a hypothesized trajectory of professional noticing of children’s mathematical understanding and the design of mathematics methods courses.
  • Effect of Real-Time Surveys on Patient Satisfaction Scores in the Emergency Department

    Julia Sobel; Jessica Bates; Vivienne Ng; Matthew Berkman; Tomas Nuño; Kurt Denninghoff; Lisa Stoneking (Hindawi Limited, 2019-01-01)
    Background. Patient satisfaction surveys have become increasingly important as their results help to determine Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) reimbursement. However, these questionnaires have known sources of bias (self-selection, responder, attribution, and nonresponse). Objective. We developed a real-time (RT) survey delivered in the hospital ED to evaluate the effect of implementing RT patient satisfaction surveys on physician behavior and hypothesized that the timing of patient satisfaction survey delivery would significantly impact the results. Method. Data from real-time patient satisfaction surveys were collected in phases from 12/2015 to 5/2017. Hospital-sponsored (HS) surveys were administered after discharge from 12/2015 to 12/2016. Results. For RT surveys, resident physicians were significantly more likely to write their names on the whiteboard (p=0.02) and sit down (p=0.01) with patients. Behavior modifications by attending physicians were not significant. Patient satisfaction measures did not improve significantly between periods for RT or HS surveys; however, RT survey responders were significantly more likely to recommend the ED to others. Conclusion. The timing of survey administration did significantly alter resident physician’s behavior; however, it had no effect on patient satisfaction scores. RT responders were significantly more likely to recommend the emergency department to others.
  • Arranging Student Scientific Research as an Educational Technology: The Experience of Regional Universities of Russia

    Ruslan I. Bazhenov (Hindawi Limited, 2019-01-01)
    Nowadays, student scientific research is a significant component for training specialists for Industry 4.0. However, many students do not feel like wanting much to participate in this kind of activity when studying at university. Therefore, there is a challenge in facing educators, i.e., to make a climate of learning in such a way so that learners would not only be able to acquire skills, competences, and proficiencies according to their major but also be able to promote their willingness for independent search for getting new knowledge and mastering research methods and practical techniques to solve scientific challenges and analyze various information flows. The purpose of the study is to develop a methodology for arranging student scientific research, which enables to provide with skilled professional employees. To accomplish the declared goal, the authors developed the online course The Basic Scientific Research, the methodology for involving students in scientific research; recommendations to include special subject matters in the content of academic course, for stimulating joint studies of educators and students; and the online course on training lecturers to the technology presented. The experiment was conducted from 2014 to 2018 among students of IT and economics at regional Russian universities. 242 students and 46 lecturers took part in it. Using the developed system by educators resulted in the following achievements: the students published more than 450 scientific articles, won 28 grants of various levels, and participated and became prize winners in more than 50 scientific research contests. One-third of the participants in the experiment received a merit semester scholarship for scientific research regularly. They participated and won competitions for the President of the Russian Federation grants, the Government of the Russian Federation. Business representatives gave top marks for graduate theses. The educational technology presented in the paper is prepared for scaling and be applied at universities.
  • Transforming African Education Systems in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Using ICTs: Challenges and Opportunities

    Alcardo Alex Barakabitze; Anangisye William-Andey Lazaro; Neterindwa Ainea; Michael Hamza Mkwizu; Hellen Maziku; Alex Xavery Matofali; Aziza Iddi; Camillius Sanga (Hindawi Limited, 2019-01-01)
    This paper presents the role of ICTs in transforming Africa’s Education Systems (AES) in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) subjects/courses. The paper highlights on a positive shift across Africa in using ICT to improve the quality of teaching and learning through activities such as intensive ICT skills training to teachers, increase in ICT equipments and applications in schools, and emergence of living labs (LLs) and innovation spaces/centres (InnoSpace). We first provide some of the challenges of integrating ICTs in education followed by a description of key past and current ICT initiatives supporting the adoption of ICTs in schools using a number of case studies in sub-Saharan Africa. We further present various ICT-based models for education, as a transformational approach towards integrating ICTs in AES. Moreover, we provide various ICT platforms deployed for education service delivery in disadvantaged African society (e.g., rural areas) including LLs and InnoSpace across the continent. Finally, we highlight our main findings and observations in terms of opportunities and future ICT for education research directions in Africa. Our aim is to provide some guidelines and ensure that Africa uniformly meet the 2030 United Nations Sustainable Development Goal number 4, which is to ensure inclusive and quality education for all and promote lifelong learning, particularly using ICTs.
  • Employability among Statistics Graduates: Graduates’ Attributes, Competence, and Quality of Education

    Ashenafi Abate Woya (Hindawi Limited, 2019-01-01)
    An aspect of quality in higher education is the quality of the outcomes achieved. Higher education adds value by developing job-related skills and competencies. It is also not known to what extent, graduates’ competence goes in line with the demands of the employers. This study was to assess the employability and competency of statistics graduates. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire and analysis the using SPSS version 23. This study employed a Kaplan–Meier estimate to compare the duration of unemployed times from two or more groups. To assess whether there is a real difference between groups, we used Log-rank test. From a total of 303 statistics graduates, 17.7% were unemployed and 82.3% were employed. Of employed graduates, 65.8% had a permanent worker and the rest 16.5% of graduates had a temporary worker. The mean duration of unemployed statistics graduate at Bahir Dar University was 12.9 month (95% CI, (9.9, 15.9)). This study revealed that there is a percentage of graduates who are not yet employed and never been employed. Therefore, the department must be a linkage with the different government organization and NGO.This may improve the employability of statistics graduates.
  • Examining Students’ Attitudes and Readiness for Interprofessional Education and Practice

    Joan M. Groessl; Christine L. Vandenhouten (Hindawi Limited, 2019-01-01)
    This study examined RN-to-BSN and Master of Social Work students’ attitudes and readiness for interprofessional (IP) practice and educational experiences. The Attitudes toward Health Care Teams Scale (ATHCTS) developed by Heinemann et al. measures attitudes toward health care teams including the quality of care/process and physician centrality. Students’ readiness for IP education was measured by the Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Scale (RIPLS) developed by Parsell and Bligh. Discussion of an interprofessional activity including student reactions is provided. Statistically significant differences were found in the mean scores for the Patient-Centeredness subscale of the RIPLS and in overall ATHCTS scores as well as the Physician Centrality subscale scores. Overall, participants demonstrated readiness and benefits of IP education.
  • Medical Students’ Experience of Mindfulness Training in the UK: Well-Being, Coping Reserve, and Professional Development

    Alice Malpass; Kate Binnie; Lauren Robson (Hindawi Limited, 2019-01-01)
    Medical school can be a stressful experience for students, resulting in stress-related mental health problems. Policy recommendations from the General Medical Council (GMC), the body responsible for improving medical education in the UK, recommend the use of mindfulness training to increase well-being and resilience to stress. Students participating in an eight-week mindfulness training between Autumn 2011 and Spring 2015 were invited to complete a free text survey at the end of their mindfulness course. In addition, six qualitative interviews were conducted lasting between 60 and 90 minutes. Interviews used a topic guide and were recorded and transcribed verbatim. We used the framework approach to analyse the data. Students reported a new relationship to their thoughts and feelings which gave a greater sense of control and resiliency, an ability to manage their workload better, and more acceptance of their limitations as learners. The small group context was important. Students described improved empathy and communication skills through building inner awareness of thoughts and feelings, noticing judgments, and developing attentive observation. The findings show how resiliency and coping reserve can be developed within medical education and the role of mindfulness in this process. We present a conceptual model of a learnt cycle of specific vulnerability and describe how MBCT intercepts at various junctures in this self-reinforcing cycle through the development of new coping strategies that embrace an “allowed vulnerability.”

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