• Language Anxiety in Focus: The Case of Filipino Undergraduate Teacher Education Learners

      Rhodora R. Jugo (Hindawi Limited, 2020-01-01)
      This study has focused on determining the level, sources, and causes of foreign language anxiety of students taking up teacher education courses in the Philippines and how language anxiety affects the English proficiency of the respondents and their language learning. A total of 242 learners from a Philippine-based learning institution answered an English proficiency exam (EPE) and a questionnaire comprising two parts: a 30-item English Language Anxiety Scale (ELAS) and a set of questions on causes of anxiety and effects on language learning. Means, standard deviation, frequency, and percentage were calculated and used to characterize language anxiety level, sources, and causes. Correlation and regression analyses of the language anxiety variables and English proficiency of the respondents were then conducted. Follow-up interviews were also done for selected respondents in order to understand the nature and mechanism of the investigated relationships. The results confirmed that the speaking activity, error correction, and communicating with English speakers are sources of high anxiety of the Filipino learners, while the writing activity, negative self-perception, and noncomprehension are sources of moderate anxiety. All of the sources of anxiety were shown to have a significant negative relationship with second language anxiety, and simple regression analysis revealed that foreign language anxiety is a significant predictor of English proficiency. However, further analysis of the specific sources of anxiety using multiple regression analysis identified speaking activities anxiety as the only significant predictor of English proficiency.
    • Layers of Self- and Co-Regulation: Teachers Working Collaboratively to Support Adolescents' Self-Regulated Learning through Reading

      Deborah L. Butler; Leyton Schnellert; Sylvie C. Cartier (Hindawi Limited, 2013-01-01)
      This paper reports findings from a longitudinal project in which secondary teachers were working collaboratively to support adolescents' self-regulated learning through reading (LTR) in subject-area classrooms. We build from prior research to “connect the dots” between teachers' engagement in self- and co-regulated inquiry, associated shifts in classroom practice, and student self-regulation. More specifically, we investigated whether and how teachers working within a community of inquiry were mobilizing research to shape classroom practice and advance student learning. Drawing on evidence from 18 teachers and their respective classrooms, we describe findings related to the following research questions: (1) While engaged in self- and co-regulated inquiry, what types of practices did teachers enact to support LTR in their subject-area classrooms? (2) How did teachers draw on research-based resources to inform practice development? (3) What kinds of practices could be associated with gains in students' self-regulated LTR? In our discussion, we highlight contributions to understanding how teachers can be supported to situate research in authentic classroom environments and about qualities of practices supportive of students' self-regulated LTR. We also identify limitations of this work and important future directions.
    • Leadership Practices in Effective Schools in Disadvantaged Areas of Canada

      Yamina Bouchamma (Hindawi Limited, 2012-01-01)
      Purpose. The purpose of this paper was to examine leadership practices in effective schools located in economically disadvantaged areas of three Canadian provinces: Ontario, Québec, and New Brunswick. Research Design. Our study was conducted in five successful schools selected on the basis of student outcomes on province-wide standardized exams, as well as on some risk factors such as rural area, low socioeconomic level, and proportion of Francophones (Ontario and New Brunswick). To increase the study’s validity, we used triangulation and various data sources: (1) individual interviews; (2) observation of school principals; (3) field documentation; (4) student essays; (5) internal school documents such as mission statement, rules, and directives. Participants. Participants included Department of Education heads and school board administrators, school principals and vice principals, teachers, school counsellors, educational psychologists, parent school board members, and students. Findings. Results show that leadership practices in effective schools can be grouped together around five dimensions: establishing goals and expectations; strategic resourcing; curriculum planning, coordination, and evaluation; promoting and participating in teacher supervision and development; ensuring order and support.
    • Leadership Style: School Perspective in Cameroon

      Asan Vernyuy Wirba (Hindawi Limited, 2015-01-01)
      This paper examines leadership styles of secondary school principals in Cameroon, in terms of transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership styles. This paper discusses the leadership styles in Cameroon and puts forward ideas for continuous improvement. A qualitative approach, using a semistructured interview, was adopted. It was conducted on ten principals, ten teachers, and ten students. Majority of respondents from schools described their principals as transformational leaders. Doubts are cast on the nature of transformational leadership in schools in Cameroon, since there is less training and development for leadership in schools.
    • Learning Mathematics in Metacognitively Oriented ICT-Based Learning Environments: A Systematic Review of the Literature

      Lieven Verschaffel; Fien Depaepe; Zemira Mevarech (Hindawi Limited, 2019-01-01)
      This article encompasses a systematic review of the research on ICT-based learning environments for metacognitively oriented K-12 mathematics education. This review begins with a brief overview of the research on metacognition and mathematics education and on ICT and mathematics education. Based on a systematic screening of the databases Web of Science and ERIC wherein three elements—ICT-based learning environments, metacognitive pedagogies, and mathematics—are combined, 22 articles/studies were retrieved, situated at various educational levels (kindergarten, elementary school, and secondary school). This review revealed a variety of studies, particularly intervention studies, situated in elementary and secondary schools. Most studies involved drill-and-practice software, intelligent tutoring systems, serious games, multimedia environments, and computer-supported collaborative learning environments, with metacognitive pedagogies either integrated into the ICT software itself or provided externally by the teacher, mainly for arithmetic or algebraic word problem-solving but also related to other mathematical topics. All studies reported positive effects on mathematical and/or metacognitive learning outcomes. This review ends with a discussion of issues for further theoretical reflection and empirical research.
    • Learning Outside the Classroom: How Principals Define and Prepare to Be Instructional Leaders

      Linda R. Vogel (Hindawi Limited, 2018-01-01)
      This qualitative study surveyed 50 practicing principals in a Rocky Mountain state to explore what elements of their responsibilities these educational leaders identified as part of their instructional leadership roles. The study also examined what experiences these principals identified as helpful in preparing them to assume the role of school instructional leader, specifically in the areas of teacher supervision and evaluation, the use of technology to support student learning, and the use of data to inform instructional practices. These areas have been identified through research as significant elements of instructional leadership. By identifying the specific actions that principals identify as their instructional leadership responsibilities, programs that prepare school leaders and state and district personnel who provide professional development for principals can develop learning experiences that could more effectively support principals’ success as instructional leaders.
    • Library and Information Science Education and Training in Uganda: Trends, Challenges, and the Way Forward

      Constant Okello-Obura; I. M. N. Kigongo-bukenya (Hindawi Limited, 2011-01-01)
      In today's public and private sectors, corporate governance is a key focus, and management of libraries, records, archives, and information centers is an increasingly important preoccupation. This implies that the issue of LIS education should not be taken lightly. As the economy grows, the demand for information will propel the demand for LIS professionals because of the need to manage different kinds of documents. This paper, based on relevant literature review and the authors' experience as LIS practitioners and educators, aims at discussing this subject and highlights important issues to be addressed. The paper makes a brief exploration of LIS education in Uganda, identifies the challenges, and proposes strategies as the way forward. It recommends that as LIS education and training seeks a wider role in society, there is a need to prepare students for careers in a rapidly changing world. This requires multidisciplinary education, greater emphasis on core knowledge, and fully well-articulated graduate programmes to meet the requisite of LIS professionals.
    • Literacy in Limbo? Performance of Two Reading Promotion Schemes in Public Basic Schools in Ghana

      Kwasi Opoku-Amankwa; Aba Brew-Hammond; Anatu Kande Mahama (Hindawi Limited, 2012-01-01)
      This paper examines two literacy development programmes in basic school classrooms in Ghana: a books scheme for primary schools, mounted by the Ministry of Education in 1998 with support from the Department for International Development, UK, (DfID), and a reading assessment programme (Opoku-Amankwa and Brew-Hammond, 2011) aimed at promoting reading and improving quality of education especially at the basic level. The study reveals that very little is known about the two schemes, pupils’ access to the books is generally poor, and teachers interpret and implement the reading assessment programme in a range of ways according to their understanding. The paper recommends a detailed qualitative and quantitative study of the schemes to assist in future book development and literacy programmes.
    • Mathematics and Numeracy as Social and Spatial Practice

      Nancy Ares; Dawn M. Evans (Hindawi Limited, 2014-01-01)
      This study of networked classroom activity proposes that a resource-rich point of view is powerful in increasing the engagement of marginalized students in mathematics classes. Our work brings attention to the values, beliefs, and power relations that infuse numeracy practices and adds attention to mathematical dimensions of social spaces. Findings show that the multiple modes available to communicate mathematically, to contribute, and the inquiry-oriented discussions invited students to draw on a variety of expressive modes to engage with complex mathematical concepts. Spatial analyses illuminate the relations among reproduction and production of knowledge, as well as the social space that characterized the networked classroom activity. They also reveal the affordance of emergent, transformed social spaces for youth’s use of a variety of social and cultural displays in producing mathematical knowledge. Students extended notions about social space by adding attention to affective features of classroom and school activities.
    • Medical Students’ Career Choice and Attitudes towards Family Medicine in Morocco

      Majda Sebbani; Adil Mansouri; Latifa Adarmouch; Mohamed Amine (Hindawi Limited, 2020-01-01)
      Background. The motivation of this work is driven on the one hand from the need to understand the medical students’ attitude towards medical training in the context of the reform in Morocco and the creation of “family medicine” as a specialty. This study aims to explore the expectations of medical students regarding family medicine and to identify the factors that may influence setting their choices after graduation. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional study among Moroccan medical students from public faculties during the month of August 2019. The data collection was based on an online self-administered electronic questionnaire. The quantitative data were analyzed by SPSS version 16. The analyses were descriptive univariate (Fisher’s test) and multivariate (binary logistic regression) with a P value of 5%. The qualitative data were synthesized according to a thematic analysis grid. Results. The medical students in Morocco have a positive perception of family medicine as an important specialty but low interest in it as a future career. Only 6.4% had the intention to choose it as a future career. However, 27.5% chose to become a general practitioner if it is a specialty (family medicine, as part of the new medical reform). The factors associated with the choice of career in general practice were mainly the ambition for career development (OR = 4.8; 95% CI [2.46; 9.51]), income (OR = 2.6; 95% CI [1.11; 6.29]), or the personal experience as a student or patient in contact with a general practitioner (OR = 0.48; 95% CI [0.25; 0.92]). Conclusion. The practical experience with family medicine seems to have an important influence on being attracted to family medicine careerwise. The study findings will inform future planning to introduce the residency program.
    • Medical Students’ Experience of Mindfulness Training in the UK: Well-Being, Coping Reserve, and Professional Development

      Alice Malpass; Kate Binnie; Lauren Robson (Hindawi Limited, 2019-01-01)
      Medical school can be a stressful experience for students, resulting in stress-related mental health problems. Policy recommendations from the General Medical Council (GMC), the body responsible for improving medical education in the UK, recommend the use of mindfulness training to increase well-being and resilience to stress. Students participating in an eight-week mindfulness training between Autumn 2011 and Spring 2015 were invited to complete a free text survey at the end of their mindfulness course. In addition, six qualitative interviews were conducted lasting between 60 and 90 minutes. Interviews used a topic guide and were recorded and transcribed verbatim. We used the framework approach to analyse the data. Students reported a new relationship to their thoughts and feelings which gave a greater sense of control and resiliency, an ability to manage their workload better, and more acceptance of their limitations as learners. The small group context was important. Students described improved empathy and communication skills through building inner awareness of thoughts and feelings, noticing judgments, and developing attentive observation. The findings show how resiliency and coping reserve can be developed within medical education and the role of mindfulness in this process. We present a conceptual model of a learnt cycle of specific vulnerability and describe how MBCT intercepts at various junctures in this self-reinforcing cycle through the development of new coping strategies that embrace an “allowed vulnerability.”
    • Mental Health and Well-Being of University Students in Okinawa

      Paul Ratanasiripong; Takashi China; Shiho Toyama (Hindawi Limited, 2018-01-01)
      With increasing frequency and severity of mental health issues among university students globally as well as limited studies on the mental health of Japanese university students, this study examined the factors that impact the mental health issues of university students in Okinawa. A total of 441 undergraduate students from 3 universities participated in this cross-sectional study. Average age of participants was 20 (range = 18–46, SD = 2.6). Four factors that significantly predicted depression among university students in Okinawa included self-esteem, family economic status, resiliency, and year in school (R2 = 0.37). Two factors that significantly predicted anxiety included self-esteem and family economic status (R2 = 0.26). Three factors that significantly predicted stress included self-esteem, family economic status, and year in school (R2 = 0.28). This study contributes to the understanding of specific factors that impact depression, anxiety, and stress for this population. University administrators and faculty have an opportunity to implement programs and services to make positive impact that could reduce mental health problems and improve well-being for students on their campuses.
    • Metacognitive Instruction: Global and Local Shifts in Considering Listening Input

      Hossein Bozorgian; Ebrahim Fakhri Alamdari (Hindawi Limited, 2013-01-01)
      A key shift of thinking for effective learning and teaching of listening input has been seen and organized in education locally and globally. This study has probed whether metacognitive instruction through a pedagogical cycle shifts high-intermediate students' English language learning and English as a second language (ESL) teacher's teaching focus on listening input. Twenty male Iranian students with an age range of 18 to 24 received a guided methodology including metacognitive strategies (planning, monitoring, and evaluation) for a period of three months. This study has used the strategies and probed the importance of metacognitive instruction through interviewing both the teacher and the students. The results have shown that metacognitive instruction helped both the ESL teacher's and the students' shift of thinking about teaching and learning listening input. This key shift of thinking has implications globally and locally for classroom practices of listening input.
    • Metacognitive Strategies and Test Performance: An Experience Sampling Analysis of Students' Learning Behavior

      Ulrike E. Nett; Thomas Goetz; Nathan C. Hall; Anne C. Frenzel (Hindawi Limited, 2012-01-01)
      The aim of the present study was to explore students’ learning-related cognitions prior to an in-class achievement test, with a focus on metacognitive strategy use. A sample of 70 students in grade 11 (58.6% female, Mage=17.09 years) completed a series of structured, state-based measures over a two-week period via the experience sampling method until the day before a class test. Results illustrated students’ self-regulatory ability to preserve their motivational and cognitive resources, with test-related cognitions evidenced significantly more often in learning-related as opposed leisure settings. Metacognitive strategy use was also found to significantly increase as the test date approached underscoring the goal-oriented nature of situated learning behaviors. Higher intercepts and increases in frequency of test-related cognitions over time positively corresponded to test performance. Of the three metacognitive strategies assessed, monitoring was found to positively correspond with test performance. Implications for future practice as well as implications for future research employing the experience sampling method are discussed.
    • Mobile Learning System for Egyptian Higher Education Using Agile-Based Approach

      Menna Elkhateeb; Abdulaziz Shehab; Hazem El-bakry (Hindawi Limited, 2019-01-01)
      Nowadays, due to easiness and expansion in property of smart mobile devices, it is becoming inevitable for mobile applications to have an important role in higher education systems. The Egyptian public universities are facing the problem of students’ large number enrolled in each year. Thus, we lack proper communication between educators and learners. Mobile learning can solve that problem, and it enables adjustment of the curriculum to meet students' learning time and life situations. It provides different solutions better than traditional educational methods. Students and professors could exchange educational material or information even if they are not in the same class. Furthermore, the cost of universities’ materials reduced, as all course materials can be found online through mobile applications. This paper proposes a mobile learning system named “Easy-Edu.” The proposed system intended to make the learning process easier, focus on students’ needs, and encourage communication and collaboration between students and professors and supports collaborative scenario-based learning for university students. Unlike other traditional systems, the proposed “Easy-Edu” was built using an Agile-based approach that delivers sustainable and high-quality mobile learning system. In addition, it eliminates the chances of absolute system failure and detects and fixes issues faster. Summarily, everything related to the design and implementation of “Easy-Edu” is discussed.
    • More Private Schools for Nonnative Students? Migrant Performance in Private Schools of Differing National Contexts

      Monika Jungbauer-Gans; Christiane Gross (Hindawi Limited, 2011-01-01)
      Migrant children from most countries are disadvantaged in school. We investigate which characteristics of both school and societal contexts influence the achievements of migrant students. We argue that living conditions and inequality in a society as a whole may affect the chances of minority members and the function that private schools perform in the process of social reproduction of inequality. We investigate in particular the question of whether migrant students attending private schools show a better performance than those attending public schools. The analyses of the paper are based on the data collected in the PISA 2006 survey. Our main results are that the lower mathematics and reading competencies of migrant students can partly be explained by the socioeconomic status and cultural capital of the family and—to a marginal degree—by school characteristics. Initially, students in private independent schools have some advantages that disappear after controlling for country attributes. In both fields of knowledge, migrants obtain better results in private government-dependent schools (interaction effect); this, however, can be traced back to their families' socioeconomic origin and cultural capital. We detect that students in private independent schools reach lower competency levels in wealthier societies (GNP).
    • Motives of Masters for the Teaching Profession: Development of the MMTP Questionnaire

      Wil Meeus; Marlies Baeten; Liesje Coertjens (Hindawi Limited, 2015-01-01)
      Increasing teacher shortages provide incentives for conducting research into the motives of future teachers aspiring to work in education. The present study builds on previous research into motivation for entering the teaching profession. Given the shortage of studies carried out with direct empirical foundations, multiphase factor analyses, and large respondent groups, the present research focuses on developing the questionnaire Motives of Masters for the Teaching Profession (MMTP) while meeting these methodological criteria. Master’s students N=1200 described their motivations for entering the teaching profession. Confirmatory factor analysis N=707 was carried out in order to confirm the factor structure produced by the exploratory factor analysis N=145. On the basis of content and statistical arguments, a 7-factor solution was obtained and a 35-item questionnaire was produced. Future cross-contextual research on the MMTP should attempt to improve the generalizability of the questionnaire.
    • My Brother's Teacher? Siblings and Literacy Development in the Home

      Laura Sokal; Caroline Piotrowski (Hindawi Limited, 2011-01-01)
      Frequency of sibling literacy interactions were examined in 134 families with at least two children, where at least one of the children attended school in grade one to grade four. Parents in the majority of families reported that their children read together on a regular basis without a parent present. This held across various demographic constellations including gender of the older child. However, children from families with three or more children were less likely to read with their siblings. Implications for parents and teachers are discussed.
    • New Perspectives on Integrating Self-Regulated Learning at School

      Bracha Kramarski; Annemie Desoete; Maria Bannert; Susanne Narciss; Nancy Perry (Hindawi Limited, 2013-01-01)
    • No Gender Difference in Foreign Medical Students’ Hematology Clerkship

      Qing Li; Jianhui Chen; Bo Wan; Xiaofan Li (Hindawi Limited, 2018-01-01)
      Hematology is a difficult aspect of medicine for students to learn. Students need hematology clerkship training to develop their clinical skills. The influence of gender on different teaching methods and performance in foreign medical students is still unknown, especially in hematology clerkship. To address this issue, we tested performance differences between foreign male and female students in clinical practice. Twenty-two foreign medical students attended a two-week hematology clerkship in Fujian Medical University Union Hospital. The lecture-based learning (LBL) method and mixed team-based learning (MTBL) method were used in hematology clerkship. Eight foreign students were assigned to LBL group, and fourteen foreign medical students were assigned to MTBL group. Our previous work found that MTBL methods benefit both foreign medical students and Chinese postgraduates. In this study, practice scores and case-writing scores were analyzed between boys and girls. The results showed that the mean of scores in practice test scores and case writing scores was not significantly different between genders (P>0.05), as well as subgroup analysis in LBL and MTBL groups (P>0.05). This study indicated that practice test scores and case-writing scores in hematology clerkship were the same between boys and girls, which were not related to teaching methods. This study also indicated that both genders can benefit from the new MTBL teaching methods.