• Undergraduates' Criteria to Justify Claims Proposed after Laboratory Experiments

      Jer-Yann Lin; Ding-Ying Guo (Hindawi Limited, 2011-01-01)
      This study investigates the criteria undergraduates adopt to justify their claims proposed after laboratory experiments. There are two categories of justifications in the current literature, empirical consistency and plausibility of claims, but observations of college juniors in the laboratory demonstrated the need for a third category, observation reliability. This assumption was further tested by analyzing the warrants undergraduates wrote to justify their claims formed after laboratory experiments. Three students' justification criteria were identified, that is, empirical consistency, plausibility of claims, and observation reliability. The most frequently used criterion is plausibility of claims to justify good results, while that is observation reliability to justify bad results. Moreover, multiple justification, which means more than one attempt being made to justify a given claim, was also found. It reveals that multiple justification, rather than single justification, is suitable for students to make scientifically acceptable claims. The implications and suggestions of this study are also discussed.
    • Unwanted Literal Translation: An Underdiscussed Problem in International Achievement Studies

      Inga Arffman (Hindawi Limited, 2012-01-01)
      In international achievement studies, a common test is typically used which is translated into the languages of the participating countries. For the test to be valid, all the translations and different-language test versions need to be equally difficult to read and answer. An underestimated and underdiscussed threat to this validity is unwanted literal translation. This paper discusses the problem of unwanted literal translation in international achievement studies. It defines what is meant by unwanted literal translation and explains why it is a threat to the validity of international achievement studies and why it is so difficult to avoid. It also discusses problems there have been when translating these tests which may have promoted unwanted literal translation and provides suggestions on how to improve the translation practices so as to ensure that the translations are in as natural and idiomatic language as possible.
    • Using Peer Tutoring to Improve Students’ Academic Achievement in Financial Accounting Concepts

      Taiwo Grace Olulowo; Olugbenga A. Ige; Ernest O. Ugwoke (Hindawi Limited, 2020-01-01)
      This study investigated the effectiveness of the peer tutoring instructional strategy in improving students’ academic achievement in financial accounting concepts. A nonrandomized pretest-posttest control group quasi-experimental design with a 2 × 2 × 3 factorial matrix was adopted. The research sample comprised 137 purposively selected students from eight intact classes in secondary schools in Southern Nigeria. The experimental group adopted a peer tutoring instructional strategy, while the control group was exposed to the conventional lecture method. Teachers’ Instructional Guides on peer tutoring and conventional method and Financial Accounting Achievement Test were used to collect data for this study. Results affirmed that the peer tutoring instructional strategy is more effective in improving students’ academic achievement in financial accounting concepts than the conventional lecture method. The outcome of this study also shows that the experimental strategy was not sensitive to gender but sensitive to socioeconomic status. Sequel to this finding, the study recommends that post-basic school teachers should make use of the peer tutoring instructional strategy to present financial accounting lessons in secondary schools to advance students’ attainment in the subject.
    • Using Precourse Formative Written Testing in a Pharmacology Class Greatly Increases Medical Students’ Performance in Final Written Summative Tests

      Joachim Neumann; Stephanie Simmrodt; Ulrich Gergs (Hindawi Limited, 2020-01-01)
      We wanted to test the progress of medical students at our university in a pharmacology course. The formal teaching was given as lectures to the full class of students. We gave the very same written test of multiple-choice (MC) questions (single best choice) to third-year medical students before and after a one semester course of basic pharmacology. The initial voluntary test (containing 30 MC questions) was taken by 79% of the eligible students (n = 147), a week before pharmacology lectures had started. Defining a passing grade of 60% of right answers, only 2% of the students passed the test. The range was between 5 and 21 points. The final, now obligatory, written test at the end of the course (one week after the last lecture in pharmacology) was taken by all students in the semester (n = 179) and was passed by 95%, of students, again defined by the same passing score. Here, the points obtained ranged from 12 to 29. Over the time of the semester, the attendance in the lectures dropped dramatically to less than 10% of the students. Hence, progress tests are useful, but they hardly measure the gain in knowledge through attendance in the pharmacology lecture (the intervention); they also measure other sources of knowledge, such as textbook reading or memorizing only the initial questions and looking up the answers.
    • Using the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire and the Strategy Inventory for Language Learning in Assessing Motivation and Learning Strategies of Generation 1.5 Korean Immigrant Students

      Rosa Stoffa; Joseph C. Kush; Misook Heo (Hindawi Limited, 2011-01-01)
      This study examined the potential of utilizing the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ) and the Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) as instruments in measuring Generation 1.5 students' motivation and their use of language learning strategies. The MSLQ was of particular interest because it contains both a basic motivation subscale as well as a motivation/language learning strategies subscale. Participants of this study were 104 Generation 1.5 Korean immigrant students who were members of Korean communities located in Pittsburgh and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Participants provided general demographic information and completed both scales in a counterbalanced manner. Results indicated that while the two scales do have some similar content, the scales do not overlap entirely and appeared to measure two discrete indices. Results also indicated that a moderate correlation between MSLQ learning strategies and SILL learning strategies was found as well as between the SILL total score and the MSLQ total score.
    • Using Video Modeling to Teach a Meal Preparation Task to Individuals with a Moderate Intellectual Disability

      Philip M. Kanfush; Jordan W. Jaffe (Hindawi Limited, 2019-01-01)
      A single-subject study implementing an AB design with 3 replications was conducted with 4 adolescents having multiple disabilities, including moderate cognitive impairments, to demonstrate the efficacy of a video modeling and video-prompting intervention to teach a food preparation skill. Each participant was taught to prepare a different food item using a task analysis comprising 50 to 64 steps. Within 12 training sessions, each participant achieved criterion performance, completing at least 90% of their cooking task steps independently. Three out of 4 participants maintained their food preparation skill in a maintenance probe taken 6 weeks after instruction ended. The fourth participant completed 89% of the task’s steps independently during the maintenance probe. The findings of this study are consistent with those of earlier studies and suggest that video modeling may be a very effective and efficient method for promoting independence, participation, and self-determination among individuals with moderate intellectual disabilities. This study extends the literature base by focusing on longer, more complex meal preparation tasks than earlier studies.
    • Variation in Students' Conceptions of Self-Assessment and Standards

      Heng Kiat Kelvin Tan; Chua Tee Teo; Chee Shen Ng (Hindawi Limited, 2011-01-01)
      This paper reports the results of a phenomenographic study on the different ways that secondary students understood and utilized student self-assessment and how various ego types could affect the accuracy of self-assessment. The study sought to contribute to the growing literature which recognizes the critical role that students play in assessment processes, and in particular the different roles that they assume in student self-assessment. The results of the study provide insights into how different students experience self-assessment by articulating the variation in the perception and purposes of assessing one's own learning. This variation is depicted as a hierarchy of logically related students' conceptions of self-assessment.
    • Vive la Différence? Comparing “Like with Like” in Studies of Learners’ Ideas in Diverse Educational Contexts

      Keith S. Taber (Hindawi Limited, 2012-01-01)
      This paper considers the status of educational research that looks to replicate previous findings in a novel educational context, taking as its focus an active area of research in a range of national contexts: studies into students’ ideas about scientific topics. The paper considers the circumstances under which a “replication” study should be considered to offer original new knowledge worthy of publication in international research journals. It is argued here that there are sound principled reasons to expect studies undertaken in different educational contexts to be able to contribute to a progressive research programme, and so researchers should be encouraged to undertake such work. However, technically competent papers submitted to prestigious journals will be rejected if they are considered to merely replicate previous work without offering novel empirical or theoretical content that is considered to make an original contribution. This paper explores the basis for welcoming research “testing-out” published findings in new contexts and considers the place of such studies within a progressive research programme. This analysis can inform research design for those looking to explore learners’ ideas in local educational contexts, by offering clear guidance on the forms of research likely to offer significant contributions to public knowledge.
    • What Is Known about Elementary Grades Mathematical Modelling

      Micah S. Stohlmann; Lluís Albarracín (Hindawi Limited, 2016-01-01)
      Mathematical modelling has often been emphasized at the secondary level, but more research is needed at the elementary level. This paper serves to summarize what is known about elementary mathematical modelling to guide future research. A targeted and general literature search was conducted and studies were summarized based on five categories: content of mathematical modelling intervention, assessment data collected, unit of analysis studied, population, and effectiveness. It was found that there were three main units of analysis into which the studies could be categorized: representational and conceptual competence, models created, and student beliefs. The main findings from each of these units of analysis are discussed along with future research that is needed.
    • Writing about the Personal Utility of Learning Contents in a Learning Journal Improves Learning Motivation and Comprehension

      Kristin Schmidt; Julia Maier; Matthias Nückles (Hindawi Limited, 2012-01-01)
      Reflecting on the personal utility and value of learning contents is important for motivation building and engagement in high quality learning processes. We investigated the effects of a personal-utility prompt in journal writing on students’ learning motivation and comprehension in biology education. 40 students of a German secondary school took part in a quasi-experimental field study. The students kept a weekly learning journal over six weeks. For writing their journal entries, the students received a brief instruction that either did or did not include a personal-utility prompt. Results showed that the personal-utility prompt successfully supported the students in reflecting about the personal utility of the learning contents. Consequently, students in the personal-utility prompt condition reported higher degrees of learning motivation and achieved better comprehension scores as compared to students who had no personal-utility prompt available. Evidently, using journal writing to reflect upon the utility and value of learning contents is a beneficial method to support students’ learning motivation and comprehension in secondary science education.