Education Research International is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that considers scholarly, research-based articles on all aspects of education. As an international journal aimed at facilitating the global exchange of education theory, contributions from different educational systems and cultures are encouraged. The journal publishes research articles as well as review articles.


Library has vol. 1(2011) to current.

Recent Submissions

  • Survival Models for the Analysis of Waiting Time to First Employment of New Graduates: A Case of 2018 Debre Markos University Graduates, Northwest Ethiopia

    Muluye Getie Ayaneh; Askalemariam Adamu Dessie; Amare Wubishet Ayele (Hindawi Limited, 2020-01-01)
    This study was carried out to predict the time spell to first employment and to determine the effects of related factors on the timing of first employment on new graduates from Debre Markos University using survival models. The study used the 2018 Debre Markos University graduate tracer survey data. Cox PH and parametric accelerated failure time models were used. The Akaike information criterion (AIC) was used to select the best parametric model that could explain the waiting time to first employment. The median waiting time to first employment of graduates was found to be 15 months, showing that 50% of graduates managed to find their first job 15 months after their graduation date. In a comparison among parametric survival models, the log-logistic parametric model was better in describing the timing of graduates to first employment. Covariates such as gender, cumulative grade point average (CGPA) earned from the university, age at graduation, residence, field of study preference of graduates, and college/faculty were found to be statistically significant (p value <0.05) predictors of the waiting time to first employment. The log-logistic parametric model fitted the waiting time to the first employment data well and could be taken as an alternative for the Cox PH model.
  • Evaluating the Academic Performance of K-12 Students in the Philippines: A Standardized Evaluation Approach

    Porferio M. Almerino; Lanndon A. Ocampo; Dharyll Prince M. Abellana; Jana Gloria F. Almerino; Irene O. Mamites; Lilibeth C. Pinili; Janine Joy L. Tenerife; Regina E. Sitoy; Limuel J. Abelgas; Emerson D. Peteros (Hindawi Limited, 2020-01-01)
    With growing technological advancements, demands for the industry with skilled and equipped workforce are proportionately rising. While this match between curricular offerings in academia and needs in the industry has been addressed in many countries across the globe through initiatives such as the K-12 educational system, some countries like the Philippines have only started its adoption. In the Philippines’ early adoption of the K-12 educational system, several concerns have been raised regarding its implementation, mainly, the mismatch between coursework offered in Philippine K-12 educational institutions with industry demands. With such outcomes, it is necessary to determine the status of the K-12 educational system in the Philippines. This paper attempts to shed light on such concerns by evaluating the performance of the K-12 students using a standardized approach. The Scholastic Abilities Test for Adults, a standardized test for measuring the academic competence of adults, is used in this study to measure scholastic abilities. The descriptive analyses made in this paper may aid in the development of more robust strategy frameworks for positioning the current K-12 educational system to global and industry demands. Moreover, the results obtained in this study would aid stakeholders in overseeing strategies that would address current gaps in the K-12 educational system of the country.
  • Enumeration of Potential Teaching Methods in Higher Education: A Cross-Disciplinary Study

    Khalid Mohiuddin; Mohammad Aminul Islam; Mansoor Sharif; Shakila Nur; Md. Shahrear Talukder; Mohammed A Alghobiri (Hindawi Limited, 2020-01-01)
    In today’s multifaceted academic context, selecting, adopting, and adapting appropriate teaching methods (TMs) have been a pivotal concern for teachers. No study, to the researchers’ knowledge, has been conducted on compiling the maximum number of TMs in higher education. This study aims to list, describe, and provide a platform of the potential and the most practicing TMs in four major educational disciplines. This article, taking a cross-disciplinary lens, conducts an in-depth review of 90 articles and enumerates 110 TMs of higher education. It also identifies several TMs that are commonly used in each discipline. The article concludes that knowledge generated from this study fills up the existing literature gap. It calls attention to the current TM practices and provides teachers with an outline to employ available TMs in their respective disciplines.
  • Exploring the Related Factors in Education Quality through Spatial Autoregressive Modeling with Latent Variables: A Rural Case Study

    Anik Anekawati; Bambang W. Otok; Purhadi; Sutikno (Hindawi Limited, 2020-01-01)
    The principle of education for sustainable development (ESD) is that no child is left behind. Hence, the fourth sustainable development goal (SDG) of the United Nations (UN) emphasizes inclusion and equity in education by focusing on eliminating disparities among regions. This study explores factors related to education quality through modeling in rural areas of Sumenep Regency, in East Java, Indonesia. Currently, only a few kinds of research studies involve spatial data, latent variables and, at the same time, tests of their spillover effects. The modeling herein is the spatial autoregressive model with latent variables (SAR-LVs). The latent variables were estimated using the weighted least square (WLS) method, while the Lagrange multiplier (LM) test was used for spatial dependence testing. The parameters of the SAR-LVs were estimated using two-stage least square (2SLS). The results show that the quality of education is directly influenced by the infrastructure of the schools but not by the socioeconomic conditions of the local communities. The autoregressive spatial coefficient has a significant but negative effect, which shows a negative spillover from districts with a lower quality of education to the ones with a high quality of education. This is due to the students’ competition to get registered for a favorite or good quality school in a particular district, which stimulates the migration of students from its neighboring districts. This reveals the inequality of school quality, since not all students can get access to schools with good quality. Through this study, some recommendations are given as a contribution to achieving the fourth SDG in Indonesia.
  • Assessing Predictors of Academic Performance for NMEI Curriculum-Based Medical Students Found in the Southern Ethiopia

    Tsegaye Mehare; Reta Kassa; Birhanie Mekuriaw; Tewodros Mengesha (Hindawi Limited, 2020-01-01)
    Background. In Ethiopia since 2012, the Ethiopian Federal Ministry of Health and Education implemented a new medical education initiative in 13 institutions. Currently, as a nation, very little is known about the predictors of academic performance for new medical education curriculum-based students. Identifying different factors affecting students’ academic performance in the local context so as to enrich the empirical evidence and provide new insights into the effect of variables in developing countries is very important. Thus, the main aim of this study was to assess predictors of academic performance for new medical education initiative curriculum-based medical students. Objective. This study designed to assess the predictors of academic performance for new medical education initiative curriculum-based medical students found in Southern Nations and Nationalities Peoples’ Region, Ethiopia. Methods. Institutional-based cross-sectional study design was used on 472 new medical education system students. The study setting includes three medical institutions (Dilla University College of Medicine and Health Science, Wolaita Sodo University College of Medicine and Health Sciences, and Yirgalem Hospital Medical College) within southern region from February to July 2020. The study subjects were those medical students under the NMEI curriculum and had at least one-year cumulative grade point average in the abovementioned institutions. Results. A total of 167 (35.4%) of the students’ academic performance scores were poor. Being agriculture graduate with educational background, mothers with no formal education, being married, first-degree performance score of 2.7–3.2 CGPA, monthly allowance of 10–24.99 USD, nondormitory, student age of 31–35 years old, and being stressed have shown an association with poor academic performance score of the students. Conclusion. First-degree educational background, marital status, maternal educational status, first-degree academic performance, age of the student, monthly allowance, residency during medical school, and history of stress were significant predictors of academic performance for new medical education system students. Thus, it is recommended that special attention should be paid to the admission criteria and financial support of the students.
  • Academic Integrity in Higher Education of Ukraine: Current State and Call for Action

    Vadym Luniachek; Alla Brovdii; Oleksandr Kulakovskyi; Tetyana Varenko (Hindawi Limited, 2020-01-01)
    The research aims to define the scope and challenges of intellectual property rights protection in higher schools of Ukraine and offer recommendations to address those for higher education officials and university leaders. The findings of the research rely on the results of an anonymous expert survey conducted among non-law students of two institutions of higher education using a specially designed questionnaire. They reveal a significantly low level of students’ awareness and knowledge of intellectual property rights, academic integrity, and protection thereof, which undermines the internal education quality. At the same time, there exists a high demand for receiving the relevant knowledge within the university programmes the students are enrolled in. It, therefore, seems expedient to design and include “Intellectual Property and Academic Integrity” as a subject in the curricula of higher educational institutions of Ukraine to be taught at the first year of training, and develop a special course in the fundamentals of intellectual property and academic writing to build the students’ relevant competences. Similarly, it is essential that the teaching staff should be trained accordingly and have the relevant powers and tools to impart and enforce academic integrity rights protection.
  • Using Peer Tutoring to Improve Students’ Academic Achievement in Financial Accounting Concepts

    Taiwo Grace Olulowo; Olugbenga A. Ige; Ernest O. Ugwoke (Hindawi Limited, 2020-01-01)
    This study investigated the effectiveness of the peer tutoring instructional strategy in improving students’ academic achievement in financial accounting concepts. A nonrandomized pretest-posttest control group quasi-experimental design with a 2 × 2 × 3 factorial matrix was adopted. The research sample comprised 137 purposively selected students from eight intact classes in secondary schools in Southern Nigeria. The experimental group adopted a peer tutoring instructional strategy, while the control group was exposed to the conventional lecture method. Teachers’ Instructional Guides on peer tutoring and conventional method and Financial Accounting Achievement Test were used to collect data for this study. Results affirmed that the peer tutoring instructional strategy is more effective in improving students’ academic achievement in financial accounting concepts than the conventional lecture method. The outcome of this study also shows that the experimental strategy was not sensitive to gender but sensitive to socioeconomic status. Sequel to this finding, the study recommends that post-basic school teachers should make use of the peer tutoring instructional strategy to present financial accounting lessons in secondary schools to advance students’ attainment in the subject.
  • Preparing Globally Competent Teachers: A Paradigm Shift for Teacher Education in Ghana

    John Kwasi Annan (Hindawi Limited, 2020-01-01)
    It is well known that quality and positive school outcomes are determined by teacher competence, sensitivity, and motivation which are summed as teacher quality. The role teachers play in shaping society requires that training of same must be of utmost priority of governments. With reference to the relevance of archival materials, the study relied mostly on observation and secondary sources of data with content analysis on training of teachers in Ghana. This study identified various elements that contribute to the quality of teachers which ultimately increases the quality of education. These included quality assurance of teacher education, initial training of teachers, deployment processes, professional growth, compensation, and regulatory bodies that ensure standards and compliance. The article also found out that low investments in teacher education, allowing nonprofessional graduates to teach, poor living, and working condition are deterrent to teachers from accepting postings to rural and deprived areas; lack of regular and consistent training for professional development and poor motivation packages for teachers are some of the reasons for poor quality in the education delivery at the basic school level. The study then advocates that teachers must be trained strictly by educational institutions only, aptitude test must be used to recruit teachers, intensify curricula reform to address critical thinking skills in teachers, institute regular development training for teachers, and motivate teachers who accept postings to rural areas.
  • Construct Validity of Assessing Interest in STEM Content Scale

    Sanit Srikoon; Ronnachit Apaivatin; Piyapong Monsang; Sujinta Khamngoen; Thararat Malaitao (Hindawi Limited, 2020-01-01)
    The purpose of this research was to validate the assessing interest in STEM content scale. The sample in this research was 552 students in upper secondary school at Fangchanupathum School, Chiang Mai, Thailand, who validated the assessing interest in STEM content scale, which used a rating scale of four factors consisting of (1) science, (2) mathematics, (3) laboratorial skills, and (4) technology and 20 items. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to confirm the construct validity of the assessing interest in STEM content scale adapted from the study by Tyler-Wood, Knezek, and Christensen. The results confirmed that the construct validity of this assessing interest in STEM content scale had an excellent fit. They showed that the fitness index of validating the assessing interest in STEM content scale was X2 statistic of 163.679 (degree of freedom = 141, P value = 0.0928) and the X2/df ratio having a value of 1.160 indicating a good fit. The comparative fit index (CFI) was 0.991, and Tucker–Lewis coefficient (TLI) was 0.988. The root mean square error approximation (RMSEA) was 0.017. The standardized root mean residual (SRMR) was 0.047. All the indicators indicated that there was a good fit between the empirical data and the hypothetical measurement model.
  • Turkish Adaptation of the Early Learning Observation and Rating Scale—Teacher’s Form: Validity and Reliability Study and Path Analysis for a Turkey Sample

    Ayhan Babaroğlu; Cem Koçak (Hindawi Limited, 2020-01-01)
    Acquiring information on the complete development of children during their early childhood, observing their development, and identifying the domains in which they need support have always been very important. There is a parallelism between development in the early period and learning, and development learning is best achieved by learning in children. Children have very different development patterns. As development occurs simultaneously on a broad spectrum of domains, progress in one domain affects the progress in another domain also. Thus, identification of problems in early childhood is important in terms of assessment of child’s development and learning. The purpose of th study is adaptation of the early learning observation and rating scale—teacher’s form, developed by Coleman, West, and Gillis, to Turkish and the Turkish culture and evaluation of the causality relations between the learning domains through Path analysis in the Turkish sample. Methodologic descriptive and model testing design methods have been used. The study sample consisted of 166 children in the 4-5-year-old group, receiving education in 59 preschool education institutions, and 20 teachers. Simple random sampling method was used in sample selection. Following the Turkish adaptation processes, the validity and reliability of the scale were examined with a pilot study. It was observed that the scale had high appearance-social and scope-construct validity, and the results obtained were coherent with the usefulness and contribution results obtained in the original study. Strong linear relationships were found between each of the seven learning domains in the scale. The early learning observation and rating scale—teacher’s form, which was adapted to Turkish, was suitable for use in the Turkish sample and revealed the competence or incompetence condition of children in the learning domains of children correctly and realistically.
  • Content Analysis of Essential Economic Values in the Vocational Textbook as Compared to the Saudi Arabian Education Policy Document

    Rashed Z. Aldoosry; Abdulwali H. Aldahmash; Mousa S. Alfaifi; Abdullah M. Almutairi; Abdulaziz S. Aldossari; Abdulrahman A. Alshuaibi; Abdullah H. ALabbad (Hindawi Limited, 2020-01-01)
    This study explores the extent to which five essential economic values related to the themes of production, savings, moderation in expenditure, labor, and economic development were included in the Saudi Arabian Educational Policy Document and their reflection in a high school vocational textbook. A systematic quantitative descriptive approach was used to analyze the contents of the two documents. Results showed that the Education Policy Document only included the production domain value. The vocational textbook did not significantly include all economic values, except the theme related to respecting and the value of time. This means that the two documents should be revised to include these important economic values, as they are important for students’ future.
  • Self-Directed Learning: A Core Concept in Adult Education

    Svein Loeng (Hindawi Limited, 2020-01-01)
    In adult education, the concept of self-directed learning has great importance. This term arose in the field of adult education in the 1970s and is still a widely used term in the field. Annual symposiums have been held by the International Society for Self-Directed Learning since 1986, dedicated to the promotion of self-directed learning. The society also publishes an international journal of self-directed learning. A term of more recent origin is self-regulation, used by some authors sometimes interchangeably with self-direction. This review article focuses on the term self-directed learning, which is the term most frequently used in adult education. Many consider the tendency for self-direction to be a fundamental difference between children and adults in a learning situation. This article deals with some factors that affect the understanding of self-directed learning. At the beginning is given a short case story and an account for different perceptions of self-directed learning. This is followed by a clarification of different aspects of self-directed learning, such as why it is advisable, what affects the tendency to self-directed learning, and if self-direction is essentially innate or learned. The situational aspect is dealt with separately as a relatively self-contained aspect of self-directed learning. The presentation is based on a literature study.
  • Medical Students’ Career Choice and Attitudes towards Family Medicine in Morocco

    Majda Sebbani; Adil Mansouri; Latifa Adarmouch; Mohamed Amine (Hindawi Limited, 2020-01-01)
    Background. The motivation of this work is driven on the one hand from the need to understand the medical students’ attitude towards medical training in the context of the reform in Morocco and the creation of “family medicine” as a specialty. This study aims to explore the expectations of medical students regarding family medicine and to identify the factors that may influence setting their choices after graduation. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional study among Moroccan medical students from public faculties during the month of August 2019. The data collection was based on an online self-administered electronic questionnaire. The quantitative data were analyzed by SPSS version 16. The analyses were descriptive univariate (Fisher’s test) and multivariate (binary logistic regression) with a P value of 5%. The qualitative data were synthesized according to a thematic analysis grid. Results. The medical students in Morocco have a positive perception of family medicine as an important specialty but low interest in it as a future career. Only 6.4% had the intention to choose it as a future career. However, 27.5% chose to become a general practitioner if it is a specialty (family medicine, as part of the new medical reform). The factors associated with the choice of career in general practice were mainly the ambition for career development (OR = 4.8; 95% CI [2.46; 9.51]), income (OR = 2.6; 95% CI [1.11; 6.29]), or the personal experience as a student or patient in contact with a general practitioner (OR = 0.48; 95% CI [0.25; 0.92]). Conclusion. The practical experience with family medicine seems to have an important influence on being attracted to family medicine careerwise. The study findings will inform future planning to introduce the residency program.
  • The Relationship between Agricultural Teaching Approaches and Food Security in Kenya

    Hellen Joseph Njura; Kaberia Isaac Kubai; Simon Thuranira Taaliu; Kakai Shem Khakame (Hindawi Limited, 2020-01-01)
    The continued food insecurity, despite the teaching of agriculture amidst the novel coronavirus (Covid-19), is a major global concern especially in Africa. There is food shortage in Africa and Kenya in particular despite the teaching of agriculture as a major subject in secondary schools. Many youth who have graduated from Kenyan secondary schools cannot adequately employ the agricultural skills developed during and after school for food security. The teaching approaches employed in secondary school agriculture should be able to develop skills of students on the aspects of food production, its accessibility, food safety, and nutrition as well as production economics. Towards this direction, this paper investigates the relationship between the agricultural teaching approaches employed in secondary schools and food security in Kenya. The study adopted descriptive survey design where data were collected using an Agriculture Teachers’ Interview Schedule, a Students’ Focus Group Discussion Guide, and a Parent’s Questionnaire and were then analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The research findings established that the lecture method, class discussions, class projects, problem solving, and tours and field trips were the common methods in agriculture classes. Though recommended in the literature review section, digital learning was hardly mentioned as a teaching approach for this study. A major conclusion for this study is that there is statistically insignificant relationship between the teaching approaches and food security. There are other factors not in the scope of this study that could be affecting food security and can be tackled at secondary school level. This paper makes a contribution to the growing body of knowledge by highlighting research gaps worth investigation on the relationship between the agricultural teaching approaches and food security that were beyond the scope of the study.
  • Assessing the Impact of Morphological Knowledge on Lexical Acquisition and Processing

    Baraa A. Rajab (Hindawi Limited, 2020-01-01)
    The mastery of morphological structure and vocabulary acquisition are significantly associated. However, the association between the abilities of L2 learners to manipulate morphological elements and develop vocabulary size with native Arabic speakers needs to be assessed. This study assesses the impact of morphological knowledge on lexical acquisition and processing among English-speaking learners of Arabic. The study focused on gender (masculine/feminine) and the complete number system (singular/dual/plural) by native English speakers. The error rates and error patterns were analysed carefully to provide insight into the learner’s interlanguage grammar through the experiment. The experimental study design was used. The study sample included 40 of L2 Arabic speakers from Arabic language courses at major universities in Northern Virginia and Maryland. These were native English speakers with no exposure to Arabic before their enrolment in the university. The sample was divided into three groups (Group I, individual in the second year of Arabic program, Group II, individual in 3rd or 4th year of the program, and Group III control group, five native speakers of Arabic). Different tasks were presented to the groups, where PsychoPy software was used for task presentation. Audacity Version 2.0 was audio-recorded, transcribed, and coded by the experimenter. The production and comprehension test revealed that morphological problems are prevalent at the advanced proficiency level. It showed the role of animacy for the morphological variability and higher agreement accuracy for human targets. It concluded that morphological variability in L2 Arabic remains a persistent problem even at advanced levels of proficiency, extending to comprehension.
  • Erratum to “Online Learning Resources Enhanced Teaching and Learning of Medical Mycology among Medical Students in Gulu University, Uganda”

    Felix Bongomin; Bernard Erima; Richard Kwizera; Emmanuel I. Odongo-Aginya; David W. Denning (Hindawi Limited, 2020-01-01)
  • Cognitive Styles and Gender as Predictors of Students’ Achievement in Summary Writing in Selected Secondary Schools in Ibadan, Nigeria

    Oladotun Opeoluwa Olagbaju (Hindawi Limited, 2020-01-01)
    Performance in the English language especially in public examinations in Nigeria has been very poor with summary writing identified as one of the dreaded aspects of the subject. Research efforts have shown that instructional practices in English studies are not tailored to learners’ personality traits such as cognitive style and gender. Cognitive style is an individual’s preferred means of receiving, processing, and making use of information. Gender also plays an important role in the teaching-learning process. This study considered the global and analytic dimensions of cognitive style. This study determines to what extent cognitive style and gender can predict students’ achievement in summary writing. The research design is descriptive with 350 participants drawn from four senior secondary schools in Ibadan. Data were analyzed using regression analysis, and the results show that cognitive style and gender are predictors of students’ achievement in summary writing. Teachers are encouraged to individualise instruction through the knowledge of learner-related variables.
  • Online Learning Resources Enhanced Teaching and Learning of Medical Mycology among Medical Students in Gulu University, Uganda

    Felix Bongomin; Bernard Erima; Richard Kwizera; Emmanuel I. Odongo-Aginya (Hindawi Limited, 2020-01-01)
    Background. The burden of serious fungal diseases has significantly increased in the past few decades; however, the number of health-care workers with expertise in the management of fungal diseases remains low, especially in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). This study aimed to evaluate the use of freely available online teaching material to enhance teaching and learning of medical mycology among medical students in Gulu University Medical School, Uganda. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional study among second year medical students undertaking Medical Mycology course on antifungal agents in the department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology in the academic year 2017-2018. The materials were synthesized and peer-reviewed by experts in fungal diseases and were made freely available on the Leading International Fungal Education website ( A local faculty in the department delivered the lectures, and pre- and posttest scores were evaluated statistically. Results. Sixty medical students participated in the study of which 78% were male. The average score was 41% for the pretest and 52% for the posttest (p<0.0001). There was no significant difference in the scores of males and females. Majority of the students gave an above-average rating for the course material; however, 54% preferred prerecorded videos. Conclusion. Using freely available online materials on medical mycology can enhance teaching and learning of medical mycology. Because of this, there is need to incorporate up-to-date information about the subject into the curriculums of medical schools especially in LMICs.
  • Effects of Interventions with Manipulatives on Immediate Learning, Maintenance, and Transfer in Children with Mathematics Learning Disabilities: A Systematic Review

    Anne Lafay; Helena P. Osana; Marion Valat (Hindawi Limited, 2019-01-01)
    Manipulatives are concrete or virtual objects (e.g., blocks and chips) often used in elementary grades to illustrate abstract mathematical concepts. We conducted a systematic review to examine the effects of interventions delivered with manipulatives on the learning of children with mathematics learning disabilities (MLD). The outcomes observed in the sample (N = 38) were learning, maintenance, and transfer in a variety of mathematical domains. Interventions using manipulatives were reported to be effective for a range of learning objectives (e.g., conceptual understanding and computational fluency), but several methodological weaknesses were observed. Analyses also highlighted considerable heterogeneity in the studies reviewed in terms of participant characteristics, intervention approaches, and methodology. We discuss overall effects of interventions with manipulatives in the MLD population, the methodological quality across the sample, and implications for practice.
  • Using Video Modeling to Teach a Meal Preparation Task to Individuals with a Moderate Intellectual Disability

    Philip M. Kanfush; Jordan W. Jaffe (Hindawi Limited, 2019-01-01)
    A single-subject study implementing an AB design with 3 replications was conducted with 4 adolescents having multiple disabilities, including moderate cognitive impairments, to demonstrate the efficacy of a video modeling and video-prompting intervention to teach a food preparation skill. Each participant was taught to prepare a different food item using a task analysis comprising 50 to 64 steps. Within 12 training sessions, each participant achieved criterion performance, completing at least 90% of their cooking task steps independently. Three out of 4 participants maintained their food preparation skill in a maintenance probe taken 6 weeks after instruction ended. The fourth participant completed 89% of the task’s steps independently during the maintenance probe. The findings of this study are consistent with those of earlier studies and suggest that video modeling may be a very effective and efficient method for promoting independence, participation, and self-determination among individuals with moderate intellectual disabilities. This study extends the literature base by focusing on longer, more complex meal preparation tasks than earlier studies.

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