• Mathematics and Numeracy as Social and Spatial Practice

      Nancy Ares; Dawn M. Evans (Hindawi Limited, 2014-01-01)
      This study of networked classroom activity proposes that a resource-rich point of view is powerful in increasing the engagement of marginalized students in mathematics classes. Our work brings attention to the values, beliefs, and power relations that infuse numeracy practices and adds attention to mathematical dimensions of social spaces. Findings show that the multiple modes available to communicate mathematically, to contribute, and the inquiry-oriented discussions invited students to draw on a variety of expressive modes to engage with complex mathematical concepts. Spatial analyses illuminate the relations among reproduction and production of knowledge, as well as the social space that characterized the networked classroom activity. They also reveal the affordance of emergent, transformed social spaces for youth’s use of a variety of social and cultural displays in producing mathematical knowledge. Students extended notions about social space by adding attention to affective features of classroom and school activities.
    • Medical Students’ Career Choice and Attitudes towards Family Medicine in Morocco

      Majda Sebbani; Adil Mansouri; Latifa Adarmouch; Mohamed Amine (Hindawi Limited, 2020-01-01)
      Background. The motivation of this work is driven on the one hand from the need to understand the medical students’ attitude towards medical training in the context of the reform in Morocco and the creation of “family medicine” as a specialty. This study aims to explore the expectations of medical students regarding family medicine and to identify the factors that may influence setting their choices after graduation. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional study among Moroccan medical students from public faculties during the month of August 2019. The data collection was based on an online self-administered electronic questionnaire. The quantitative data were analyzed by SPSS version 16. The analyses were descriptive univariate (Fisher’s test) and multivariate (binary logistic regression) with a P value of 5%. The qualitative data were synthesized according to a thematic analysis grid. Results. The medical students in Morocco have a positive perception of family medicine as an important specialty but low interest in it as a future career. Only 6.4% had the intention to choose it as a future career. However, 27.5% chose to become a general practitioner if it is a specialty (family medicine, as part of the new medical reform). The factors associated with the choice of career in general practice were mainly the ambition for career development (OR = 4.8; 95% CI [2.46; 9.51]), income (OR = 2.6; 95% CI [1.11; 6.29]), or the personal experience as a student or patient in contact with a general practitioner (OR = 0.48; 95% CI [0.25; 0.92]). Conclusion. The practical experience with family medicine seems to have an important influence on being attracted to family medicine careerwise. The study findings will inform future planning to introduce the residency program.
    • Medical Students’ Experience of Mindfulness Training in the UK: Well-Being, Coping Reserve, and Professional Development

      Alice Malpass; Kate Binnie; Lauren Robson (Hindawi Limited, 2019-01-01)
      Medical school can be a stressful experience for students, resulting in stress-related mental health problems. Policy recommendations from the General Medical Council (GMC), the body responsible for improving medical education in the UK, recommend the use of mindfulness training to increase well-being and resilience to stress. Students participating in an eight-week mindfulness training between Autumn 2011 and Spring 2015 were invited to complete a free text survey at the end of their mindfulness course. In addition, six qualitative interviews were conducted lasting between 60 and 90 minutes. Interviews used a topic guide and were recorded and transcribed verbatim. We used the framework approach to analyse the data. Students reported a new relationship to their thoughts and feelings which gave a greater sense of control and resiliency, an ability to manage their workload better, and more acceptance of their limitations as learners. The small group context was important. Students described improved empathy and communication skills through building inner awareness of thoughts and feelings, noticing judgments, and developing attentive observation. The findings show how resiliency and coping reserve can be developed within medical education and the role of mindfulness in this process. We present a conceptual model of a learnt cycle of specific vulnerability and describe how MBCT intercepts at various junctures in this self-reinforcing cycle through the development of new coping strategies that embrace an “allowed vulnerability.”
    • Mental Health and Well-Being of University Students in Okinawa

      Paul Ratanasiripong; Takashi China; Shiho Toyama (Hindawi Limited, 2018-01-01)
      With increasing frequency and severity of mental health issues among university students globally as well as limited studies on the mental health of Japanese university students, this study examined the factors that impact the mental health issues of university students in Okinawa. A total of 441 undergraduate students from 3 universities participated in this cross-sectional study. Average age of participants was 20 (range = 18–46, SD = 2.6). Four factors that significantly predicted depression among university students in Okinawa included self-esteem, family economic status, resiliency, and year in school (R2 = 0.37). Two factors that significantly predicted anxiety included self-esteem and family economic status (R2 = 0.26). Three factors that significantly predicted stress included self-esteem, family economic status, and year in school (R2 = 0.28). This study contributes to the understanding of specific factors that impact depression, anxiety, and stress for this population. University administrators and faculty have an opportunity to implement programs and services to make positive impact that could reduce mental health problems and improve well-being for students on their campuses.
    • Metacognitive Instruction: Global and Local Shifts in Considering Listening Input

      Hossein Bozorgian; Ebrahim Fakhri Alamdari (Hindawi Limited, 2013-01-01)
      A key shift of thinking for effective learning and teaching of listening input has been seen and organized in education locally and globally. This study has probed whether metacognitive instruction through a pedagogical cycle shifts high-intermediate students' English language learning and English as a second language (ESL) teacher's teaching focus on listening input. Twenty male Iranian students with an age range of 18 to 24 received a guided methodology including metacognitive strategies (planning, monitoring, and evaluation) for a period of three months. This study has used the strategies and probed the importance of metacognitive instruction through interviewing both the teacher and the students. The results have shown that metacognitive instruction helped both the ESL teacher's and the students' shift of thinking about teaching and learning listening input. This key shift of thinking has implications globally and locally for classroom practices of listening input.
    • Metacognitive Strategies and Test Performance: An Experience Sampling Analysis of Students' Learning Behavior

      Ulrike E. Nett; Thomas Goetz; Nathan C. Hall; Anne C. Frenzel (Hindawi Limited, 2012-01-01)
      The aim of the present study was to explore students’ learning-related cognitions prior to an in-class achievement test, with a focus on metacognitive strategy use. A sample of 70 students in grade 11 (58.6% female, Mage=17.09 years) completed a series of structured, state-based measures over a two-week period via the experience sampling method until the day before a class test. Results illustrated students’ self-regulatory ability to preserve their motivational and cognitive resources, with test-related cognitions evidenced significantly more often in learning-related as opposed leisure settings. Metacognitive strategy use was also found to significantly increase as the test date approached underscoring the goal-oriented nature of situated learning behaviors. Higher intercepts and increases in frequency of test-related cognitions over time positively corresponded to test performance. Of the three metacognitive strategies assessed, monitoring was found to positively correspond with test performance. Implications for future practice as well as implications for future research employing the experience sampling method are discussed.
    • Mobile Learning System for Egyptian Higher Education Using Agile-Based Approach

      Menna Elkhateeb; Abdulaziz Shehab; Hazem El-bakry (Hindawi Limited, 2019-01-01)
      Nowadays, due to easiness and expansion in property of smart mobile devices, it is becoming inevitable for mobile applications to have an important role in higher education systems. The Egyptian public universities are facing the problem of students’ large number enrolled in each year. Thus, we lack proper communication between educators and learners. Mobile learning can solve that problem, and it enables adjustment of the curriculum to meet students' learning time and life situations. It provides different solutions better than traditional educational methods. Students and professors could exchange educational material or information even if they are not in the same class. Furthermore, the cost of universities’ materials reduced, as all course materials can be found online through mobile applications. This paper proposes a mobile learning system named “Easy-Edu.” The proposed system intended to make the learning process easier, focus on students’ needs, and encourage communication and collaboration between students and professors and supports collaborative scenario-based learning for university students. Unlike other traditional systems, the proposed “Easy-Edu” was built using an Agile-based approach that delivers sustainable and high-quality mobile learning system. In addition, it eliminates the chances of absolute system failure and detects and fixes issues faster. Summarily, everything related to the design and implementation of “Easy-Edu” is discussed.
    • More Private Schools for Nonnative Students? Migrant Performance in Private Schools of Differing National Contexts

      Monika Jungbauer-Gans; Christiane Gross (Hindawi Limited, 2011-01-01)
      Migrant children from most countries are disadvantaged in school. We investigate which characteristics of both school and societal contexts influence the achievements of migrant students. We argue that living conditions and inequality in a society as a whole may affect the chances of minority members and the function that private schools perform in the process of social reproduction of inequality. We investigate in particular the question of whether migrant students attending private schools show a better performance than those attending public schools. The analyses of the paper are based on the data collected in the PISA 2006 survey. Our main results are that the lower mathematics and reading competencies of migrant students can partly be explained by the socioeconomic status and cultural capital of the family and—to a marginal degree—by school characteristics. Initially, students in private independent schools have some advantages that disappear after controlling for country attributes. In both fields of knowledge, migrants obtain better results in private government-dependent schools (interaction effect); this, however, can be traced back to their families' socioeconomic origin and cultural capital. We detect that students in private independent schools reach lower competency levels in wealthier societies (GNP).
    • Motives of Masters for the Teaching Profession: Development of the MMTP Questionnaire

      Wil Meeus; Marlies Baeten; Liesje Coertjens (Hindawi Limited, 2015-01-01)
      Increasing teacher shortages provide incentives for conducting research into the motives of future teachers aspiring to work in education. The present study builds on previous research into motivation for entering the teaching profession. Given the shortage of studies carried out with direct empirical foundations, multiphase factor analyses, and large respondent groups, the present research focuses on developing the questionnaire Motives of Masters for the Teaching Profession (MMTP) while meeting these methodological criteria. Master’s students N=1200 described their motivations for entering the teaching profession. Confirmatory factor analysis N=707 was carried out in order to confirm the factor structure produced by the exploratory factor analysis N=145. On the basis of content and statistical arguments, a 7-factor solution was obtained and a 35-item questionnaire was produced. Future cross-contextual research on the MMTP should attempt to improve the generalizability of the questionnaire.
    • My Brother's Teacher? Siblings and Literacy Development in the Home

      Laura Sokal; Caroline Piotrowski (Hindawi Limited, 2011-01-01)
      Frequency of sibling literacy interactions were examined in 134 families with at least two children, where at least one of the children attended school in grade one to grade four. Parents in the majority of families reported that their children read together on a regular basis without a parent present. This held across various demographic constellations including gender of the older child. However, children from families with three or more children were less likely to read with their siblings. Implications for parents and teachers are discussed.
    • New Perspectives on Integrating Self-Regulated Learning at School

      Bracha Kramarski; Annemie Desoete; Maria Bannert; Susanne Narciss; Nancy Perry (Hindawi Limited, 2013-01-01)
    • No Gender Difference in Foreign Medical Students’ Hematology Clerkship

      Qing Li; Jianhui Chen; Bo Wan; Xiaofan Li (Hindawi Limited, 2018-01-01)
      Hematology is a difficult aspect of medicine for students to learn. Students need hematology clerkship training to develop their clinical skills. The influence of gender on different teaching methods and performance in foreign medical students is still unknown, especially in hematology clerkship. To address this issue, we tested performance differences between foreign male and female students in clinical practice. Twenty-two foreign medical students attended a two-week hematology clerkship in Fujian Medical University Union Hospital. The lecture-based learning (LBL) method and mixed team-based learning (MTBL) method were used in hematology clerkship. Eight foreign students were assigned to LBL group, and fourteen foreign medical students were assigned to MTBL group. Our previous work found that MTBL methods benefit both foreign medical students and Chinese postgraduates. In this study, practice scores and case-writing scores were analyzed between boys and girls. The results showed that the mean of scores in practice test scores and case writing scores was not significantly different between genders (P>0.05), as well as subgroup analysis in LBL and MTBL groups (P>0.05). This study indicated that practice test scores and case-writing scores in hematology clerkship were the same between boys and girls, which were not related to teaching methods. This study also indicated that both genders can benefit from the new MTBL teaching methods.
    • Objects, Worlds, and Students: Virtual Interaction in Education

      Athanasios Christopoulos; Marc Conrad; Mitul Shukla (Hindawi Limited, 2014-01-01)
      The main aim of this study is to form a complete taxonomy of the types of interactions that relate to the use of a virtual world for engaging learning experiences, when blended and hybrid learning methods are to be used. In order to investigate this topic more accurately and effectively, we distinguish four dimensions of interactions based on the context in which these occur, and the involved parts: in-world and in-class, user-to-user and user-to-world interactions. In order to conduct investigation into this topic and form a view of the interactions as clear as possible, we observed a cohort of 15 undergraduate Computer Science students while using an OpenSim-based institutionally hosted virtual world. Moreover, we ran a survey where 50 students were asked to indicate their opinion and feelings about their in-world experience. The results of our study highlight that educators and instructors need to plan their in-world learning activities very carefully and with a focus on interactions if engaging activities are what they want to offer their students. Additionally, it seems that student interactions with the content of the virtual world and the in-class student-to-student interactions, have stronger impact on students’ engagement when hybrid methods are used.
    • Online Learning Resources Enhanced Teaching and Learning of Medical Mycology among Medical Students in Gulu University, Uganda

      Felix Bongomin; Bernard Erima; Richard Kwizera; Emmanuel I. Odongo-Aginya (Hindawi Limited, 2020-01-01)
      Background. The burden of serious fungal diseases has significantly increased in the past few decades; however, the number of health-care workers with expertise in the management of fungal diseases remains low, especially in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). This study aimed to evaluate the use of freely available online teaching material to enhance teaching and learning of medical mycology among medical students in Gulu University Medical School, Uganda. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional study among second year medical students undertaking Medical Mycology course on antifungal agents in the department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology in the academic year 2017-2018. The materials were synthesized and peer-reviewed by experts in fungal diseases and were made freely available on the Leading International Fungal Education website (http://www.LIFE-Worldwide.org). A local faculty in the department delivered the lectures, and pre- and posttest scores were evaluated statistically. Results. Sixty medical students participated in the study of which 78% were male. The average score was 41% for the pretest and 52% for the posttest (p<0.0001). There was no significant difference in the scores of males and females. Majority of the students gave an above-average rating for the course material; however, 54% preferred prerecorded videos. Conclusion. Using freely available online materials on medical mycology can enhance teaching and learning of medical mycology. Because of this, there is need to incorporate up-to-date information about the subject into the curriculums of medical schools especially in LMICs.
    • Online Measurement Perspectives for Students’ Strategy Use: Tool Use within a Content Management System

      Griet Lust; Jan Elen; Geraldine Clarebout (Hindawi Limited, 2012-01-01)
      The current study investigates whether students’ tool use in a Content Management Systems (CMSs) for example, blackboard, WebCT, relates to students’ strategy use within a CMS-supported course. In this way, the study strives to explain the tool use differences, and furthermore, it strives to find (online) behavioral indications for students’ strategy use. Data were collected within a first-year undergraduate course “Learning & Instruction”. Students (n=182) reported their strategy use as measured through the Inventory of Learning Styles (Vermunt, 1998). Students’ tool use within the CMS was logged. K-means cluster analyses revealed four clusters that were characterized by different strategies and accompanying tool use. Specifically, two clusters revealed a tool use pattern that was in line with the behavioral profile of students’-reported strategy use. Interestingly, two clusters revealed a tool use pattern that was in contrast to the reported strategy use. These results raise questions with respect to students’ tool perceptions and students’ calibration capacities.
    • Opinions about Teaching Modalities: A Comparison between Faculty and Students

      Shilpa Shah; Gerhard Meisenberg (Hindawi Limited, 2012-01-01)
      Little is known about the acceptance of different teaching/learning modalities by students and faculty in the preclinical semesters of medical school. We report the results of an anonymous survey at Ross University School of Medicine, where most of the currently popular instructional methods are used. Study subjects included 327 students and 30 faculty members. 5 questions each were asked about lectures, handouts, textbooks, mediasite (video-recorded lectures), simulation, PBL (problem based learning), TBL (team-based learning), and ICM (introduction to clinical medicine, physical examination) practicals, scored on a 5-step Likert scale. Response rates were approximately 80% for students and more than 50% for faculty. Students gave the highest scores to mediasite followed by simulation, handouts, and ICM practicals. Lowest student scores were for PBL followed by TBL and textbooks. Faculty gave highest scores for lectures, followed by ICM practicals and textbooks. They gave the lowest scores for TBL followed by mediasite and PBL. Differences between students and faculty were statistically significant for lectures (P<.001), mediasite (P=.001), textbooks (P=.002), and PBL (P=.043).
    • Organizational Learning in Schools under Sanction

      Kara S. Finnigan; Alan J. Daly; Tricia J. Stewart (Hindawi Limited, 2012-01-01)
      The focus on “school turnaround” has become central to policy and practice in the United States as a result of school accountability, yet little remains known about school improvement under sanction. This study uses theories of organizational learning to understand the processes through which educators search for and adopt reform strategies, as well as the extent to which these schools’ organizational culture and climate are conducive to this type of learning. Our mixed methods study involves document analysis, intensive case studies, and a survey of teachers in schools under sanction in a large urban school district in the USA. We found limited evidence of organizational learning, and instead evidence suggested superficial use of restructuring planning, rare diagnoses of root causes of low performance, and limited engagement in learning processes of school staff. In addition, schools relied on exploitation resulting in the recycling of previous practices. In part, the limited organizational learning in evidence was the result of structures and climates within these low-performing schools that inhibited a more learning-oriented approach to reform. Our study has implications for school improvement under accountability policies as it uncovers important challenges that limit organizational learning and, as a result, school improvement under sanction.
    • Parents’ and Teachers’ Views on Digital Communication in Finland

      Anne-Mari Kuusimäki; Lotta Uusitalo-Malmivaara; Kirsi Tirri (Hindawi Limited, 2019-01-01)
      Parents’ and teachers’ well-functioning communication supports their partnership and also benefits pupils’ well-being. Today, communication largely takes place using electronic tools. In the current study, Finnish parents’ (N = 1123) and teachers’ (N = 118) opinions on digital communication in urban and rural areas were studied by applying a new 14-item Digital Communication Scale (DCS) created for the purpose. The three-factor structured DCS was used to elucidate parents’ and teachers’ views on their partnership, feedback, and clarity of messaging. In contrast to some negative headlines and myths, the main finding of our study was overall satisfaction with digital communication, which was seen as supporting the parent-teacher partnership and providing valuable information on pupils’ development and their everyday issues. In particular, rural parents seemed satisfied with digital communication as a partnership-building tool. However, the view of parents was that they received less encouraging feedback about their children than teachers believed they had given. On the other hand, teachers experienced more ambiguity in digital communication than parents. This was more salient among urban teachers than among rural teachers. To summarize, rural parents and rural teachers saw digital communication as serving their collaboration better than did their urban peers. The results of the current study can be used for further development of parent-teacher communication in digital environments.
    • Patients’ Perception toward Medical Students’ Involvement in Their Surgical Care: Single Center Study

      Talal Al-Khatib; Sanaa Bin Othman; Basem El-Deek (Hindawi Limited, 2016-01-01)
      Objectives. To investigate patients’ perception regarding medical students’ role in the operating theatre. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted on a randomly selected sample at King Abdulaziz University Hospital. Results. 131 participated in this study. 77 of the participants were females and 50 participants were males. 46.4% think that it was important for the future doctors to be in theater during surgery. 60.2% thought that medical students only observed surgeons in the theatre and 39% thought that medical students performed minor procedures in the theatre. Conclusion. Patients underestimated the importance of medical students’ attendance and involvement in theatre compared to bedside teaching and outpatient clinics. Patients believed that medical students should obtain their consent prior to observing them in the theatre.
    • Patterns, Consequences, and Possible Causes of Dropout in Upper Secondary Education in Mexico

      Raja Bentaouet Kattan; Miguel Székely (Hindawi Limited, 2015-01-01)
      The present study provides a detailed analysis of upper secondary education dropout patterns in Mexico, exploring its consequences and possible causes. To perform the analysis we combine different databases and statistical methods ranging from the use of surveys with information on specific individuals to data aggregated at the municipal and state level. The main value added is the simultaneous analysis of the influence of individual-family, community, and macroaggregate factors, on school dropout in the country.