Education Research International is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that considers scholarly, research-based articles on all aspects of education. As an international journal aimed at facilitating the global exchange of education theory, contributions from different educational systems and cultures are encouraged. The journal publishes research articles as well as review articles.


Library has vol. 1(2011) to current.

Recent Submissions

  • Reading Aloud and the Use of CAS-2 Battery to Assess Cognitive Skills Improvement

    Federico Batini; Benedetta D’Autilia; Giulia Barbisoni; Giulia Toti (Hindawi Limited, 2024-01-01)
    Background. Research has suggested that exposure to reading can act positively on vocabulary development and other cognitive skills required in the early-school years. This paper presents the results of a quasi-experimental study that analyses the relationship between exposure to reading aloud to children and the development of basic cognitive skills, which are essential from the first days of school for the acquisition of all subsequent learning. This research has two objectives: first, to highlight the benefits of reading aloud in the first years of schooling, with particular reference to cognitive skills; second, to propose the Cognitive Assessment System Second Edition (CAS-2) as an instrument able to monitor and quantify the cognitive effects of this practice. Methods. This research involved a sample of 152 children from primary schools in Italy. After thorough teacher training on the proposed method of reading aloud, the teachers undertook daily reading training for approximately 3 months. The children in the experimental and control groups underwent ex ante and ex post individual administration of the CAS-2 test. A mixed model with a 2 × 2 design was used to verify the effect of the training. Results. With regard to the first aim, this study confirmed the hypotheses by highlighting the benefits of reading aloud training. The results on the Full CAS-2 Scale show significant increases in the experimental group compared to the control group. Furthermore, the improvement of the experimental group is evident in all the sub-dimensions investigated (Planning, Attention, Simultaneous, Successive). Conclusions. These results confirm the effect of reading aloud on cognitive skills development and the sensitivity of the CAS-2 as an instrument to detect its effects. Future research could explore the use of the CAS-2 battery in student populations of higher school grades, as well as observe the stability of the benefits over time.
  • Predicting Computational Thinking in Elementary Science Lessons Using a Multilevel Model Approach

    Jennifer Pietros; Minsuk Shim; Sara Sweetman (Hindawi Limited, 2023-01-01)
    Computational thinking (CT) is an essential problem-solving skill that students need to successfully live and work with developing technologies. There is an increasing call in the literature by researchers and policy leaders to integrate CT at the elementary level into core subjects to provide early and equitable access for all students. While some critics may claim the concepts and skills of CT are developmentally advanced for elementary age students, subjects such as science can provide real-world and relevant problems to which foundational CT components can be applied. By assessing how CT concepts and approaches integrate authentically into current science lessons, policymakers, and district leaders can be more intentional in supporting implementation efforts. This research used an exploratory survey design to examine the frequencies of CT concepts (decomposition, algorithms, abstraction, and pattern recognition) and approaches (tinkering, creating, debugging, perseverance, and collaboration) that exist in science in K–5 schools in a northeast state in the United States as reported by elementary science teachers (n = 259). Hierarchical linear modeling was used to analyze the influence of teacher and district factors on the amount of time CT concepts and approaches were integrated in the science lessons. Experience, grade level, confidence, and participation in a research–practice partnership were found to be significant predictors of CT. This study contributes to a better understanding of variables affecting CT teaching frequency that can be leveraged to impact reform efforts supporting CT integration in science.
  • Recognizing Stakeholders and Factors Mediating Washback in Language Testing

    Kh. Atikur Rahman; Mohammad Rukanuddin; Mst. Sabrina Yasmin Chowdhury; Shaila Ahmed; Prodhan Mahbub Ibna Seraj (Hindawi Limited, 2023-01-01)
    Any test or assessment’s effect on teaching and learning is termed as “washback”. Empirical studies conducted in this area are relatively recent, starting with the remarkable work of Alderson and Wall in 1993. Studies conducted thereafter inquired into different aspects of washback. In light of these studies, this critical review would explore the stakeholders of washback and the factors outside of the test itself which could affect how it has an impact. It indicates that although a test’s washback remains at the core of the complex connection among classroom teaching, learning, and assessment, a test cannot solely lead the classroom teaching and learning; rather, it is intervened by the different overriding agents, e.g., teachers, students, and contexts shaped by them. Notwithstanding that, teachers are the ones who can maintain a leading role in generating positive washback of target tests. In the end, this article draws suggestions from the literature showing what teachers should do to warrant a positive washback.
  • Male Preservice Teachers’ Perspectives and Experiences regarding Early Childhood Education Program in China

    Yanhui Liu; Xuecheng Zou (Hindawi Limited, 2023-01-01)
    An increasing amount of attention has been focused on the issue of the low recruitment and retention of male teachers in early childhood education worldwide. Previous research has indicated that personal perceptions of male preservice teachers’ personal regarding early childhood education could have a major influence on their decision of a future career. This qualitative study aims at promoting the significance of early childhood preservice preparation programs by exploring the perspectives and experiences of male preservice teachers working with infants in China. Using the purposeful sampling method, two male interns in an infant classroom were interviewed individually, and each of them was interviewed three times in total: at the beginning of their professional studies, during their internship, and after completing their studies. Participants’ reflections were also considered as supplementary data. The results underscore the necessity of a comprehensive early childhood preservice preparation program for prospective male teachers, particularly regarding infants’ development. Additionally, the study highlights the crucial role of male preservice teachers’ involvement and perspectives before entering the early childhood education field. The study was limited to one location and may not apply to others. Despite the small sample, it offers valuable perspectives. Future focus should be on attracting males to early childhood education area and exploring useful strategies.
  • MALL and EFL Learners’ Speaking: Impacts of Duolingo and WhatsApp Applications on Speaking Accuracy and Fluency

    Alim Al Ayub Ahmed; Isyaku Hassan; Harikumar Pallathadka; Muhammed Salim Keezhatta; Rofiq Noorman Haryadi; Zuhair I. Al Mashhadani; Lamyaa Yahya Attwan; Ali Rohi (Hindawi Limited, 2022-01-01)
    Regarding the importance of using MALL in learning English, this study aimed to investigate the effects of Duolingo and WhatsApp applications on developing the speaking accuracy and fluency of Iranian EFL learners. To fulfill this objective, three groups of Iranian intermediate EFL learners were selected as the participants of this research. After that, all groups took the speaking pretest and then received the treatment. One group was taught ten conversations from Family and Friends Book 5 using the Duolingo application, and the other group was taught the same conversations using the WhatsApp application. The third group, considered the control group (CG), was instructed on the conversations in a traditional classroom. After teaching the conversations, a speaking posttest was administered to all groups to compare their performances after the treatment. The collected data were analyzed using the one-way ANOVA test. The results revealed that two experimental groups (EGs) had better performances than the CG on the speaking posttest. In addition, the outcomes showed that two EGs performed similarly on their speaking posttests. Eventually, the conclusions and the pedagogical implications of this research were explained.
  • Online Student Team Learning in a Flipped Classroom

    Gregory Kaplan (Hindawi Limited, 2023-01-01)
    Collaboration among students working in groups to master new material has been defined as “student team learning.” While past research has focused on student team learning in the classroom, this study presents evidence of student team learning by students working in groups online in a flipped learning environment. An online group activity conducted during a classroom offering of an upper-level university course in the fall of 2019 is compared with the same group activity conducted during an asynchronous offering of the same course in the spring of 2021. On both occasions, groups used Google Docs, and screenshots reveal that student team learning occurred similarly within groups working online in the classroom and in an asynchronous course. The evidence provided is particularly relevant in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic, which has accelerated the development at universities worldwide of simultaneous classroom and asynchronous offerings of courses.
  • Written Retelling Strategy in Improving Reading Skill among ESL Students in Malaysia

    Hema Vanita Kesevan; Nur Dzaliffa Riza Ridzwan; Revathi Gopal; Charanjit Kaur Swaran Singh (Hindawi Limited, 2023-01-01)
    Skills of reading and comprehending in English are crucial for academic success in schools. Pupils with low reading ability skill may result in obtaining low grades and poor test scores. Traditionally pupils are taught to lift specific information as a reading strategy to answer comprehension questions, comparatively, this study uses retelling strategy to evaluate pupils’ understanding. Past research indicated that retelling strategy enhances accuracy and greater comprehension. Thus, far study that investigates effectiveness of this strategy remains scarce in Malaysian English as Second Language (ESL) primary schools. As reading skill starts to develop in early stage of schooling, it is deemed necessary to conduct this study among primary level pupils. The present study specifically analyzes the effects of written retelling strategy on pupils’ understanding of story structure among year three primary school pupils in Malaysian ESL classroom. A quasiexperimental research design with pretest and posttest was adopted to carry out the study. Pretest and posttest questions consisting of structural comprehension questions and written retelling were used to measure the effects of written retelling strategy on the pupils’ achievement in reading comprehension and their understanding of the story structure. A pretest was conducted before teaching and learning took place. This was followed by a posttest. An independent t-test was used to obtain the mean values and standard deviations. The results obtained in this study conclude the written retelling strategy had notably improved the pupils’ reading skill as they are able to retain information from the story and make better predictions. Subsequently, it increased their abilities in answering the comprehension questions. The results also indicate that written retelling could be a prospective reading strategy along with other strategies for primary ESL learners in Malaysia and similar context.
  • Quantifying the Dynamic Factors Influencing New-Age Users’ Adoption of 5G Using TAM and UTAUT Models in Emerging Country: A Multistage PLS-SEM Approach

    Manish Dadhich; Sumangla Rathore; Bright Akwasi Gyamfi; Samuel-Soma M. Ajibade; Divine Q. Agozie (Hindawi Limited, 2023-01-01)
    Objectives. The 5G has ushered in a new age of life-changing breakthroughs and advancements due to faster speeds, greater bandwidth, and ultra-high expectancy. The study proposes a multistage approach for quantifying the dynamic factors affecting users’ adoption of 5G in emerging countries. Method. This study integrated the technology acceptance model (TAM) and unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT) to recommend a comprehensive model that the industry–academia can adopt. In the proposed model, various core hypotheses and subhypotheses were tested by employing 510 5G users of the metro cities of India. An online questionnaire was used to collect the facts, and the data were framed in the conceptual model to test the validation using partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). Results. The findings suggest that users’ perceptions of adopting 5G are overwhelming in that perceived trust was discovered as a mediating enabler between behavioral intention (BI) and selected manifest. Performance expectancy (PE), effort expectancy (EE), social factors (SF), facilitating factors (FF), hedonic motivation (HM), perceived benefits (PB), price value (PV), and habit (HB). Contribution. By identifying key enablers in the suggested model, service providers may better evaluate these aspects, particularly in ensuring reliable infrastructure for 5G service stands. The study is undoubtedly a novel attempt to assist the telecom industry and policymakers in accelerating the adoption of 5G in emerging economies of Asian continents.
  • The Influence of High-Stakes English Examinations on Students’ Out-of-Classroom English Learning Practices: A Comparative Study

    Getachew Desalegn; Rufael Disassa; Tamene Kitila (Hindawi Limited, 2023-01-01)
    Exams with high stakes may affect test takers’ learning endeavors. Given the students’ different academic backgrounds, it is not yet clear how much of an effect the tests will have on their out-of-classroom learning practices. This study, thus, aimed to close the knowledge gap by employing a mixed method of embedded research design and collecting data via questionnaire, focused group discussion (FGD), and document analysis. The questionnaire was administered to a stratified random sample of 94 12th grade students. The students with their one-semester academic achievements were selected from two secondary schools found in East Wollega zone, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia. Data analysis involved descriptive statistics, multivariate and one-way ANOVA. The data gathered through document analysis and FGD were to substantiate the questionnaire. The contents of the three consecutive years of past Ethiopian Secondary School Leaving Certificate English Examination (ESSLCEE) questions were analyzed quantitatively. The qualitative method was used to conduct FGD with the selected participants from each school. The recorded data were subsequently transcribed, translated, analyzed, and discussed thematically. The study found significant differences between students of low-achieving groups (“Fair” and “Satisfactory” scorers) and high-achieving groups (“Very Good” and “Excellent” scorers) in studying non-ESSLCEE-related learning activities out-of-classroom. However, no statistically significant differences were observed between low-achieving groups and high-achieving groups regarding practicing ESSLCEE-related language components. The washback of high-stakes ESSLCEE on students’ out-of-classroom English learning practices was observed regardless of the students’ specific academic achievement groups they belonged to. The results suggest that there are differences in the impact of high-stakes exams on the efforts that students from different academic backgrounds make for out-of-classroom learning practices.
  • Enhancing Learners’ EFL Writing Performance through Extensive Reading Strategy Training into the Writing Process

    Yenenesh Yerukneh; Tamiru Olana; Mekuria Zewdie (Hindawi Limited, 2023-01-01)
    It is logical to anticipate that teaching one will lead to the student’s proficiency in the other because the reading and writing processes are correlated and, in many cases, combined. The goal was to find out how extended reading strategy training (ERST) affected first-year undergraduate students’ writing abilities. Thirty-one of the 61 undergraduate participants from Wollega University were placed in the control group and 30 were placed in the experimental group. Interviews and tests on the ability to write paragraphs were used to gather the data over the course of 10 weeks. The following criteria were evaluated: the capacity to handle the specified issue, well-developed thoughts, well-organised concepts, acceptable transitions, unity, coherence, syntactic diversity, and idiomaticity with few lexical or grammatical faults. The interview data were evaluated thematically, while the quantitative results were primarily studied using analysis of covariance. The results show that ERST significantly improves the writing abilities of the students. This outcome is consistent with past research that showed extensive reading to be helpful in enhancing students’ writing abilities and offers valuable information on the significance of including the ERST programme into the writing process in writing courses.
  • Students’ Satisfaction of Blended Problem-Based Learning: An Academic Experience at Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology

    Gabriel A. Okyere; Albert A. Saah; William Oduro; James B. Achamfour; Samuel Amoako (Hindawi Limited, 2023-01-01)
    Implementation of problem-based learning has been a challenge in most African institutions of higher learning including Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST) due to deficiencies in the secondary education system. This article seeks to investigate the effect of blended problem-based learning (BPBL) practices on students’ satisfaction at KNUST during the Enhancing Entrepreneurship, Innovation and Sustainability in Higher Education in Africa (EEISHEA) 2019–2022 project. In line with this objective, a survey instrument was prepared and validated and a multistage sampling technique with an effective sample size of 1,304 students (621 female and 883 males), 71 lecturers, and 16 technicians across the six colleges of KNUST were obtained. The generalized linear models, simple and multiple logistic regression, were estimated from the data to compare effect of teacher-centered and BPBL paradigms on students’ satisfaction. To prevent overfitting, a cross-validation was performed on the fitted models. Receiver operating curve and area under curve were employed to ascertain the predictive power of the models. Results indicate about 67.35% of students posited that lecturers have incorporated some problem-based learning (PBL) elements into their course delivery. About 72.13% of respondents submitted that the integration of the PBL ignited their self-directed and collaborative learning and improved learner’s problem-solving skills. Furthermore, the fitted models suggest that BPBL, gender, level of program, and college influence students’ satisfaction. The odds of satisfaction of an individual in the BPBL group is 7.4 times higher than respondents in the traditional group with a confidence interval for the odds ratio (OR), (OR 7.4, 95% CI: 4.31–13.16).
  • Gender-Based Violence: Implications for Girl-Child Education in Some Selected Displaced Persons Camps in Maiduguri

    Adam Gana Bawa; Supreet Kaur (Hindawi Limited, 2023-01-01)
    Factors other than economic development account for disparities between rich and poor countries’ levels of educational achievement. Gender-based violence includes brittleness and hostility that have widened the achievement gap between boys and girls. The intersectionality of violence against women and girls made it to be a multifaceted and multidimensional phenomenon that affects almost every aspect of individual life, including personal and intellectual development which education as society’s basic social institution served. Though, there is no gain in saying that gender violence has no implications on education at all levels. This paper examines gender-related violence and its implications on girl-child education in some selected displaced person camps in Maiduguri. A total of 403 respondents were conveniently selected across displaced persons camps in Maiduguri. However, interviews and questionnaires were used as instruments for data collection and both descriptive and inferential statistics were employed for data analysis. It was revealed that the majority of respondents thought that the magnitude of gender-related violence in displaced person camps in Maiduguri was very immense with detrimental consequences on displaced person’s well-being and the school being among the danger zone for gender violence. The result of the correlation analysis revealed that there is a moderate positive relationship between forceful reiteration, blackmail, degrading, and blame games from/by parents/guardians and gender-based violence indicating that an increase in these factors is found to be associated with gender-based violence. This paper suggested community education on the negative gender stereotypes through community workshops, educational and empowerment programs, and localized campaigns to dismantle harmful gender stereotypes that exacerbate violence against women.
  • Instructional Leadership Practices and Challenges: The Case of Primary School Principals in Liban Jawi Woreda of West Shoa Zone

    Lucho Begi Feyisa; Kitessa Chemeda Edosa (Hindawi Limited, 2023-01-01)
    This study was conducted to assess the practices and challenges of instructional leadership in primary schools of Liban Jawi Woreda of the West Shoa Zone. In order to address this objective of the study, a descriptive survey design was employed. About 114 teachers, seven principals, six vice principals, and one vice head of Woreda Education Office (WEO) participated in the study. Questionnaires, interviews, and document analysis were data gathering tools. The results showed that most of the problems instructional leaders have a communication gap with the stakeholders on issues related to the vision, mission, and goals of the schools and had problems in relation to lack of educational management profession. It was concluded that instructional leaders have a gap in taking a measure to overcome problems. Therefore, the study mainly recommended that Ministry of Education (MOE) and other stakeholders should give training to instructional leaders to overcome their leadership knowledge and skills, and also principals should create communication channels to overcome communication problems.
  • Self-Regulated Learning Diary Interventions and the Implications for Health Professions Education

    Zahra Zarei Hajiabadi; ROGHAYEH GANDOMKAR; Houra Ashrafifard; John Sandars (Hindawi Limited, 2023-01-01)
    Background. There is increasing interest in the application of self-regulated learning (SRL) to improve academic and clinical performance in health professions education. SRL-learning diary (SRL-LD) interventions have become popular in non-health professions contexts to develop students’ SRL and academic performance. The aim of this systematic review was to identify how SRL-LD interventions have been used in health and non-health professions education, with the intention to provide insights into their use and to inform future implementation and research in health professions education. Methods. Electronic search in ERIC, ProQuest, PubMed, Scopus, Embase, and Web of Science was conducted. Two authors independently selected studies based on inclusion criteria and all selected studies were analyzed using a predetermined framework. Results. Of the identified 986 studies, 23 were selected for the review. Most studies were conducted in higher education within a domain-specific context, with only one study in health professions education. Most were justification studies. Five types of intervention were identified (Diary + SRL instruction, Diary + feedback, Diary + SRL instruction + feedback, Diary only, and SRL instruction only). Overall, the combination of a diary with explicit SRL instruction and/or feedback improved more SRL processes than diary only or SRL instruction only interventions. In studies reporting academic outcomes, there was also an improvement in 40% of studies. Conclusion. This systematic review highlights the potential usefulness of SRL-LD interventions in health professions education. Recommendations for implementation and future research are discussed.
  • Peculiarities of the Formation of Students’ Business Communication Skills within the Distance Learning

    Irina Nagay; Oksana Khalabuzar; Hanna Alieksieieva; Oleksandr Antonenko; Oleksandr Ovsyannikov (Hindawi Limited, 2023-01-01)
    The article deals with the problems of the formation of students’ business communications skills at higher educational institutions. The authors ground the hypothesis that the implementation of nonstandard ways and forms of teaching foreign language provides the increasing of effectiveness of formation of students’ business communicative skills. The goal of research work deals with the theoretical justification and presentation of nonstandard interactive means and forms of educational activity oriented on the formation of business communication skills (BCS) of students within distance learning. Due to the applied qualitative and quantitative methods of research (conducted surveys, experimental research work, data analysis, etc.), it was proved the necessity of implementation of the interactive technologies into the educational process. The authors found out that modern society requires the new generation of specialists who must be educated, professional in their fields, and able to compete within the rapidly changing paradigms of the business systems. For the further implementation by teachers, they are given samples of nonstandard forms of educational activity, certain interactive technologies, instructions, and advice on ways of increasing the effectiveness of BCS. There are described prospects of the further research activity, which will be devoted to the problem of strengthening of BCS.
  • Digital Transformation Education, Opportunities, and Challenges of the Application of ChatGPT to Emerging Economies

    David Mhlanga (Hindawi Limited, 2023-01-01)
    Significant advancements have been achieved in the field of artificial intelligence in recent years. OpenAI has emerged as a trailblazer in the domain, regularly spearheading research endevours. The ChatGPT language model has received much attention owing to its exceptional natural language processing capabilities. The potential of this technology to enhance education, particularly in emerging nations, necessitates a comprehensive analysis of its forthcoming influence. The primary objective of this research is to conduct a comprehensive evaluation of OpenAI, particularly ChatGPT, in relation to the educational environment of developing nations. Utilizing the critical document analysis methodology, this study examines the advantages of ChatGPT, including its capacity for flexible and personalized instruction, its ability to provide access to high-quality education, and its provision of language help, among other benefits. This study provides a complete examination of the advantages and drawbacks associated with this technology. Its objective is to enhance our understanding of the potential impact it may have on education in developing nations, achieved through an extensive evaluation of ChatGPT.
  • Reflective Teaching in English Language Classrooms: Perception and Practice of English Language Instructors at Wachemo University

    Nigatu Habtamu; Badima Belay (Hindawi Limited, 2023-01-01)
    This study aimed at examining how university English language instructors perceive reflection in teaching and the extent to which their perceptions were realized in reflective teaching. Adopting a convergent case study method, the study was conducted utilizing both qualitative and quantitative data sources. Quantitative data were elicited using a questionnaire from 41 English language instructors selected from Wachemo University through comprehensive sampling, and qualitative data were collected using interviews, observation, and reflective journal writing from four instructors taken through convenience sampling among the surveyed instructors on the basis of their willingness to participate. The interview data were transcribed and analyzed applying various stages of coding employing software called Open Code 4. Content analysis was applied to analyze reflective journal entry data. The quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics applying SPSS version 24. The results revealed that the surveyed instructors have good theoretical understanding on the basic concepts of reflection in teaching. However, classroom observation and journal entry data affirmed that there existed a gap between instructors’ theoretical understanding and their application of reflective teaching. The study divulged that the instructors were found at a lower level of reflectivity regardless of the superficial understanding they hold about reflective practice.
  • Language Teacher’s Experience and Preference toward Online Learning Platforms during the COVID-19 Pandemic

    Hailay Tesfay Gebremariam (Hindawi Limited, 2023-01-01)
    The COVID-19 pandemic compelled the educational sector to act quickly, resulting in the adoption of replacement online learning platforms (OLPs) to keep the educational system running throughout the crisis. This study explored how language teachers in Ethiopia are prepared in terms of their experience and preference toward OLPs. To achieve this goal, data were collected from 203 participants (aged 22–46, including 81 males and 122 females) using a self-perceived questionnaire. The data was then analyzed using descriptive statistics, including means and standard deviations, and inferential statistics, including ANOVA tests, to determine the teachers’ experiences and preferences toward OLPs. The mean score of the teachers’ experience findings revealed a score of 3.406 out of a five-point Likert scale, and the preference subdimensions mean scores ranged from 3.164 to 3.476. The ANOVA findings revealed that, in the mean scores of language teachers’ experience toward OLPs (p>0.05) and preferences toward OLPs, there were statistically significant differences for video streaming platforms (p>0.05), digital reading materials platforms (p>0.05), and mixed OLPs (p>0.05). Regarding the statistically significant correlation between language teachers’ experiences and preferences (LTEP) toward OLPs (except between video streaming platforms and digital reading materials platforms (r = −0.011, p=0.878)), there was a statistically significant impact. Post hoc results showed, however, that there was no statistically significant correlation between language teachers’ preference dimensions. To summarize, Ethiopian language teachers preferred video streaming platforms and mixed OLPs over digital reading materials platforms. Moreover, further research into the LTEP toward OLPs in various ecological aspects is required.
  • Revisiting Gendered ICT Attitude and Self-Efficacy: A Study of Technical University Students in Ghana

    Christopher Mensah; Edem M. Azila-Gbettor; Mawufemor A. Kugbonu; Fati Tahiru (Hindawi Limited, 2023-01-01)
    The existence of gender differences in the use of information and communication technology (ICT) impedes the attainment of gender equality and female empowerment. It is therefore essential to provide up-to-date knowledge on the gender ICT divide given that insight into ICT use by gender is often limited and not regularly updated, particularly for low- and lower-middle-income countries. Consequently, this study investigated gender differences in ICT usage, self-efficacy, attitude, and anxiety among technical university students in Ghana. The study is based on primary data conveniently collected from 409 students in a 3-year Higher National Diploma awarding technical university in Ghana using a self-administered questionnaire. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Mann–Whitney U tests, and ordered logistic regression. Male students, compared to their female peers, reported frequent use of ICT, have a more confident and positive attitude, and are less anxious about the use of computers and their related applications. Access to computers and students’ level of study were related to attitude and perceived ICT self-efficacy. Policymakers and administrators of higher education institutions should implement interventions to improve female self-confidence and the use of computers and their applications.
  • Conception, Features, and Framework of Curriculum and Instruction Integration

    Linglan Zhao; Wei Fan (Hindawi Limited, 2023-01-01)
    Experience shows that the separation of curriculum and instruction can seriously block the process of curriculum reform. In the context of the new round of elementary education reform, curriculum and instruction plans should involve developing in an integrated way to implement the goal of students’ key competencies. Therefore, there is great value to resist one-size-fits-all thinking and reassess the issue of curriculum and instruction integration from a practical perspective. Following the practical essences of the key competencies, the research involved constructing three dimensions, practice, system, and structure, to reconstruct the connotation of curriculum and instruction integration. Curriculum and instruction integration is defined as the process of reorganizing and sequencing the internal elements of the system to form a new structure and new educational function in practice. There are three characteristics: it takes student learning practice as the goal, the existing curriculum and instruction structure as the basis, and the system hierarchical structure integration as the result. Based on the determined connotation and characteristics, authors constructed a hierarchical framework model for curriculum and instruction integration that was oriented around the key competencies. Research may provide useful references for promoting the high-quality development of curriculum and instruction.

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