• Rating Scale Measures in Multiple-Choice Exams: Pilot Studies in Pharmacology

      Andreas Melzer; Ulrich Gergs; Josef Lukas; Joachim Neumann (Hindawi Limited, 2018-01-01)
      Multiple-choice questions are widely used in clinical education. Usually, the students have to mark the one and only correct answer from a set of five alternatives. Here, in a voluntary exam, at the end of an obligatory pharmacology exam, we tested a format where more than one alternative could be correct (N=544 students from three year groups). Moreover, the students were asked to rate each item. The students were unaware how many correct answers were contained in the questions. Finally, a questionnaire had to be filled out about the difficulty of the new tests compared to the one out of five tests. In the obligatory final exam, all groups performed similarly. From the results, we conclude that the new rating scales were a better challenge and could be adapted to assess student knowledge and confidence in more depth than previous multiple-choice questions.
    • Recall of Theoretical Pharmacology Knowledge by 6th Year Medical Students and Interns of Three Medical Schools in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

      A. A. Mustafa; H. A. Alassiry; A. Al-Turki; N. Alamri; N. A. Alhamdan; Abdalla Saeed (Hindawi Limited, 2016-01-01)
      The aim of this research is to provide some insights into the ability of the sixth year medical students and interns to recall theoretical knowledge of pharmacology. A cross-sectional study was conducted among students who graduated from three different medical schools in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A questionnaire was distributed to male and female students in 3 different colleges of medicine. The questionnaire included demographic information and ten multiple choice questions (MCQs) on basic pharmacology. Out of the 161 students, there were 39 females (24%) and 122 males (76%). A total of 36 (22%) students studied at a traditional learning school whereas 125 (78%) students studied at problem based learning (PBL) schools. The students were recruited from three universities: KSU, KSAU-HS, and KFMC-COM. In general, 31 students (19%) of the participants scored ≥ 7 out of 10, 77 students (48%) of them obtained a correct score of (4–6) out of 10, and 53 students (33%) scored less than 4. The study showed no statistically significant difference in recalling pharmacology between traditional school and problem based learning school except for those who prepared for exams. Results suggest that pharmacology is a difficult subject. Reevaluations are needed in the way of teaching pharmacology.
    • Redesigning Human Body Systems: Effective Pedagogical Strategy for Promoting Active Learning and STEM Education

      Abour H. Cherif; Dianne M. Jedlicka; Tracey E. Colyer; Farahnaz Movahedzadeh; William B. Phillips (Hindawi Limited, 2012-01-01)
      The human body is a remarkable biological machine maintained by interdependent body systems and organized biochemical reactions. Evolution has worked on humans for hundreds of thousands of years, yet the current pace of technological and social change have radically affected our life style and have exposed possible human frailties. This raises the question of whether or not nature’s work could be improved upon. We provide two-sided perspectives as a rationale for the need for the redesign of the human body. Then, we describe pedagogical strategy through which students study morphological and anatomical structures and the physiological functions of the human body systems and their respective organs and parts. The students select their own favorite system or organ to redesign in order to optimize the efficiency of the anatomical structural, physiological function, and/or the aesthetic and functional morphology; a redesign that might lead to, for example, lowering risk of diabetes, heart attack, and/or stroke. Through group work and interaction (student groups compete for a prestigious “in-house” patent award), students actively engage in the learning process in order to understand the role of design in the efficiency and functionality and vulnerability to disease of the human body system.
    • Rethinking Foreign Language Education in Tunisian Preschools

      Mohamed Ridha Ben Maad (Hindawi Limited, 2014-01-01)
      Since its institutionalization three decades ago, early childhood educator training in Tunisia has been a considerable tributary of mainstream education. Despite such bearing, this field does not yet seem to reach the expected evolution as evidenced by the lack of a guiding vision. A case in point that attests to this state of clarity is foreign language education which has not expediently addressed the needs of both educators and preschoolers. This paper underscores this overlooked strand of early childhood education. Building on an appraisal of the problems and challenges burdening this area of education, it suggests the awakening-to-languages approach as an alternative project that maps the future course of foreign language education. Possible related benefits will consist in (i) investing in identity building, (ii) fostering critical thinking, and (iii) developing metalinguistic awareness where young learners act according to a pedagogy of discovery and reflection rather than skill-based attainment.
    • Reviewing Teacher Evaluation of Rewards and Punishments: The Overview of Chinese Teacher Evaluation Research

      Wang Jiayi; Cheng Ling (Hindawi Limited, 2012-01-01)
      The authors chose the teacher evaluation pieces literature of Chinese academic studies as the research object, analyzed the domestic dynamic and the views of some experts in this field, and summarized and compiled the research approaches and research methods of the UK and USA. The study found that whether at China or abroad, the study route is basically along the reward and punishment evaluation, from developmental evaluation to the performance evaluation, and compared to the foreign study, the Chinese studies, whether in theory or in practice, are relatively backward. Combined with the domestic situation, this study proposes a number of constructive suggestions.
    • School Accountability and Youth Obesity: Can Physical Education Mandates Make a Difference?

      Helen Schneider; Ning Zhang (Hindawi Limited, 2013-01-01)
      This paper explores the effect of accountability laws under No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) on obesity rates among school-aged children in the United States. Our results show that pressures due to school closures for poor performance, rewards for good performance, and assistance to schools that lag behind lead to lower levels of vigorous physical activity. This effect is significant for high school children only. We find no significant impact of school accountability laws on children in grades 3 through 8 after state characteristics such as state obesity rate are taken into account. We also find that state physical education mandates increase physical activity for children in grades 3 through 8 and mitigate the negative effect of accountability pressures on physical activity at the high school level where accountability pressures are most effective at decreasing physical activity and increasing obesity. The study shows that physical education mandates play an important role in promoting physical activity for all grades in our sample.
    • Self-Directed Learning: A Core Concept in Adult Education

      Svein Loeng (Hindawi Limited, 2020-01-01)
      In adult education, the concept of self-directed learning has great importance. This term arose in the field of adult education in the 1970s and is still a widely used term in the field. Annual symposiums have been held by the International Society for Self-Directed Learning since 1986, dedicated to the promotion of self-directed learning. The society also publishes an international journal of self-directed learning. A term of more recent origin is self-regulation, used by some authors sometimes interchangeably with self-direction. This review article focuses on the term self-directed learning, which is the term most frequently used in adult education. Many consider the tendency for self-direction to be a fundamental difference between children and adults in a learning situation. This article deals with some factors that affect the understanding of self-directed learning. At the beginning is given a short case story and an account for different perceptions of self-directed learning. This is followed by a clarification of different aspects of self-directed learning, such as why it is advisable, what affects the tendency to self-directed learning, and if self-direction is essentially innate or learned. The situational aspect is dealt with separately as a relatively self-contained aspect of self-directed learning. The presentation is based on a literature study.
    • Self-Efficacy, Learner Satisfaction, and Associated Factors of Simulation Based Education among Midwifery Students: A Cross-Sectional Study

      Temesgen Worku Gudayu; Marta Berta Badi; Mengstu Melkamu Asaye (Hindawi Limited, 2015-01-01)
      Introduction. Midwifery training needs intensive skill practice. Simulation based teaching is found to be a good alternative to fill skill teaching gaps and to safeguard human patients. Objective. To assess self-efficacy, learner satisfaction, and associated factors of simulation based education among Midwifery students in Gondar University, 2015. Methods. Cross-sectional study was conducted among Midwifery students. A total of 144 students participated in the study. SPSS version 20 statistical software was used for analysis. Binary and multivariable logistic regression analysis were done to assess associations of explanatory variables with outcome variables. Finally the strength of association was determined by adjusted odds ratio with 95% confidence interval and p value < 0.05. Result. In this study the proportion of satisfaction and confidence in simulation learning was 54.2% and 50.7% among participants, respectively. Students who perceived instructors’ assistance during skill practice as “good” showed statistically significant satisfaction, while those students who were satisfied and perceived instructors’ assistance as “good” showed statistically significant confidence during skill practice. Conclusion and Recommendation. levels of satisfaction and self-efficacy of simulation based teaching among Midwifery students are low. Designing a mechanism to improve instructors’ assistance at simulation based teaching is recommended.
    • Self-Perceived Teacher Efficacy around the World

      Hoi Yan Cheung; Michael Bender; Walter J. Lonner (Hindawi Limited, 2013-01-01)
    • Self-Regulated Learning and the Understanding of Complex Outcomes

      Monique Boekaerts; Mariel Musso; Eduardo C. Cascallar (Hindawi Limited, 2012-01-01)
    • Self-Regulated Learning in the Classroom: A Literature Review on the Teacher’s Role

      Daniel C. Moos; Alyssa Ringdal (Hindawi Limited, 2012-01-01)
      Empirical research has supported the long held assumption that individual differences exist in how students learn. Recent methodological advancements have allowed educational research to examine not only what students learn, but also how they learn. Research has found that active involvement in learning, including setting meaningful goals, selecting appropriate and task-specific strategies, monitoring motivational levels, and adapting based on feedback are all positively related to learning outcomes. How can teachers support students’ development and use of these learning processes? The goal of this paper is to examine research that has used the Self-Regulated Learning (SRL) theory to consider this broad question. Methodological advancements recently used in this field of research, various SRL theoretical frameworks guiding this research, and studies that empirically examined self-regulation with both preservice and inservice teachers are discussed. The paper concludes with the theoretical, methodological, and practical implications of the reviewed studies.
    • Self-Regulation and Rubrics Assessment in Structural Engineering Subjects

      María Consuelo Sáiz Manzanares; Miguel Ángel Sánchez Báez; Vanesa Ortega-López; Juan M. Manso Villalaín (Hindawi Limited, 2015-01-01)
      Present-day university systems need to educate graduates who are confident and highly independent, attributes that are especially relevant to engineering. We need to develop active methods that can analyze the prior knowledge of students and that impart teaching based on self-regulation and self-assessment by the student. In this study, we work with a sample of 116 students of architecture following a Structural Engineering subject module (61 in the experimental group and 55 in the control group). The objectives of the investigation are (1) to test whether significant differences exist in the knowledge of students after a training program in self-regulation and (2) to test whether the use of rubrics will improve the perceptions of students with regard to their own knowledge. We found that students trained in self-regulation methodologies improved their procedural knowledge in the field of structural engineering. Likewise, student self-perceptions of their own knowledge increased in relation to the design and expert assessment of structural elements and the graphic representation of constructive elements.
    • Self-Transcendence Values, Relationships, and Participatory Practice in Early Childhood Education

      Clodie Tal (Hindawi Limited, 2014-01-01)
      This study seeks to reveal the circumstances that encourage versus those that block children’s participation in the context of daily teacher-children encounters in preschools in Israel. Six cases were selected for analysis—three in which children’s participation was enabled and three in which children’s participation was blocked by teachers or student-teachers. Participants in the study were five student-teachers doing fieldwork as part of their professional preparation as well as two teachers. Analysis yielded the following conclusions: meaningful participation takes place in the context of a personal, caring relationship with an educator. For challenging situations that require decisions about enabling or denying children’s participation, self-transcendence values need to be activated by student-teachers or teachers. Activation of these values is the outcome of personal mental struggle, which is strengthened by having clear, articulated goals to include children in guided and nonguided social encounters. This study suggests that a teacher’s espousal of self-transcendence values is among the attributes that have an impact on teachers’ representations of relationships, their interactions with children, and the children’s participation in daily, preschool social encounters, whose quality may in turn affect the relationships with children. Documentation and critical reflection need to be incorporated into educational practice so that decision-making in challenging situations will be the product of thorough deliberation.
    • Service-Learning or Internship: A Mixed-Methods Evaluation of Experiential Learning Pedagogies

      Miriam P. Leary; Lori A. Sherlock (Hindawi Limited, 2020-01-01)
      Experiential learning pedagogies, including internship and service-learning experiences, are becoming increasingly popular in higher education. An internship engages students with hands-on experiences that enhance their learning or skills within their fields of study. In contrast, service-learning is a type of experiential education in which students participate in service, typically within the community, and reflect on their involvement to gain further understanding of the discipline as well as its relationship to societal needs. To date, no study has directly compared these teaching modalities. Therefore, the present study systematically evaluated a service-learning experience against an internship experience using a mixed-methods model with the primary outcome being student self-efficacy. Sixteen exercise physiology students (13 females) completed a community-based wellness internship with a subgroup (nine students, 7 females) allocated to a service-learning component of internship designed to improve self-efficacy. At the end of the semester, students completed a 15-item online self-efficacy and satisfaction survey. Three focus groups were conducted in which 3-4 participants responded to a series of nine questions that explored their experience. Overall responses to the self-efficacy and satisfaction survey were favorable for both groups, but the internship group was more likely to agree or strongly agree with statements of self-efficacy. Focus groups found that the internship experience reinforced classroom learning, but the ability to work with different populations and ability levels was mentioned only by the service-learning group. Themes from reflective assignments, such as engaging with community members and professional exploration, were evident only in the service-learning group responses. Therefore, the findings indicate that service-learning reflection assignments successfully connect the service experience to relevant course outcomes promoting student development but may not improve self-reported self-efficacy beyond that of a typical internship experience.
    • Socioscientific Decision Making in the Science Classroom: The Effect of Embedded Metacognitive Instructions on Students' Learning Outcomes

      Sabina Eggert; Frauke Ostermeyer; Marcus Hasselhorn; Susanne Bögeholz (Hindawi Limited, 2013-01-01)
      The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of cooperative training strategies to enhance students' socioscientific decision making as well as their metacognitive skills in the science classroom. Socioscientific decision making refers to both “describing socioscientific issues” as well as “developing and evaluating solutions” to socioscientific issues. We investigated two cooperative training strategies which differed with respect to embedded metacognitive instructions that were developed on the basis of the IMPROVE method. Participants were 360 senior high school students who studied either in a cooperative learning setting (COOP), a cooperative learning setting with embedded metacognitive questions (COOP+META), or a nontreatment control group. Results indicate that students in the two training conditions outperformed students in the control group on both processes of socioscientific decision making. However, students in the COOP+META condition did not outperform students in the COOP condition. With respect to students' learning outcomes on the regulation facet of metacognition, results indicate that all conditions improved over time. Students in the COOP+META condition exhibited highest mean scores at posttest measures, but again, results were not significant. Implications for integrating metacognitive instructions into science classrooms are discussed.
    • Specialization-Specific Course Assessments Integrated for Program Assessment

      Qurban A. Memon; Adnan Harb; Shakeel Khoja (Hindawi Limited, 2012-01-01)
      The program assessment process combines assessments from individual courses to generate final program assessment to match accreditation benchmarks. In developing countries, industrial environment is not diversified to allow graduating engineers to seek jobs in all disciplines or specializations of an engineering program. Hence, it seems necessary to seek evolution of an engineering program assessment for specialized requirements of the industry. This paper describes how specialization-specific courses’ assessments are grouped per requirements and then integrated towards overall program assessment. A software program application is developed to automate this development to reduce assessment work and show equivalently as integration of specialization-specific assessments per outcome per term. The implementation also shows how outcomes are integrated per specialization-specific courses in order to judge the implementation of the program assessment. This effort is expected to help stake holders of the program to judge evolution and quality of specialization tracks vis-à-vis expectations of the local industry.
    • Sri Lankan Medical Undergraduates Awareness of Nanotechnology and Its Risks

      Faiz M. M. T. Marikar; Piyumi I. P. W. Ilangakoon; Sri H. K. M. N. Jaliya; Lalinda D. Jayasena; Supun K. P. B. Kalavitigoda; K. I. S. Koralagedara; Sanjaya P. S. N. Kulathunga (Hindawi Limited, 2014-01-01)
      This study examines students’ understanding of the normative connections between key concepts of nanotechnology in nanomedicine and underlying biological principles that are critical for an in-depth understanding of its therapeutic application in medical field. A structured questionnaire was distributed among randomly selected undergraduates at the Faculty of Medicine and Allied Sciences, University of Rajarata, Sri Lanka. A total of 80 students participated in this study and completed written questionnaire on nanomedicine. The outcome of this study shows that there is a strong positive response on basic knowledge on nanoscale, but the undergraduates had an average knowledge on therapeutic application related to nanomedicine. Almost all students had a good knowledge on nanoscale but they lack knowledge of the relationship between nano and nanomedicine. Specifically, students were challenged to demonstrate an integrated understanding of the nanomedicine therapeutic application. Almost 58% of them were unable to give an example of it. Also some students struggled to explain it. Furthermore, in this study it was observed that there is a positive correlation in risk benefit section related to nanomedicine. Although the outcome is preliminary in nature, the results provide cause for concern over the status of nanotechnology education in Sri Lanka which needed to be uplifted.
    • Sri Lankan Medical Undergraduates Awareness of Nanotechnology and Its Risks

      Faiz M. M. T. Marikar; Piyumi I. P. W. Ilangakoon; Sri H. K. M. N. Jaliya; Lalinda D. Jayasena; Supun K. P. B. Kalavitigoda; K. I. S. Koralagedara; Sanjaya P. S. N. Kulathunga (Hindawi Limited, 2014-01-01)
    • Stressors and Coping Strategies of the Saudi Nursing Students in the Clinical Training: A Cross-Sectional Study

      Salman H. Alsaqri (Hindawi Limited, 2017-01-01)
      Nursing students often encounter high levels of stress through clinical practice that may cause psychological or emotional problems during their professional life eventually affecting the quality of patient care they provide. The aims of the current study were to identify the level and types of stress perceived by nursing students in their clinical practice and to identify the coping strategies that students used to relieve their stress. A descriptive, cross-sectional design was used in this study. A total of 200 students who were enrolled in the nursing program were taken as study respondents. Research data were collected using the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and the Coping Behavior Inventory (CBI). Data was analyzed using one-way ANOVA test, Pearson’s test, and independent sample t-test on SPSS version 22. Findings indicated that nursing students experienced a high level of stress. The most common coping strategy utilized by the students was problem solving, while avoidance was the least frequently used one. Saudi nursing students experienced stress levels above the mean in clinical training. The most common stressors were related to assignments and workload. The study recommends that clinical curriculum requirements and the workload of nursing students should be reviewed.
    • Structural Model of Students’ Interest and Self-Motivation to Learning Mathematics

      Dominic Otoo; Wahab A. Iddrisu; Justice A. Kessie; Ernest Larbi (Hindawi Limited, 2018-01-01)
      Students pick up the perception that mathematics is abstract and therefore, the learning of mathematics would yield to them no benefit. With their attitude towards mathematics modelled and their interest for mathematics impacted by this automatic generated perception, they may never again appreciate the beauty of mathematics. In this paper, the researchers used structural equation modeling (SEM), to investigate the variables that affect students’ interest, among the variables, students’ confidence and motivation. The foregoing variables were conceptualized to have a direct effect on students’ interest in mathematics, whilst mathematics anxiety and students’ knowledge of the usefulness of mathematics were conceptualized to have indirect effects on their interest in mathematics moderated by students’ confidence and motivation. The result showed that significantly students’ confidence directly affects students’ interest in the learning of mathematics and there is a direct relationship between confidence and motivation. A student’s knowledge about the usefulness of mathematics indirectly increases the student’s interest in mathematics.