• Becoming Global Citizens through Bilingualism: English Learning in the Lives of University Students in China

      Yangguang Chen (Hindawi Limited, 2011-01-01)
      The ongoing globalisation has led to a tremendous expansion of the English language. With China striving to become part of the world economy since the late 1970's, there has been a great emphasis placed on the education of young people to become a world citizen with fluent English. “Being a global citizen” is having strong interests in global issues, cultivating the understanding and appreciation of diverse values, and enhancing country's competitiveness. All this however needs to be realized through communication in English, the world language. Improving communicative competence among Chinese learners of English depends on how English is learnt in the FL classroom and how it gets practiced outside the classroom. Data drawn from English corners, English clubs and English church all show that those informal learning settings have a complentary role to play especially when the formal English classroom is found having various deficits. Data also confirm that informal settings offer the opportunity to close the gap between L1 and L2 learning processes, and nurtutre learners' communicative competence through social intercourse and intercultural exchanges. Moreover, EFL learning is inherently intercultural, which facilitate cross cultural perspectives through bilingualism and bridges over the indigenous cultural traditions and the western democratic values.
    • Building Intercultural Competence One “Patch” at a Time

      Rebecca Spooner-Lane; Donna Tangen; K. Louise Mercer; Erika Hepple; Suzanne Carrington (Hindawi Limited, 2013-01-01)
      This paper describes a program called Patches that was implemented to assist a group of Australian and Malaysian pre-service teachers to enhance their intercultural competence through their involvement in a series of reciprocal learning activities. Each learning experience was considered a “patch” that eventually created a “quilt of intercultural learning.” The purpose of this study was to enhance the intercultural competence of domestic and international students through organized intercultural activities, through a series of reflective writing sessions, and mutual engagement on a common project. The effectiveness of the Patches program was analysed in accordance with Deardorff’s elements of intercultural competence. The qualitative findings indicate that both cohorts of preservice teachers showed elements of intercultural competence through participation in the program, with both groups reporting a deeper appreciation and understanding of how to communicate more effectively in intercultural contexts.
    • Burnout in relation to Gender, Teaching Experience, and Educational Level among Educators

      Izzul Ilham Jamaludin; Huay Woon You (Hindawi Limited, 2019-01-01)
      This study aims to investigate the burnout levels of the educators with respect to gender, teaching experience, and educational level. The subjects of the study are 31 educators. A survey design using a questionnaire was utilized to collect data within three burnout dimensions, i.e., emotional exhaustion (EE), depersonalization (DP), and reduced personal accomplishment (PA). The study has found that the educators are emotionally exhausted and experience reduced personal accomplishment levels with high levels of depersonalization. Both genders regardless of years of experience with Bachelor, Master, and PhD degrees demonstrated high levels of emotional exhaustion. The educators who are troubled by depersonalization are mainly Bachelor degree holders with less than 5 years of experience. This indicates that these educators have negative attitudes towards the people they are working with including students and parents. This may be attributed to their lack of working experience. Nevertheless, female educators with Master degrees and 6 to 10 years of experience are highly affected by reduced personal accomplishment levels. The lack of fulfillment felt by these educators can lead to weak performance in class. The findings from this study are essential to give an overview on the burnout levels among educators and identify alternative solutions to overcome this situation. In addition, school authorities and administrators can take these factors into account when making recruitment decisions.
    • Caregiving Involvement, Job Condition, and Job Satisfaction of Infant-Toddler Child-Care Teachers in the United States

      Ziarat Hossain; Elizabeth Noll; Maribel Barboza (Hindawi Limited, 2012-01-01)
      This study explored the degree to which infant-toddler child-care teachers were involved in their caregiving tasks, the nature of their job condition, and the relationships among caregiving involvement, SES variables (e.g., age, income, education, and work hours), and job condition including job satisfaction, burnout, and quitting behavior. Forty-one teachers from 10 daycare centers in small towns of the Southwest participated in the study. Results indicate that there was a high level of caregiving involvement and job satisfaction among the teachers. However, most teachers were dissatisfied with their current income levels, showed a moderate level of burnout, and yet did not express their intention to quit their present job. Correlation analyses reveal that teachers’ job satisfaction was positively related to their interaction with children and colleagues, resources, and training but negatively correlated to burnout and quitting behavior. Teachers’ burnout and quitting behavior were negatively correlated to their interaction with children and colleagues, resources, training, and income. While the desire to work with children had a significant impact on teachers’ job satisfaction and burnout, income and level of collegiality significantly predicted their quitting behavior.
    • Causal Attributions as Correlates of Secondary School Students’ Academic Achievement

      Susan Ngunu; Theresia Kinai; Philomena Ndambuki; Peter Mwaura (Hindawi Limited, 2019-01-01)
      The purpose of this study was to establish the relationship between causal attributions and academic achievement. Weiner’s Model of Achievement Attribution guided this research. Five-hundred and eighty-five students (315 males, 270 females) participated in the study. The participants completed the Multidimensional Multiattributional Causality Scale (MMCS) while academic achievement was obtained from the participants’ academic records. Majority of the students attributed both success and failure to internal, uncontrollable, and unstable attributions. The results indicated that causal attributions were significantly correlated to academic achievement. Taking into account that students can form maladaptive causal attributions, the study made recommendations to the stakeholders on intervention measures.
    • Challenges for Quality Primary Education in Papua New Guinea—A Case Study

      Ravinder Rena (Hindawi Limited, 2011-01-01)
      There is an urgent need to reform the educational system to achieve universal primary education in Papua New Guinea (PNG). Even after 35 years of independence, PNG has been struggling to educate an estimated 2 million elementary- and primary-aged children and faces numerous challenges in providing Education for All (EFA). This study was conducted in four primary schools of Buma Yong area of Lae district of Morobe Province, PNG. The study revealed that the quality of education has been deteriorated over the past few decades. Many schools in PNG do not have classrooms, teachers, and basic facilities. As a result, the children are losing interest in going to school. The children dropped out of school so as to assist their families in the household and agricultural activities. It also reveals that the dropout rate of girls is more than that of the boys due to the gender disparity in the country. The study recommended that budgetary allocations should be increased so as to improve the infrastructural facilities and encourage the children to attend primary school and thus achieve the Millennium Development Goal/Education For All in PNG.
    • Challenges in the Clinical Environment: The Saudi Student Nurses’ Experience

      Ahmad E. Aboshaiqah; Irene M. Roco; Isabelita N. Pandaan; Omar G. Baker; Regie B. Tumala; John Paul Ben T. Silang (Hindawi Limited, 2018-01-01)
      Previous studies showed that student nurses faced difficulties in clinical practice; thus, this study examined the clinical challenges encountered by Saudi nationals and the implications to learning outcomes using the descriptive cross-sectional approach. The study was conducted in nursing college in a university in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The survey questionnaires were completed by 220 conveniently selected student nurses who were enrolled in Bachelor’s Degree in Nursing from the academic level 5 to 8. Data analysis was done through the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 23. Clinical evaluation was perceived as the most common challenge, whereas competency development as the least. Significant associations were found between age and evaluation, academic level and competency development, and grade point average and learning outcomes. Nursing competency development significantly varied with civil status and stream of study. Students in the Regular Nursing Program faced more challenges in achieving learning outcomes then their counterparts. Overall, the challenges were perceived as occasional. Resolving clinical obstacles is crucial in helping student nurses achieve positive learning outcomes.
    • Challenges of Parental Involvement Within a Health Promoting School Framework in New Zealand

      Tracy Clelland; Penni Cushman; Jacinta Hawkins (Hindawi Limited, 2013-01-01)
      The study sought to identify key issues regarding parental involvement within a health promoting school (HPS) approach directed at addressing children’s nutrition and physical activity. A case study research design was used, involving six primary schools in Auckland, New Zealand. Data were collected via six individual interviews with principals, six group interviews with a total of 26 teachers, 13 focus groups with a total of 92 children, and a survey of 229 parents. The study found that while schools agreed on the importance of schools and parents promoting the same healthy behaviours, there was a lack of agreement on the role of school staff in educating parents. School principals identified issues around managing the food brought from home and the extent to which they should regulate types of food. Parents stressed the importance of modelling healthy food and exercise practices in the home environment but identified factors that often made this difficult, a scenario that did not go unnoticed by their children. It is recommended that parental involvement be encouraged and supported so that schools and families can achieve consistency in health promotion practices across both school and home environments.
    • Changes in and Effects of Anxiety on English Test Performance in Chinese Postgraduate EFL Classrooms

      Meihua Liu; Li Xiangming (Hindawi Limited, 2019-01-01)
      As an important affective factor in language learning, foreign language anxiety (FLA) has been extensively researched. Nevertheless, not many studies have targeted postgraduate students or been longitudinal to reveal the dynamic nature of FLA. Hence, the present quantitative study examined changes in and effects of FLA on postgraduate students’ performance over a 10-week period. A total of 324 postgraduate students from a prestigious university took a pretest and posttest, answered a set of questionnaires before (phase 1) and after (phase 2) the 10-week period, respectively. Analyses of the data revealed three major findings: (1) Toward the end of the period, the respondents became significantly less apprehensive of speech communication in English and less worried about the English class, English classroom performance, and other students’ performance. Their overall English language classroom anxiety was significantly lower as well, though they became significantly more worried about tests. (2) In both phases, anxiety was largely highly related to students’ performance in English speaking, listening, reading, and writing tests as well as the overall test performance, especially speaking test performance. Nevertheless, this correlation became weaker in phase 2. (3) In both phases, foreign language classroom anxiety and achievement anxiety powerfully predicted students’ English test performance, especially speaking test performance. These results show that FLA is an important issue even for postgraduate students, affecting their test performance to varying degrees over time. Based on these findings, implications and suggestions are discussed.
    • Check This Word Out! Exploring the Factors That Affect Students’ Vocabulary Learning Using Smartphones via Partial Least Squares

      Mohammad Madallh Alhabahba; Omer Hassan Ali Mahfoodh; Ambigapathy Pandian; Yazan Mdala Mohammad; Enas Waleed Ahmed; Ali Albdour; Hussein Al Bazar (Hindawi Limited, 2014-01-01)
      A rigorous understanding of the use of Smartphones for foreign language vocabulary acquisition is crucial. Employing the technology acceptance model, this study aims to investigate students’ behavioural factors affecting Saudi students’ attitudes towards employing Smartphones for foreign vocabulary acquisition. Two hundred and seventy-three students studying in a preparatory year programme were surveyed. SmartPLS was employed to analyse the data obtained from the study’s sample. The results revealed that perceived usefulness and attitude proved to be significantly and positively related to vocabulary development. In addition, perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use proved to be significant predictors of students’ attitudes towards the use of Smartphone for vocabulary learning. However, the study showed that the relationship between perceived ease of use and vocabulary development is not significant. Thus, publishers of dictionaries may find it necessary to take into account the important role played by the design of dictionaries interfaces in facilitating the use of dictionaries in Smartphones. Furthermore, teachers and educators are encouraged to employ creative activities (e.g., word guessing games) that invest students’ use of Smartphones to learn vocabularies. Using Smartphones in learning improves interaction among students and teachers. Discussion and conclusions are also provided.
    • Coexisting Needs: Paradoxes in Collegial Reflection—The Development of a Pragmatic Method for Reflection

      Marie Nilsson; Ingemar Andersson; Kerstin Blomqvist (Hindawi Limited, 2017-01-01)
      This paper addresses a feasibility study of a method for recurrent collegial reflection. A qualitative approach, using a participatory research design, was adopted. The collegial reflection was implemented in a school, in a middle-sized municipality in southern Sweden, with 21 teachers participating in the intervention. Data collection included digital recordings of collegial reflection, open questions by mail, and individual interviews. Findings indicated one major theme, paradoxes in the design of the collegial reflection, and three categories: wanting to decide and wanting to be guided; meeting each other as teachers and/or as persons; and looking for the safe and/or looking for the new. Before implementing the method in another context, management needs to appreciate these contradictory experiences, allow for voluntary participation, address participants’ expectations, and allocate time and tasks. This study implicates that collegial reflection may contribute to teachers’ professional development, and it is thereby relevant to teachers’ classroom practice and pupils’ learning. We conclude that, by creating a structure which supports teachers’ collegial reflection, the school may function as a supportive environment, which may contribute to teacher retention.
    • Cognitive Load of Learner Control: Extraneous or Germane Load?

      Mieke Vandewaetere; Geraldine Clarebout (Hindawi Limited, 2013-01-01)
      Computer-based learning environments become more tailored when learners can exert control over one or more parts of the learning process. Learner control (LC) demands additional efforts of learners because, in addition to learning, they also have to monitor that learning. As a consequence, LC may cause additional cognitive load and even cognitive overload. The central question in this study is what type of cognitive load is induced by LC and whether the experienced load is related to learning outcomes. For this study, half of the students had control over task selection, while the other half had not. Within each condition, students were assigned to a single treatment, with the primary task to solely focus on the learning content, and a dual treatment, comprising a primary task and a secondary task. The results indicate that LC did not impose higher cognitive load as measured by secondary task scores and mental effort ratings.
    • Cognitive Styles and Gender as Predictors of Students’ Achievement in Summary Writing in Selected Secondary Schools in Ibadan, Nigeria

      Oladotun Opeoluwa Olagbaju (Hindawi Limited, 2020-01-01)
      Performance in the English language especially in public examinations in Nigeria has been very poor with summary writing identified as one of the dreaded aspects of the subject. Research efforts have shown that instructional practices in English studies are not tailored to learners’ personality traits such as cognitive style and gender. Cognitive style is an individual’s preferred means of receiving, processing, and making use of information. Gender also plays an important role in the teaching-learning process. This study considered the global and analytic dimensions of cognitive style. This study determines to what extent cognitive style and gender can predict students’ achievement in summary writing. The research design is descriptive with 350 participants drawn from four senior secondary schools in Ibadan. Data were analyzed using regression analysis, and the results show that cognitive style and gender are predictors of students’ achievement in summary writing. Teachers are encouraged to individualise instruction through the knowledge of learner-related variables.
    • Collaborative Concept Mapping: Connecting with Research Team Capacities

      Linda De George-Walker; Mark A. Tyler (Hindawi Limited, 2014-01-01)
      Concept mapping has generally been used as a means to increase the depth and breadth of understanding within a particular knowledge domain or discipline. In this paper we trace the deployment of collaborative concept mapping by a research team in higher education and analyse its effectiveness using the crime metaphor of motive, means, and opportunity. This case study exemplifies two iterations of the research team’s collaborative concept map and shows how the process of the construction of such maps enabled the opportunity for team dialogue and coconstruction that was focused, hands-on, and visual. The concept mapping process provided the team with a meaning-making mechanism through which to share understandings and explore the team’s potential capacities.
    • Collecting and Using Students’ Digital Well-Being Data in Multidisciplinary Teaching

      Hannu Moilanen; Sami Äyrämö; Susanne Jauhiainen; Marja Kankaanranta (Hindawi Limited, 2018-01-01)
      This article examines how students (N=198; aged 13 to 17) experienced the new methods for sensor-based learning in multidisciplinary teaching in lower and upper secondary education that combine the use of new sensor technology and learning from self-produced well-being data. The aim was to explore how students perceived new methods from the point of view of their learning and did the teaching methods provide new information that could promote their own well-being. We also aimed to find out how to collect digital well-being data from a large number of students and how the collected big data set can be utilized to predict school success from the students’ well-being data by using machine learning methods (lasso regression and multilayer perceptron). Results showed that sensor-based learning can promote students’ learning and well-being. All upper secondary school (n=37) and 87% of lower secondary school pupils (n=161) argued that when data are produced by their bodies, learning is more interesting, and they mostly found that well-being analysis was useful (upper secondary 97%; lower secondary 78%) and can improve personal well-being (upper secondary 78%; lower secondary 67%). The predictive powers with lasso regression and multilayer perceptron (MLP) were quite weak (correlation: −0.14 and 0.34, respectively).
    • Comparison of the Emotional Intelligence Levels of Students Receiving Education in Different Fields

      Zeynep Karaman Özlü; Gülçin Avşar; Kübra Gökalp; Serap Ejder Apay; Özlem Şahın Altun; Afife Yurttaş (Hindawi Limited, 2016-01-01)
      Aim. This descriptive study was conducted to determine and compare the emotional intelligence levels of senior students receiving education in different fields of Ataturk University. Methods. The population of the study consisted of senior students receiving education in different fields of Atatürk University. The sample group of study consisted of 305 senior students receiving education in different fields (health, social, and natural) and they were selected by using the simple random sampling method. Three faculties from three different fields were selected. Data of the study were obtained by using the personal information form, which was prepared by researchers in the light of the literature and involved sociodemographic characteristics and the “Emotional Intelligence Evaluation Scale.” Results. It was determined that while natural science students had the lowest total mean score of emotional intelligence scale, students of social sciences had the highest total mean score according to departments. Examining the difference between the mean scores of three different educational fields, it was determined that this difference was statistically significant. Conclusion. Consequently, the emotional intelligence level was determined to be lower in natural science students and moderate in students of health and social sciences.
    • Competence Models as a Tool for Conceptualizing the Systematic Process of Entrepreneurship Competence Development

      Uku Lilleväli; Marge Täks (Hindawi Limited, 2017-01-01)
      Entrepreneurship Education (EE) is believed to be an important key to supporting learners to become entrepreneurial, which means it needs to be approached systematically. Competence models provide a platform to meaningfully embed varying interpretations, learning outcomes, and roles of EE and allow educators and other stakeholders to apply EE systematically throughout all education levels. The aim of this study was to understand how systematic entrepreneurship competence development throughout the education levels is conceptualized in different EE competence models. In other words, what are the critical aspects to consider while constructing systematic competence models for EE purposes? The results of the analysis of the competence models help educators, school boards, policymakers, local municipalities, researchers, and other relevant stakeholders to obtain a clearer understanding of how EE learning outcomes can be systematically achieved at all education levels. However, lacking empirical proof regarding the impact of the models’ application, these models represent the “optimal set” of expected competencies for specific education levels and types. In its original form, a competence model established for a specific education system is unlikely to fit the needs and aims of other education systems. Thus, it is recommended that any model be adapted to a specific need and with a focus on learning outcomes.
    • Competency Assessment of Final-Year Dental Students in Tunisia

      F. Chouchene; N. Taktak; F. Masmoudi; A. Baaziz; F. Maatouk; H. Ghedira (Hindawi Limited, 2020-01-01)
      Introduction. The educational program assessment has always been the main objective of quality improvement in all curricula. The aim of this study was to describe the levels of competency of final-year students of the Faculty of Dental Medicine of Monastir in Tunisia in the major skills needed for a new dentist. Methods. In this cross-sectional descriptive study, 154 students filled out a questionnaire including 53 competencies, rated on a four-point Likert scale, broadly based on the competencies described in the profile and competences for the graduating dentist in Europe. Results. The response rate was 67% (145/230). For twenty items in the questionnaire, over 75% of the students reported being competent. The five items with the highest percentages were “undertaking supragingival and subgingival scaling-Item 22” (97.2%), “evaluating the periodontium, establishing a diagnosis and formulating a treatment plan-Item 2” (96.6%), “identify the location and degree of activity of dental caries-Item 24 (95.9%), “taking and interpreting dental radiographs-Item 12” (94.4%), “restoring damaged teeth-Item 25” (93.8%), and “managing primary oral health care-Item 16” (93.8%). For eighteen skills, more than 75% of students self-rated being not competent, demonstrating a need of more thorough training, notably in periodontal surgery and implantology, among these, five skills were found that demand in-depth acquisition according to the students. Conclusion. The general state of competency of the last-year dental students was described as fairly satisfactory based on the students’ self-reported responses. However, theoretical and practical backgrounds related to some subjects in the school need to be improved.
    • Complex Problems in Entrepreneurship Education: Examining Complex Problem-Solving in the Application of Opportunity Identification

      Yvette Baggen; Jakob Mainert; André Kretzschmar; Thomas Lans; Harm J. A. Biemans; Christoph Niepel; Samuel Greiff (Hindawi Limited, 2017-01-01)
      In opening up the black box of what entrepreneurship education (EE) should be about, this study focuses on the exploration of relationships between two constructs: opportunity identification (OI) and complex problem-solving (CPS). OI, as a domain-specific capability, is at the core of entrepreneurship research, whereas CPS is a more domain-general skill. On a conceptual level, there are reasons to believe that CPS skills can help individuals to identify potential opportunities in dynamic and nontransparent environments. Therefore, we empirically investigated whether CPS relates to OI among 113 masters students. Data is analyzed using multiple regressions. The results show that CPS predicts the number of concrete ideas that students generate, suggesting that having CPS skills supports the generation of detailed, potential business ideas of good quality. The results of the current study suggest that training CPS, as a more domain-general skill, could be a valuable part of what should be taught in EE.
    • Concept Maps for Teaching, Learning, and Assessment in Electronics

      Valery Vodovozov; Zoja Raud (Hindawi Limited, 2015-01-01)
      The paper describes how to employ the concept mapping technology in engineering education in the field of Electronics. The overall knowledge domain ontology in the field is shown. It is underlined that the concept maps serve as a suitable tool to support instructors in promoting students’ comprehension of the studying material and in improving their understanding of new concepts. Introduction of an original educational thesaurus is proposed. Such a thesaurus helps learners to see what they have acquired from the lessons. It supports them in making connections between new and prior concepts and reinforces knowledge integration by such a promotion. The developed concept maps are regarded as a valuable instrument of many assessment procedures. They represent learners’ knowledge providing informative and reflective feedbacks tailored to learners’ personal styles and requests.