• Demystifying the Effect of Narrow Reading on EFL Learners’ Vocabulary Recall and Retention

      Marziyeh Abdollahi; Mohammad Taghi Farvardin (Hindawi Limited, 2016-01-01)
      The aim of the present study was to explore the effect of narrow reading on English as foreign language (EFL) learners’ vocabulary recall and retention. To this end, 60 senior high school students studying at Tarbiyat High School in Mahshahr, Iran, were selected from four intact classes. The participants were then divided into two equal groups, experimental and control. Ten words which were unknown to the participants were selected as target words. The experimental group received thematically related passages while the control group was given reading passages of different topics. The immediate posttest was given to the participants two days after the treatment. Afterwards, two delayed posttests were administered with two week intervals. The scores were analyzed through two-way repeated measures ANOVA, Bonferroni pairwise comparisons, and independent samples t-tests. The results revealed that the experimental group outperformed the control group in all posttests. The implications arising from the findings and suggestions for future research were explained.
    • Design and Implementation of a Capstone Course to Satisfy the Industry Needs of Virtual Product Development and ABET Engineering Criteria

      Mohamed A. Omar (Hindawi Limited, 2014-01-01)
      Over the past two decades, computer aided engineering (CAE) processes and procedures became an integral part of the product development cycle. Virtual product development (VPD) refers to procedures that integrate the CAE tools in a unified approach that spans all the product development phases. Current industrial trends utilize VPD tools and procedures to reduce the product development time without jeopardizing the product quality. These trends led to an increasing demand for engineers with computer skills, multidisciplinary engineering knowledge, and acquaintance with VPD tools. ABET program outcomes emphasize providing courses with an accumulated background of curricular components to solve realistic open-ended engineering problems. Capstone design project (CDP) course has been regarded as important learning activity that could be designed to provide senior engineering student an opportunity to solve such problems. A major objective of the CDP course is to simulate industrial setting and allow students to experience real-life engineering practice. This paper presents an implementation of the VPD procedures in a mechanical engineering CDP course. This integration simulates the industrial environment through multidisciplinary teams working together in subsystems to produce one product using standard commercial VPD tools. This course implementation is demonstrated using a case study of teams working to design and build a solar car.
    • Design of Web-Based Experiments on Acceleration and Speed Transducers

      Ashish Mani; R. S. S. Prasanth; C. Patvardhan (Hindawi Limited, 2011-01-01)
      Remote laboratories are becoming increasingly popular in academic arena due to availability of web-based technologies and infrastructure. Remote Labs are equipped with real instruments, where experiments are performed by controlling the instruments and observing the real data from a distant location through computer networks. They provide for student centric laboratory experience as students can perform experiments at their own convenience and requirements. Further, Remote Labs reduce management of work involved in running conventional laboratories. This paper describes design and implementation of such an experimental setup for performing characterization experiments on Transducers in general and Acceleration and Speed Transducers in particular from a remote location. The experiment can be made accessible to anyone over a TCP/IP network with a standard Web Browser, relevant plugin, and permission. This paper demonstrates that traditional experiments on sensors and transducers can be successfully made available online to both on-campus and off-campus students at their own schedule and convenience.
    • Designing Research-Based Professional Development for Elementary School Science and Mathematics

      Brian L. Gerber; Edmund A. Marek; Ellice P. Martin (Hindawi Limited, 2011-01-01)
      A partnership including 11 school districts, a university, service agency, and private nonprofit education organization formed a collaborative partnership to improve teaching and learning in elementary school science and mathematics. The partnership designed research-based professional development for 150 teachers of grades 3–5. The professional development resulted in statistically significant increases for those elementary school teachers on math and science competency tests over a two-year period. The professional development was the vehicle for providing teachers with professional development so that they could (a) increase their content background in science and mathematics and (b) apply newly learned inquiry practices in their math and science instruction.
    • Determinants of Secondary School Teachers’ Job Satisfaction in Tanzania

      Gilman Jackson Nyamubi (Hindawi Limited, 2017-01-01)
      This study examined teachers’ job satisfaction in Tanzania. It addressed one research question: what factors determine secondary school teachers’ job satisfaction? The study was conducted in eight secondary schools in two regions of Tanzania. It used focus group discussion as the data collection tool. Results show that teachers were satisfied by both monetary and nonmonetary incentives such as community support. They were pleased with fair remuneration packages that related to their labour input, opportunities for career development, a well-defined individual appraisal system, timely promotion, and requisite workplace conditions. The study also showed that teachers’ friendship and cooperation with coworkers and students as well as the respect of community members also enhanced their satisfaction in teaching. Also important to their satisfaction is their students’ success in and after school, which reveals the teachers’ sense of duty and responsibility. Teachers’ job dissatisfaction can lead to their search for other means to gain economically. It is recommended that care should be given to address teachers’ pertinent issues, especially salaries, workplace conditions, and timely promotion, to enhance teachers’ physical and mental attachment to their workplaces.
    • Developing Pedagogical Content Knowledge: Lessons Learned from Intervention Studies

      Marie Evens; Jan Elen; Fien Depaepe (Hindawi Limited, 2015-01-01)
      Pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) is generally accepted as positively impacting teaching quality and student learning. Therefore, research on PCK development in (prospective) teachers is highly relevant. Based on a search in three databases (ERIC, PsycInfo, and Web of Science), a systematic review is conducted on intervention studies aiming at PCK development. The research questions are threefold: (1) How are the studies designed? (2) How are the interventions designed? and (3) What elements of interventions contribute to PCK development? The results show that most intervention studies are conducted in math and science education and use a qualitative methodology. Reflection, PCK courses, contact with other teachers, and experiences in educational practice are typically part of effective interventions. The review enables the identification of clear guidelines that may strengthen future research on stimulating PCK.
    • Development of an Academic Course in Person-Centred Care for Students in Higher Education: Teachers’ Perspectives

      Kristina Rosengren; Louise Danielsson; Inger Jansson; Catarina Wallengren (Hindawi Limited, 2018-01-01)
      Few studies describe the development of academic courses with interprofessional perspectives. Therefore, the aim of this study was to describe teachers’ experiences with developing an academic course in person-centred care (PCC). Data collection was divided into three parts: (1) written material/documentation describing the process (text and pictures, 16 meetings), (2) SWOT analysis in relation to being a lecturer (n=7), and (3) interviews with the lecturers (n=4). The data were analysed using mixed methods, descriptive statistics (1) and qualitative content analysis (2-3). The results are presented in three categories (Co-creating a pilot course, Challenges of managing unfamiliar knowledge, and Wanting to understand new educational approach). This study highlights three challenges: (1) unfamiliarity with the field of person-centred care and selected educational activities and teaching skills; (2) unfamiliar colleagues, which delayed partnership efforts; and (3) limited experience working with other lecturers in light of the institute’s structure and routines. However, these challenges served as both barriers and facilitators; the lecturers developed knowledge and experiences from collaborations (educational and/or content skills/knowledge) focusing on resources and skills.
    • Development of Emotional Skills through Interdisciplinary Practices Integrated into a University Curriculum

      M. L. Pertegal-Felices; D. Marcos-Jorquera; R. Gilar-Corbí; A. Jimeno-Morenilla (Hindawi Limited, 2017-01-01)
      The emotional profile of university students has been related to both academic performance and professional success. Such evidence has led higher education professionals to ask whether students can be trained in emotional skills at university stage. However, learning specific emotional skills requires a considerable investment of time from students. This paper presents an intervention aimed at developing emotional skills through interdisciplinary teamwork, without adding specific courses that could decrease the time that students devote to their core studies. The results indicated that working in interdisciplinary teams improved the level of emotional skills without hindering the attainment of academic objectives.
    • Differences in College Engagement Benchmark Scores as a Function of Honors Course Enrollment for Community College Students: A Nationwide Study

      Abraham Korah; John R. Slate; George W. Moore; Frederick C. Lunenburg (Hindawi Limited, 2019-01-01)
      In this investigation, the extent to which differences were present in benchmark scores as a function of community college student honors course enrollment status was investigated using data from the Community College Survey of Student Engagement. Statistically significant differences were revealed for all 5 benchmark scores (i.e., active and collaborative learning, student effort, academic challenge, student-faculty, and support for learners). Students who had been enrolled in an honors course had benchmark scores that were 9 to 16 points higher than their peers who had not been enrolled in an honors course, reflecting higher levels of scholastic engagement, deeper connections with instructors and peers, and greater use of academic and student support services.
    • Differences in Student Engagement: Investigating the Role of the Dominant Cognitive Processes Preferred by Engineering and Education Students

      Ian Ball; Chris Perry (Hindawi Limited, 2011-01-01)
      This paper reports on a study of the differences in the dominant cognitive processes preferred by groups of engineering and education students and examines the implications of these differences for the assessment of student engagement with university courses. Concern is expressed that the items commonly used to capture student engagement data do not adequately cover the full range of the dominant cognitive processes preferred by tertiary students. The paper sets out a brief overview of student engagement along with the theory of dominant and auxiliary cognitive processes, as developed by Jung and later by Myers. Evidence is presented of the differing frequencies of the eight cognitive processes, as assessed by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, that are preferred by cohorts of students undertaking courses in engineering and education. The implications of these differences are discussed in the context of subject disciplines in university environments.
    • Dilemma of Basic School Pupils in Northern Ghana with respect to Their Learning Context

      Hakim Abdallah; Moses Naiim Fuseini; Amadu Musah Abudu; Yusif Nuhu (Hindawi Limited, 2014-01-01)
      Lately, basic school pupils have performed poorly in the Basic Education Certificate Examination (BECE) as well as in their end of term examinations and this necessitated an enquiry into the phenomenon. The study used the cross-sectional study design. The sample size was 195. The study collected data using a questionnaire. Data analysis involved using descriptive statistics. The study found that largely pupils from academically performing and nonacademically performing schools have similar perceptions about causes of poor academic performance. Again, the combined effect of home and school environmental factors emerged as the major contributor to poor academic performance. The study recommends that providing a conducive home environment for the pupils, tackling pupil and teacher related factors, would help to ensure that poor academic performance is a thing of the past.
    • Disentangling Teaching and Summative Assessment in Higher Education? Pros and Cons from Students’ Perspectives

      Joke Coens; Delphine Sasanguie; Geraldine Clarebout; Jan Elen (Hindawi Limited, 2012-01-01)
      The impact of the examiner on students’ perspectives on learning and assessment is investigated. A disentangling of support and evaluation roles was implemented for two courses. The lecturer did not have the responsibility for the summative evaluation. Instead, this was the task of an examiner. Students’ conceptions of the disentangling were investigated by means of focus groups (=21) before and open-ended questionnaires (=50 and =18) after the actual disentangled courses. Results showed as well pros as contras. Pros were that students felt free to express their own opinion during the examination, that they could ‘team up’ with the lecturer during the academic year, and that some of them believed this enabled the examiner to pass them a more objective judgment. Contras were that some students felt uncomfortable because they did not know the examiner, that they feared a wrong first impression would result in a less objective evaluation or that some students reported that they would behave less respectful to the lecturer if this person would no longer examine them. Students’ arguments thus reveal what matters to them in assessment: they desire a reliable, a valid and a transparent evaluation.
    • Do Simulation-Based Skill Exercises and Post-Encounter Notes Add Additional Value to a Standardized Patient-Based Clinical Skills Examination?

      Michael D. Prislin; Sue Ahearn; John Boker (Hindawi Limited, 2011-01-01)
      Background. Standardized patient (SP) clinical assessments have limited utility in assessing higher-level clinical competencies. This study explores the value of including simulation exercises and postencounter notes in an SP clinical skills examination. Methods. Two exercises involving cardiac auscultation and ophthalmic funduscopy simulations along with written post encounter notes were added to an SP-based performance examination. Descriptive analyses of students' performance and correlations with SP-based performance measures were obtained. Results. Students' abilities to detect abnormalities on physical exam were highly variable. There were no correlations between SP-based and simulation-derived measures of physical examination competency. Limited correlations were found between students' abilities to perform and document physical examinations and their formulation of appropriate differential diagnoses. Conclusions. Clinical simulation exercises add depth to SP-based assessments of performance. Evaluating the content of post encounter notes offers some insight into students' integrative abilities, and this appears to be improved by the addition of simulation-based post encounter skill exercises. However, further refinement of this methodology is needed.
    • Doctoral Dissertation Supervision: Identification and Evaluation of Models

      Ngozi Agu; Christy O. Odimegwu (Hindawi Limited, 2014-01-01)
      Doctoral research supervision is one of the major avenues for sustaining students’ satisfaction with the programme, preparing students to be independent researchers and effectively initiating students into the academic community. This work reports doctoral students’ evaluation of their various supervision models, their satisfaction with these supervision models, and development of research-related skills. The study used a descriptive research design and was guided by three research questions and two hypotheses. A sample of 310 Ph.D. candidates drawn from a federal university in Eastern part of Nigeria was used for this study. The data generated through the questionnaire was analyzed using descriptive statistics and t-tests. Results show that face-to-face interactive model was not only the most frequently used, but also the most widely adopted in doctoral thesis supervision while ICT-based models were rarely used. Students supervised under face-to-face interactive model reported being more satisfied with dissertation supervision than those operating under face-to-face noninteractive model. However, students supervised under these two models did not differ significantly in their perceived development in research-related skills.
    • e-Self-Assessment as a Strategy to Improve the Learning Process at University

      Verónica Martínez; María A. Mon; Marina Álvarez; Eva Fueyo; Alejandra Dobarro (Hindawi Limited, 2020-01-01)
      Background. Self-evaluation or autonomous evaluation, understood as a practice in which students can judge their own achievements and reflect on them, is considered a key element in the assessment process of college education. A common procedure at University environments is to apply information and communication techniques to carry out self-assessment activities and record answers. The aim is to analyse if the e-self-assessment improves student performance, using tests for objective and short answers as a complementary activity in teaching through the virtual platform Moodle. Method. The sample consisted of 406 students of two subjects in the degree course for Primary and Early Childhood Education and in the degree course for Teacher of Primary Education; they had to fill in 100 question self-assessment questionnaires about the content of the subjects on the Moodle virtual learning platform and a satisfaction scale. Results. They confirm a high participation in this innovation methodology; the e-self assessment showed improvement of student achievement and increased the degree of student satisfaction. Conclusions. The e-self assessment would assist students to take an active role in their learning process, increase their achievement, promote their self-directed learning, and develop metacognitive skills.
    • Education for Creativity and Talent Development in the 21st Century

      Kirsi Tirri; Seokhee Cho; Doehee Ahn; James R. Campbell (Hindawi Limited, 2017-01-01)
    • Effect of Real-Time Surveys on Patient Satisfaction Scores in the Emergency Department

      Julia Sobel; Jessica Bates; Vivienne Ng; Matthew Berkman; Tomas Nuño; Kurt Denninghoff; Lisa Stoneking (Hindawi Limited, 2019-01-01)
      Background. Patient satisfaction surveys have become increasingly important as their results help to determine Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) reimbursement. However, these questionnaires have known sources of bias (self-selection, responder, attribution, and nonresponse). Objective. We developed a real-time (RT) survey delivered in the hospital ED to evaluate the effect of implementing RT patient satisfaction surveys on physician behavior and hypothesized that the timing of patient satisfaction survey delivery would significantly impact the results. Method. Data from real-time patient satisfaction surveys were collected in phases from 12/2015 to 5/2017. Hospital-sponsored (HS) surveys were administered after discharge from 12/2015 to 12/2016. Results. For RT surveys, resident physicians were significantly more likely to write their names on the whiteboard (p=0.02) and sit down (p=0.01) with patients. Behavior modifications by attending physicians were not significant. Patient satisfaction measures did not improve significantly between periods for RT or HS surveys; however, RT survey responders were significantly more likely to recommend the ED to others. Conclusion. The timing of survey administration did significantly alter resident physician’s behavior; however, it had no effect on patient satisfaction scores. RT responders were significantly more likely to recommend the emergency department to others.
    • Effectiveness of Using Online Discussion Forum for Case Study Analysis

      Ravi Seethamraju (Hindawi Limited, 2014-01-01)
      Business schools are exploring new pedagogical approaches to learning in order to deal with challenges such as increased class sizes, limited funding support, and difficulties in facilitating and encouraging active participation and learning among a diverse cohort of students. This paper reports on a study of the effectiveness of a pedagogical approach that blends online discussion board and case study. Analysing quantity and quality of online postings and comparing accounting students’ performance with previous cohort, this study observes a significant improvement in student learning. Appropriate design and delivery strategies and clear assessment criteria for assessment and use have provided an effective learning vehicle for students, helped them overcome their own language related barriers, and encouraged them to participate in a nonthreatening environment. This approach further complemented the benefits of peer-to-peer learning and case study pedagogy. Reported increase in workload for students and marking load for academics and measuring the value of learning, however, are some of the challenges that need further attention by researchers.
    • Effects of Interventions with Manipulatives on Immediate Learning, Maintenance, and Transfer in Children with Mathematics Learning Disabilities: A Systematic Review

      Anne Lafay; Helena P. Osana; Marion Valat (Hindawi Limited, 2019-01-01)
      Manipulatives are concrete or virtual objects (e.g., blocks and chips) often used in elementary grades to illustrate abstract mathematical concepts. We conducted a systematic review to examine the effects of interventions delivered with manipulatives on the learning of children with mathematics learning disabilities (MLD). The outcomes observed in the sample (N = 38) were learning, maintenance, and transfer in a variety of mathematical domains. Interventions using manipulatives were reported to be effective for a range of learning objectives (e.g., conceptual understanding and computational fluency), but several methodological weaknesses were observed. Analyses also highlighted considerable heterogeneity in the studies reviewed in terms of participant characteristics, intervention approaches, and methodology. We discuss overall effects of interventions with manipulatives in the MLD population, the methodological quality across the sample, and implications for practice.
    • Effects of MATAS Hopscotch Technique in the Teaching of Fractions and Error Patterns Made by Year 5 Pupils

      Devaki Periasamy; Kamariah Abu Bakar; Ahmad Fauzi Mohd Ayub (Hindawi Limited, 2014-01-01)
      MATAS Hopscotch technique was created to solve the subtraction of three types of fractions. The study involved 56 pupils from two Year 5 classes. A quasi-experimental, nonrandomized control group, pretest-posttest delayed post-test was conducted on two intact groups, randomly assigned into control and experimental groups. A pretest was administered at the early stage of this study. The study described types of error made by the pupils in solving the subtraction of fractions. Rubrics, Hodes and Notling (1998), were used to describe types of error made by the pupils in the pretest and posttest. The findings in the pretest showed both groups made concept, directions, and careless errors. However, in the posttest, the experimental group made careless errors while the control group made concept, directions, and careless errors. The number of errors made by the control group was higher than that made by the experimental group.