• An Analysis of an EFL Teachers' Guide: A Case Study

      Ahmad Nazari (Hindawi Limited, 2011-01-01)
      This paper is an attempt to analyse one of the documents which may affect the classroom activities of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) teachers, namely teachers' guides. It also explores the context at which the document is aimed and critiques how EFL teachers are advised to teach as well as how EFL is taught. As such, the paper stands where critical discourse analysis and language policy come together in the study of language policies in education. The teachers' guide chosen and the analysis carried out here are not necessarily concerned with their representativeness and typicality but with the opportunity they provide to the researchers and teachers to learn about such language policy documents and how language and language teaching objectives are represented in them. The issues raised in this paper will have relevance to the EFL teachers' guides and EFL education in other contexts, as these issues are likely to be true of other EFL milieux.
    • An Assessment of Internet Uses, Practices, and Barriers for Professional Development by Agricultural Science Teachers in Lagos State

      Olatomide Waheed Olowa (Hindawi Limited, 2012-01-01)
      The paper reports a study carried out on the utilisation of the Internet by agricultural science teachers in Lagos state focusing on uses, practices, and barriers. A questionnaire was developed based on literature and was administered to 300 agricultural science teachers in Lagos schools. 275 questionnaires properly completed were analyzed. Data reveal that 130 teachers are using the Internet for teaching agricultural science in classrooms as well as for various activities that enhance their professional development. Nevertheless, it was found that agricultural science teachers in Lagos State have not fully utilised the Internet because of barriers related to time factor, accessibility, and facilities. It is suggested that for the proliferation of Internet practices, there needs to be an increase in funding for technology, an introduction of computer/technology education, a provision of pedagogical training for teachers, and a provision of administrational support.
    • An Audit of the Medical Students’ Perceptions regarding Objective Structured Clinical Examination

      Abidullah Khan; Maimoona Ayub; Zakir Shah (Hindawi Limited, 2016-01-01)
      Objective. To record the perceptions of the final year MBBS students of Khyber Medical College (KMC) Peshawar regarding Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) conducted in the year 2016. Materials and Methods. This study was conducted in April 2016 which is in fact a reaudit of our similar survey done back in 2015. A total of 250 final year MBBS students participated by filling in a validated and pretested questionnaire already used by Russel et al. and Khan et al. in similar but separate studies including questions regarding exam content, quality of performance, OSCE validity and reliability, and so forth. The data was analyzed using SPSS version 20. Results. The study group comprised 160 (64%) males and 90 (36%) females. 220 (88%) stated that exam was fair and comprehensive; 94% believed OSCE was more stressful and mentally tougher. 96% of the students considered OSCE as valid and reliable and 87% were happy with its use in clinical competence assessment. Conclusion. Majority of students declared their final year OSCE as fair, comprehensive, standardized, less biased, and reliable format of examination but believed it was more stressful and mentally tougher than traditional examination methods.
    • An Exploration of Foreign Language Anxiety and English Learning Motivation

      Meihua Liu; Wenhong Huang (Hindawi Limited, 2011-01-01)
      Perceived to be two important affective variables, anxiety and motivation have been found to be highly correlated to second/foreign language acquisition. In order to examine the relationship between foreign language anxiety, English learning motivation, and performance in English, the present study investigated 980 undergraduate students from three universities in China who answered a 76-item survey. Analyses of the data revealed that (1) the respondents generally did not feel anxious in English and were moderately motivated to learn English, (2) foreign language anxiety and English learning motivation were significantly negatively correlated with each other, and (3) both foreign language anxiety and English learning motivation were significantly correlated with students' performance in English. Among the scales, foreign language classroom anxiety (FLCAS), intrinsic motivation (IntrinM), instrumental motivation (InstruM), fear of being negatively evaluated (FLCAS1), and interest in foreign languages and cultures (IFLC) proved to be powerful predictors for the latter.
    • An International Reading Literacy Study: Factor Structure of the Chinese Version of the Student Questionnaire (PIRLS-SQCV 2011)

      Joseph W. I. Lam; W. M. Cheung; Doreen W. H. Au; Hector W. H. Tsang; Wendy W. Y. So; Yue Zhu (Hindawi Limited, 2016-01-01)
      The student questionnaire (PIRLS-SQ 2011) of the Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) was designed to gather information from pupils on reading literacy development as to aspects of pupils’ self-lives, home, and school lives across countries/districts. In order to serve the purposes of research and international comparison, the questionnaire was translated into various languages. Using exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), the current study investigates the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the student questionnaire (PIRLS-SQCV 2011) and identifies its underlying factor structure among Chinese fourth-grade pupils in Hong Kong. A 10-factor structure model was identified and much resemblance could be drawn to the original PIRLS structure. While the similarity allows international comparisons of studies in different places following the PIRLS strategy, the findings of this study add to extant literature on the relationship between student factors and reading achievement.
    • Anger Management among Medical Undergraduate Students and Its Impact on Their Mental Health and Curricular Activities

      Gayathri S. Prabhu; Joanne Tam Min Yen; Jonas John Posko Amalaraj; Eugene Tan Yie Jone; Naveen Kumar (Hindawi Limited, 2016-01-01)
      Background. This study was intended to determine the practice of students in good anger management skills and to what extent their anger can affect their studies, work, and social interactions. In this study the relationship between anger management and the effects on the mental health of medical students was evaluated. A survey was also done to determine duration of the feeling of anger which lasts among medical students and its consequences. Materials and Methods. A newly developed questionnaire was utilized which included a simplified version of the Novaco Anger Scale and Provocation Inventory and the modified Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (to measure the mental health). Results. The data suggests that although students with high anger tendencies display poor mental health, there is no lowering of the mental health/PHQ-9 score as the anger management technique’s effectiveness rises. “Friends” was cited as the major triggering factor for anger, whereby the feelings can last for up to a day and somewhat affect their concentration on normal activities. Conclusion. When anger is suppressed and not let out, it can be an underlying factor for anxiety and depression. Therefore, more emphasis needs to be placed on educating students on how to manage their anger especially in a stressful environment away from home.
    • Are School Factors Important for Measuring Teacher Effectiveness? A Multilevel Technique to Predict Student Gains through a Value-Added Approach

      Bidya Raj Subedi; Bonnie Swan; Michael C. Hynes (Hindawi Limited, 2011-01-01)
      This paper investigated the effect of teacher quality, represented by teacher level characteristics, on mathematics gain scores employing a three-level hierarchical linear model (HLM) through value-added model (VAM) approach. The analysis investigated significant predictors at student, teacher, and school levels for predicting students' gain scores and also estimated d-type effect sizes at teacher and school levels. We found the significant effects of teacher's mathematics content certification, teacher experience, and the interaction effects of mathematics content certification with student level predictors. Although school poverty significantly predicted students' gain scores, the school level effect was relatively small.
    • Arranging Student Scientific Research as an Educational Technology: The Experience of Regional Universities of Russia

      Ruslan I. Bazhenov (Hindawi Limited, 2019-01-01)
      Nowadays, student scientific research is a significant component for training specialists for Industry 4.0. However, many students do not feel like wanting much to participate in this kind of activity when studying at university. Therefore, there is a challenge in facing educators, i.e., to make a climate of learning in such a way so that learners would not only be able to acquire skills, competences, and proficiencies according to their major but also be able to promote their willingness for independent search for getting new knowledge and mastering research methods and practical techniques to solve scientific challenges and analyze various information flows. The purpose of the study is to develop a methodology for arranging student scientific research, which enables to provide with skilled professional employees. To accomplish the declared goal, the authors developed the online course The Basic Scientific Research, the methodology for involving students in scientific research; recommendations to include special subject matters in the content of academic course, for stimulating joint studies of educators and students; and the online course on training lecturers to the technology presented. The experiment was conducted from 2014 to 2018 among students of IT and economics at regional Russian universities. 242 students and 46 lecturers took part in it. Using the developed system by educators resulted in the following achievements: the students published more than 450 scientific articles, won 28 grants of various levels, and participated and became prize winners in more than 50 scientific research contests. One-third of the participants in the experiment received a merit semester scholarship for scientific research regularly. They participated and won competitions for the President of the Russian Federation grants, the Government of the Russian Federation. Business representatives gave top marks for graduate theses. The educational technology presented in the paper is prepared for scaling and be applied at universities.
    • Assessing Domain Specificity in the Measurement of Mathematics Calculation Anxiety

      Thomas E. Hunt; Ovidiu Bagdasar; David Sheffield; Malcolm B. Schofield (Hindawi Limited, 2019-01-01)
      An online, cross-sectional approach was taken, including an opportunity sample of 160 undergraduate students from a university in the Midlands, UK. Exploratory factor analysis indicated a parsimonious, four-factor solution: abstract maths anxiety, statistics probability anxiety, statistics calculation anxiety, and numerical calculation anxiety. The results support previous evidence for the existence of a separate “numerical anxiety” or “arithmetic computation” anxiety component of maths anxiety and also support the existence of anxiety that is specific to more abstract maths. This is the first study to consider the multidimensionality of maths anxiety at the level of the calculation type. The 26-item Maths Calculation Anxiety Scale appears to be a useful measurement tool in the context of maths calculation specifically.
    • Assessing Predictors of Academic Performance for NMEI Curriculum-Based Medical Students Found in the Southern Ethiopia

      Tsegaye Mehare; Reta Kassa; Birhanie Mekuriaw; Tewodros Mengesha (Hindawi Limited, 2020-01-01)
      Background. In Ethiopia since 2012, the Ethiopian Federal Ministry of Health and Education implemented a new medical education initiative in 13 institutions. Currently, as a nation, very little is known about the predictors of academic performance for new medical education curriculum-based students. Identifying different factors affecting students’ academic performance in the local context so as to enrich the empirical evidence and provide new insights into the effect of variables in developing countries is very important. Thus, the main aim of this study was to assess predictors of academic performance for new medical education initiative curriculum-based medical students. Objective. This study designed to assess the predictors of academic performance for new medical education initiative curriculum-based medical students found in Southern Nations and Nationalities Peoples’ Region, Ethiopia. Methods. Institutional-based cross-sectional study design was used on 472 new medical education system students. The study setting includes three medical institutions (Dilla University College of Medicine and Health Science, Wolaita Sodo University College of Medicine and Health Sciences, and Yirgalem Hospital Medical College) within southern region from February to July 2020. The study subjects were those medical students under the NMEI curriculum and had at least one-year cumulative grade point average in the abovementioned institutions. Results. A total of 167 (35.4%) of the students’ academic performance scores were poor. Being agriculture graduate with educational background, mothers with no formal education, being married, first-degree performance score of 2.7–3.2 CGPA, monthly allowance of 10–24.99 USD, nondormitory, student age of 31–35 years old, and being stressed have shown an association with poor academic performance score of the students. Conclusion. First-degree educational background, marital status, maternal educational status, first-degree academic performance, age of the student, monthly allowance, residency during medical school, and history of stress were significant predictors of academic performance for new medical education system students. Thus, it is recommended that special attention should be paid to the admission criteria and financial support of the students.
    • Assessing Self-Regulation as a Cyclical, Context-Specific Phenomenon: Overview and Analysis of SRL Microanalytic Protocols

      Timothy J. Cleary; Gregory L. Callan; Barry J. Zimmerman (Hindawi Limited, 2012-01-01)
      The primary purpose of this paper is to review relevant research related to the use of an assessment technique, called Self-Regulated Learning (SRL) Microanalysis. This structured interview is grounded in social-cognitive theory and research and thus seeks to evaluate students' regulatory processes as they engage in well-defined academic or nonacademic tasks and activities. We illustrate the essential features of this contextualized assessment approach and detail a simple five-step process that researchers can use to apply this approach to their work. Example questions and administration procedures for five key self-regulation subprocesses (i.e., including goal-setting, strategic planning, monitoring, self-evaluation, and attributions) are highlighted, with particular emphasis placed on causal attributions. The psychometric properties of SRL microanalytic assessment protocols and potential areas of future research are presented.
    • Assessing the Impact of Morphological Knowledge on Lexical Acquisition and Processing

      Baraa A. Rajab (Hindawi Limited, 2020-01-01)
      The mastery of morphological structure and vocabulary acquisition are significantly associated. However, the association between the abilities of L2 learners to manipulate morphological elements and develop vocabulary size with native Arabic speakers needs to be assessed. This study assesses the impact of morphological knowledge on lexical acquisition and processing among English-speaking learners of Arabic. The study focused on gender (masculine/feminine) and the complete number system (singular/dual/plural) by native English speakers. The error rates and error patterns were analysed carefully to provide insight into the learner’s interlanguage grammar through the experiment. The experimental study design was used. The study sample included 40 of L2 Arabic speakers from Arabic language courses at major universities in Northern Virginia and Maryland. These were native English speakers with no exposure to Arabic before their enrolment in the university. The sample was divided into three groups (Group I, individual in the second year of Arabic program, Group II, individual in 3rd or 4th year of the program, and Group III control group, five native speakers of Arabic). Different tasks were presented to the groups, where PsychoPy software was used for task presentation. Audacity Version 2.0 was audio-recorded, transcribed, and coded by the experimenter. The production and comprehension test revealed that morphological problems are prevalent at the advanced proficiency level. It showed the role of animacy for the morphological variability and higher agreement accuracy for human targets. It concluded that morphological variability in L2 Arabic remains a persistent problem even at advanced levels of proficiency, extending to comprehension.
    • Becoming Global Citizens through Bilingualism: English Learning in the Lives of University Students in China

      Yangguang Chen (Hindawi Limited, 2011-01-01)
      The ongoing globalisation has led to a tremendous expansion of the English language. With China striving to become part of the world economy since the late 1970's, there has been a great emphasis placed on the education of young people to become a world citizen with fluent English. “Being a global citizen” is having strong interests in global issues, cultivating the understanding and appreciation of diverse values, and enhancing country's competitiveness. All this however needs to be realized through communication in English, the world language. Improving communicative competence among Chinese learners of English depends on how English is learnt in the FL classroom and how it gets practiced outside the classroom. Data drawn from English corners, English clubs and English church all show that those informal learning settings have a complentary role to play especially when the formal English classroom is found having various deficits. Data also confirm that informal settings offer the opportunity to close the gap between L1 and L2 learning processes, and nurtutre learners' communicative competence through social intercourse and intercultural exchanges. Moreover, EFL learning is inherently intercultural, which facilitate cross cultural perspectives through bilingualism and bridges over the indigenous cultural traditions and the western democratic values.
    • Building Intercultural Competence One “Patch” at a Time

      Rebecca Spooner-Lane; Donna Tangen; K. Louise Mercer; Erika Hepple; Suzanne Carrington (Hindawi Limited, 2013-01-01)
      This paper describes a program called Patches that was implemented to assist a group of Australian and Malaysian pre-service teachers to enhance their intercultural competence through their involvement in a series of reciprocal learning activities. Each learning experience was considered a “patch” that eventually created a “quilt of intercultural learning.” The purpose of this study was to enhance the intercultural competence of domestic and international students through organized intercultural activities, through a series of reflective writing sessions, and mutual engagement on a common project. The effectiveness of the Patches program was analysed in accordance with Deardorff’s elements of intercultural competence. The qualitative findings indicate that both cohorts of preservice teachers showed elements of intercultural competence through participation in the program, with both groups reporting a deeper appreciation and understanding of how to communicate more effectively in intercultural contexts.
    • Burnout in relation to Gender, Teaching Experience, and Educational Level among Educators

      Izzul Ilham Jamaludin; Huay Woon You (Hindawi Limited, 2019-01-01)
      This study aims to investigate the burnout levels of the educators with respect to gender, teaching experience, and educational level. The subjects of the study are 31 educators. A survey design using a questionnaire was utilized to collect data within three burnout dimensions, i.e., emotional exhaustion (EE), depersonalization (DP), and reduced personal accomplishment (PA). The study has found that the educators are emotionally exhausted and experience reduced personal accomplishment levels with high levels of depersonalization. Both genders regardless of years of experience with Bachelor, Master, and PhD degrees demonstrated high levels of emotional exhaustion. The educators who are troubled by depersonalization are mainly Bachelor degree holders with less than 5 years of experience. This indicates that these educators have negative attitudes towards the people they are working with including students and parents. This may be attributed to their lack of working experience. Nevertheless, female educators with Master degrees and 6 to 10 years of experience are highly affected by reduced personal accomplishment levels. The lack of fulfillment felt by these educators can lead to weak performance in class. The findings from this study are essential to give an overview on the burnout levels among educators and identify alternative solutions to overcome this situation. In addition, school authorities and administrators can take these factors into account when making recruitment decisions.
    • Caregiving Involvement, Job Condition, and Job Satisfaction of Infant-Toddler Child-Care Teachers in the United States

      Ziarat Hossain; Elizabeth Noll; Maribel Barboza (Hindawi Limited, 2012-01-01)
      This study explored the degree to which infant-toddler child-care teachers were involved in their caregiving tasks, the nature of their job condition, and the relationships among caregiving involvement, SES variables (e.g., age, income, education, and work hours), and job condition including job satisfaction, burnout, and quitting behavior. Forty-one teachers from 10 daycare centers in small towns of the Southwest participated in the study. Results indicate that there was a high level of caregiving involvement and job satisfaction among the teachers. However, most teachers were dissatisfied with their current income levels, showed a moderate level of burnout, and yet did not express their intention to quit their present job. Correlation analyses reveal that teachers’ job satisfaction was positively related to their interaction with children and colleagues, resources, and training but negatively correlated to burnout and quitting behavior. Teachers’ burnout and quitting behavior were negatively correlated to their interaction with children and colleagues, resources, training, and income. While the desire to work with children had a significant impact on teachers’ job satisfaction and burnout, income and level of collegiality significantly predicted their quitting behavior.
    • Causal Attributions as Correlates of Secondary School Students’ Academic Achievement

      Susan Ngunu; Theresia Kinai; Philomena Ndambuki; Peter Mwaura (Hindawi Limited, 2019-01-01)
      The purpose of this study was to establish the relationship between causal attributions and academic achievement. Weiner’s Model of Achievement Attribution guided this research. Five-hundred and eighty-five students (315 males, 270 females) participated in the study. The participants completed the Multidimensional Multiattributional Causality Scale (MMCS) while academic achievement was obtained from the participants’ academic records. Majority of the students attributed both success and failure to internal, uncontrollable, and unstable attributions. The results indicated that causal attributions were significantly correlated to academic achievement. Taking into account that students can form maladaptive causal attributions, the study made recommendations to the stakeholders on intervention measures.
    • Challenges for Quality Primary Education in Papua New Guinea—A Case Study

      Ravinder Rena (Hindawi Limited, 2011-01-01)
      There is an urgent need to reform the educational system to achieve universal primary education in Papua New Guinea (PNG). Even after 35 years of independence, PNG has been struggling to educate an estimated 2 million elementary- and primary-aged children and faces numerous challenges in providing Education for All (EFA). This study was conducted in four primary schools of Buma Yong area of Lae district of Morobe Province, PNG. The study revealed that the quality of education has been deteriorated over the past few decades. Many schools in PNG do not have classrooms, teachers, and basic facilities. As a result, the children are losing interest in going to school. The children dropped out of school so as to assist their families in the household and agricultural activities. It also reveals that the dropout rate of girls is more than that of the boys due to the gender disparity in the country. The study recommended that budgetary allocations should be increased so as to improve the infrastructural facilities and encourage the children to attend primary school and thus achieve the Millennium Development Goal/Education For All in PNG.
    • Challenges in the Clinical Environment: The Saudi Student Nurses’ Experience

      Ahmad E. Aboshaiqah; Irene M. Roco; Isabelita N. Pandaan; Omar G. Baker; Regie B. Tumala; John Paul Ben T. Silang (Hindawi Limited, 2018-01-01)
      Previous studies showed that student nurses faced difficulties in clinical practice; thus, this study examined the clinical challenges encountered by Saudi nationals and the implications to learning outcomes using the descriptive cross-sectional approach. The study was conducted in nursing college in a university in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The survey questionnaires were completed by 220 conveniently selected student nurses who were enrolled in Bachelor’s Degree in Nursing from the academic level 5 to 8. Data analysis was done through the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 23. Clinical evaluation was perceived as the most common challenge, whereas competency development as the least. Significant associations were found between age and evaluation, academic level and competency development, and grade point average and learning outcomes. Nursing competency development significantly varied with civil status and stream of study. Students in the Regular Nursing Program faced more challenges in achieving learning outcomes then their counterparts. Overall, the challenges were perceived as occasional. Resolving clinical obstacles is crucial in helping student nurses achieve positive learning outcomes.
    • Challenges of Parental Involvement Within a Health Promoting School Framework in New Zealand

      Tracy Clelland; Penni Cushman; Jacinta Hawkins (Hindawi Limited, 2013-01-01)
      The study sought to identify key issues regarding parental involvement within a health promoting school (HPS) approach directed at addressing children’s nutrition and physical activity. A case study research design was used, involving six primary schools in Auckland, New Zealand. Data were collected via six individual interviews with principals, six group interviews with a total of 26 teachers, 13 focus groups with a total of 92 children, and a survey of 229 parents. The study found that while schools agreed on the importance of schools and parents promoting the same healthy behaviours, there was a lack of agreement on the role of school staff in educating parents. School principals identified issues around managing the food brought from home and the extent to which they should regulate types of food. Parents stressed the importance of modelling healthy food and exercise practices in the home environment but identified factors that often made this difficult, a scenario that did not go unnoticed by their children. It is recommended that parental involvement be encouraged and supported so that schools and families can achieve consistency in health promotion practices across both school and home environments.