Education Research International is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that considers scholarly, research-based articles on all aspects of education. As an international journal aimed at facilitating the global exchange of education theory, contributions from different educational systems and cultures are encouraged. The journal publishes research articles as well as review articles.


Library has vol. 1(2011) to current.

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  • Critical Thinking Level among Medical Sciences Students in Iran

    Faranak Jafari; Seyyed Mohsen Azizi; Ali Soroush; Alireza Khatony (Hindawi Limited, 2020-01-01)
    Background. Critical thinking is one of the most important missions of the educational planning system of medical sciences universities around the world. Hence, identifying the level of critical thinking skills and tendency of medical sciences students to think critically is of great importance. Therefore, the aim of this systematic review was to examine the critical thinking level in medical sciences students in Iran. Methods. To extract published studies in the field of critical thinking in Iran, a search was conducted in the databases of PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, ERIC, and Magiran. The keywords of critical thinking, medical sciences, and Iran were used for the purpose of the search in the two languages of Persian and English and without any time limit. The PRISMA flow diagram was applied for the selection of articles, and the Newcastle–Ottawa Scale was used for the evaluation of these papers. Results. After evaluating the quality of searched articles, 80 articles were finally selected for the final analysis. The total sample of the articles included 12,578 students. The results indicated that out of 51 articles conducted in the field of critical thinking skills, 48 articles reported these skills at a low level, 2 papers at a medium level, and only 1 paper at a high level in the medical sciences students. Among 29 articles in the field of the level of critical thinking disposition, 13 articles reported their tendency level at a low level, 11 articles at a medium level, and 5 articles at a high level. Conclusion. In general, based on most articles, the level of critical thinking skills in the medical sciences students in Iran was reported to be at a low level and their tendency to critical thinking at a moderate level and low level. Therefore, given the importance of critical thinking for medical sciences students, future studies should consider factors influencing the increase of the critical thinking level in these students. In this regard, formation of some training workshops can also be promising. Furthermore, reviewing the medical sciences curriculum should be taken into consideration by the policymakers and educational planners so as to strengthen the level of critical thinking in the medical sciences students.
  • Assessing Distance Learning in Higher Education during the COVID-19 Pandemic

    Selwa El Firdoussi; Mohamed Lachgar; Hind Kabaili; Abdelali Rochdi; Driss Goujdami; Larbi El Firdoussi (Hindawi Limited, 2020-01-01)
    This qualitative study is an investigation and assessment of distance learning in Morocco during the COVID-19 pandemic. This research surveyed 3037 students and 231 professors enrolled in different stages of higher education programs. It aims to investigate the limitations of e-learning platforms and how these activities take place at public and private Moroccan universities during the coronavirus confinement. For this purpose, two structured questionnaires were constructed by researchers from different specialties, and the type of data was based on the responses of students and professors from 15 universities. In this paper, we have used three methods: descriptive analysis, regression analysis, and qualitative response analysis. As a data analytics tool, Microsoft Power BI was used to analyze data, visualize it, and draw insights. In this study, both professors and students stated that online learning is not more interesting than ordinary learning and professors need to provide at least 50% of their teaching in face-to-face mode. Recommendations at teaching and technical levels, such as the need for technical support and training in the use of these tools, were provided to enhance and promote distance education in Morocco. The contribution of this paper comes as a result of data analysis obtained from a survey conducted in some famous Moroccan universities.
  • Using Guided Discovery to Improve Students’ Retention and Academic Attitudes to Financial Accounting Concepts

    Ernest O. Ugwoke; Taiwo Grace Olulowo; Ige Olugbenga Adedayo (Hindawi Limited, 2020-01-01)
    Financial Accounting is one of the specialised subjects in the Nigerian senior secondary school curriculum. It is no gain saying that without apposite comprehension of the subject, the goals of its inclusion in the curriculum might not be fully accomplished. Hence, the researchers are in quest of appropriate instructional strategies that entail students’ active participation and improve students’ learning outcomes (attitude and retention) through practice-oriented research. Consequently, this research determined the effectiveness of guided discovery instructional strategy, in relation to a conventional lecture, on learning outcomes of students in Financial Accounting concepts. This study adopted a nonrandomized pretest, posttest, control group quasiexperimental design with a 2 × 2 × 3 factorial design. 147 secondary school students in level 5 were selected from eight secondary schools in the northern part of a Southwestern state, Nigeria. The research instruments used were Teachers’ Instructional Guides on Guided Discovery, Students’ Attitude to Financial Accounting Questionnaire (r = 0.89) and a 30-item Financial Accounting Retention Test (r = 0.83). The analyzed data affirmed that the treatment improved students’ attitude (F(1,134) = 344.935; p<0.05; η2 = 0.720) and retention (F(1,134) = 385.431; p<0.05; η2 = 0.742) of accounting concepts. This study recommended that teachers should utilize the guided discovery strategy to develop attitudes and knowledge retention of learners in Financial Accounting.
  • Research Activity among Academic Medical Staff during the COVID-19 Pandemic in Marrakesh

    Latifa Adarmouch; Majda Sebbani; Mohamed Amine (Hindawi Limited, 2020-01-01)
    Introduction. The COVID-19 pandemic has profoundly impacted the medical academic institutions and their activities. Our aim was to describe the research activity (COVID-19-related or preexisting research) of the academic staff at the medical school in Marrakesh, Morocco. Methodology. An online survey among faculty members explored the COVID-19-related research activity as well as the impact of the pandemic on preexisting research, related challenges, and coping strategies. The form was distributed via e-mail. Data analyses involved univariate and bivariate methods. Findings. We analyzed 55 responses. A proportion of 58.2% of respondents reported conducting COVID-19-related research, while 40% reported that routine research activities were suspended as a result of the pandemic. Major challenges to research in this context were the clinical activity workload, limited access to patients, and research personnel shortage. Coping strategies included adopting remote work and using communication technologies. Conclusion. Despite the many challenges facing the academic researchers to implement COVID-19-related research and to maintain preexisting research activity, there are opportunities to promote academic medical research in the developing world alongside at the global level. Our results should help in documenting and understanding the impact of this pandemic as well as framing appropriate strategies in the future to address similar situations.
  • Cultural Beliefs and Infant Mortality in Nigeria

    F. N. Bolu-Steve; A. A. Adegoke; G. M. Kim-Ju (Hindawi Limited, 2020-01-01)
    Rationale. Nearly half of all deaths prior to the age of five years globally occur in five nations: China, Democratic Republic of the Congo, India, Nigeria, and Pakistan, with almost a third of these deaths in India and Nigeria (Lawson et al., 2014). Methods. This study investigated the cultural beliefs about infant mortality among working mothers in Nigeria. A multistage sampling technique was used to sample (N = 2400) working mothers on their cultural beliefs in relation to infant mortality. The present study uses an indigenous questionnaire, “Cultural Beliefs of Infant Mortality Questionnaire (CBIMQ).” A series of hierarchical regressions and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) were employed to test the hypotheses that cultural beliefs about infant mortality would vary by geography, ethnicity, age, income, education, and marital status. Results. Findings revealed that age, education, and mothers’ monthly income significantly predicted working mothers’ cultural beliefs of infant mortality. Furthermore, results showed differences in marital status, urban vs. rural locality, ethnicity, and religious affiliation on working mothers’ cultural beliefs of infant mortality. Conclusion. We discuss the implications to address health issues and provide recommendations for targeted programs such as seminars and workshops to be organized by counselors on the scientific causes of infant mortality.
  • Do Teachers Treat Their Students Differently? An Observational Study on Teacher-Student Interactions as a Function of Teacher Expectations and Student Achievement

    Eddie Denessen; Annelies Keller; Linda van den Bergh; Paul van den BROEK (Hindawi Limited, 2020-01-01)
    Through classroom interactions, teachers provide their students with different opportunities to learn. Some kinds of interactions elicit more learning activities than others. With differential treatment of students, teachers may exacerbate or reduce achievement differences in their classroom. In addition, differential interactions may contribute to teacher expectation effects, with teachers treating their high-expectation students more favourably. This study investigated how differential teacher-student interactions are related to students’ mathematics achievement and teachers’ expectations. In eight fourth-grade classrooms in the Netherlands, interactions between teachers and students (N = 152) were observed in maths lessons. Data regarding teachers’ expectations about their students and mathematics achievement tests scores were collected. Analyses indicated that there were relations between teacher expectations and teachers’ classroom interactions. Teachers gave more direct turns and more directive feedback to their low-expectation students, who were also the students who performed low in maths. After controlling for actual achievement, it appeared that students for whom the expectations were lower than could be expected based on their performance received more direct turns and directive task-related feedback. These results point to the existence of teacher expectation effects.
  • Dimensions of Motivation in Teaching: Relations with Social Support Climate, Teacher Efficacy, Emotional Exhaustion, and Job Satisfaction

    Gamaliel Gonzales; Roselyn Gonzales; Felix Costan; Celbert Himang (Hindawi Limited, 2020-01-01)
    This study explored how teachers' peer support climate (PSC) and supervisory support climate (SSC) were related to teacher self-efficacy (TSE), teacher job satisfaction (TJS), teacher emotional exhaustion (TEE), and motivation to quit the teaching profession (MQTP) among teachers in the Philippines. Participants were 457 teachers in the Central Visayas Region. Structural equation modeling (SEM) indicated that MQTP varies as to self-efficacy, emotional exhaustion, and job satisfaction. Responses among all constructs do not vary among novice and experienced teachers except on TJS. The findings of the research advocate the proposed model. The model can guide future researchers in developing countries like the Philippines to explain teachers’ attrition caused by social support, efficacy factors, burnout, and job satisfaction.
  • An Analysis of High and Low Intercorrelations between Mathematics Self-Efficacy, Anxiety, and Achievement Variables: A Prerequisite for a Reliable Factor Analysis

    Erik Bergqvist; Timo Tossavainen; Maria Johansson (Hindawi Limited, 2020-01-01)
    This paper draws on data from a quantitative study of upper secondary students’ general mathematical self-efficacy, anxiety towards mathematics, and their relationship to achievement in mathematics. The main objective of this article is to discuss the type of information that may be lost if potential problems of validity and extreme multicollinearity in exploratory factor analysis would be solved by only removing variables without doing a profound analysis. We also describe a method that treats Likert items in the questionnaire as ordinal variables that may represent the underlying continuous variable. Our study shows, for example, that removal of problematic variables without a profound analysis leads to a loss of significant information about test anxiety. Our qualitative analysis of problematic variables also led to an unexpected finding regarding the relationship between general mathematical self-efficacy and motivational values in mathematics.
  • SAS-SV Smartphone Addiction Scale in Mexican University Students

    Milka E. Escalera-Chávez; Carlos A. Rojas-Kramer (Hindawi Limited, 2020-01-01)
    Objective. The aim of this work was to validate the statistical significance and unidimensionality of the construct formed by the variables of the revised and short version of the Smartphone Addiction Scale (SAS-SV), adapted into Spanish, when applied to Mexican university students. Method. The questionnaires were administered to 244 students of Bachelor’s Degree in Administration of the Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí, Mexico; 174 women and 70 men, aged 17 to 30 years, between August and December 2018. A confirmatory factor analysis was performed, and the parameters of the variables were checked by maximum likelihood and also by Bayesian analysis. The reliability of the instrument was verified through Cronbach’s alpha. As a final analysis, estimates of nonstandardized weights for the maximum likelihood method were compared against Bayesian a posteriori distribution estimates. Results. As a result, the model was found to adequately describe the sample data, presenting very small standard error estimates, and it was validated with Cronbach’s alpha of 0.885. In both Bayesian and maximum likelihood analysis, it is consistently evident that the construct is unidimensional. However, for the sample studied, it was observed that 3 of the variables did not reach a significant weight for the model. Conclusion. It concludes that the variables that measure smartphone addiction on the SAS-SV scale adapted to Spanish, indeed, form a unidimensional construct when applied to Mexican university students, which is consistent with results from previous studies. However, it is identified necessary to conduct further studies, in order to explain the low significance obtained for 3 variables of the model.
  • The Relationship between Learning Styles and Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy among Medicine and Dentistry Students of Ardabil University of Medical Sciences

    Robab Farhang; Ulduz Zamani Ahari; Samira Ghasemi; Aziz Kamran (Hindawi Limited, 2020-01-01)
    Background and Objectives. The career decision-making self-efficacy (CDSE) in medical, pharmacy, and dental students is more important than other disciplines due to professional sensitivity, direct involvement in decision-making for the treatment process, and the significant clinical involvement. It is also expected that learning styles can have a significant impact on the academic success, and the CDSE also affects the quality of clinical care. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the relationship between the learning styles and the career decision-making self-efficacy among medicine and dentistry students. Materials and Methods. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 235 medical interns and fifth- and sixth-year dental students of Ardabil University of Medical Sciences, Iran. The data were collected using Kolb Learning Style Inventory and Betz and Luzzo career decision-making self-efficacy questionnaire. Statistical tests such as Kolmogorov–Smirnov, Spearman correlation coefficient, Chi-square, one-way ANOVA were used to analyze the data. Results. The mean age of participants was 25.9 ± 1.30; a majority of them were dental students (134 persons, 59.3%), and 92 were medical students (40.7%). The predominant learning styles in dental and medical students were assimilating (40.3%) and converging (47.8%), respectively. There was no significant relationship between students’ learning styles and career decision-making self-efficacy and none of its subscales (P>0.05). The Chi-square test results showed that a significant difference was observed between the field of study and learning styles of the participants (P=0.024). Conclusion. This study showed that there was no significant relationship between learning style and career decision-making self-efficacy of the participants.
  • Analysis Based on the Three Objective Educational Domains for Final Summative Secondary Examinations of Science Subject (Chemistry, Physics, and Biology)

    Fatimah Alhashem; Nasser Agha (Hindawi Limited, 2020-01-01)
    The aim of this study is to determine the representation of the areas of educational objectives (cognitive, psychomotor, and emotional) measured by the science, chemistry, physics, and biology (2018-2019) examination questions in the State of Kuwait (objective, categorical) and the availability of science operations. Content analysis was used as a method to analyze the final examinations in the lens of the three educational objectives domains. The results of the study showed that the number of questions of the science subjects (chemistry, physics, and biology) for the second semester of the academic year 2018-2019 was 136 questions as 46, 48, and 42and that the average of all questions focused on questions related to lower cognitive levels. The study concluded with a set of recommendations to develop the process of final examinations for secondary schools and to rethink about the process of evaluating students with science concepts rather than limiting the subjects to sets of information from textbooks.
  • A Sociocultural Perspective on Second Language Writing: The Effect of Symmetrical versus Asymmetrical Scaffolding on Intermediate EFL Learners’ Writing Accuracy, Fluency, and Complexity and Their Attitudes

    Aysheh Mohammadzadeh; Touran Ahour; Mahnaz Saeidi (Hindawi Limited, 2020-01-01)
    This study investigated the effect of different patterns of scaffolding (symmetrical and asymmetrical) on Iranian English as a Foreign Language (EFL) students’ writing accuracy, fluency, and complexity. For this purpose, 90 intermediate female EFL learners took a Preliminary English Test (PET), based on which those whose scores fell one standard deviation below the mean were considered as low intermediate and those whose score was one standard deviation above the mean were considered as high intermediate learners. So, the participants were grouped into three symmetrical and asymmetrical patterns in terms of their language proficiency level: one asymmetrical group with High Intermediate-Low Intermediate learners (H-L), two symmetrical groups with High Intermediate learners (H-H), and another with Low Intermediate learners (L-L). There were 30 students in each group who were, then, divided into smaller groups to interact with each other to develop their essays during a treatment. To evaluate participants’ writing skill, they were made to take a pretest and a post-test. The results of one-way ANOVA and Kruskal–Wallis H tests showed that there were significant differences between the three scaffolding patterns in the writing accuracy and complexity of the EFL students, but not their writing fluency. The findings of the content analysis for the interview further showed that the students had positive attitudes towards the use of the collaborative writing method as they found it enjoyable and beneficial. The results have implications for teachers and learners.
  • Grand Challenges as Educational Innovations in Higher Education: A Scoping Review of the Literature

    Lorelli Nowell; Swati Dhingra; Kimberley Andrews; Julia Gospodinov; Cathy Liu; K. Alix Hayden (Hindawi Limited, 2020-01-01)
    Grand challenges are complex problems that are common to much of society, affect large populations, and may have several possible solutions. Incorporation of grand challenges into higher education courses can facilitate the development of collaborative problem-solving skills while providing relevant and practical opportunities to experience the dynamics involved in real-world work. Although grand challenges are becoming more commonly used in higher education, to date, there has been no synthesis of how grand challenges are incorporated and the learning outcomes of engaging in grand challenge work. In this scoping review, we examined and mapped the state of evidence for the use of grand challenges in higher education. We conducted the review according to the Johanna Briggs Institute methodology for scoping reviews and considered quantitative, qualitative, and mixed-methods studies as well as literature reviews, program descriptions, and opinion papers published in English without limitations on year of publication. We used a data extraction tool to synthesize and present our findings in a tabular form with accompanying narrative summaries. The results reveal a growing global interest in the use of grand challenges in higher education while highlighting a lack of rigorous empirical evidence on the impact on student learning.
  • The Role of Peer Mentors in Promoting Knowledge and Skills Development in Graduate Education

    Diane L. Lorenzetti; Lorelli Nowell; Michele Jacobsen; Liza Lorenzetti; Tracey Clancy; Georgina Freeman; Elizabeth Oddone Paolucci (Hindawi Limited, 2020-01-01)
    The objective of this study was to explore the role of peer mentorship in facilitating graduate student resiliency, knowledge acquisition, and development of academic competencies. We conducted a qualitative case study, using in-person interview data from sixty-two students recruited from four professional faculties (Education, Medicine, Nursing, and Social Work) at a large Canadian University. We identified four broad themes derived from a thematic and constant comparative analysis of interview data: (1) knowledge sharing, (2) skills development, (3) academic milestones, and (4) program supports. Graduate students reported that peer mentorship promoted the development of learning environments that emphasized community, collaboration, and shared purpose. Students believed that peer mentors facilitated their access to essential procedural and disciplinary knowledge and helped them to develop academic and research skills and achieve key academic milestones. While the majority of the students interviewed had not participated in any formal peer-mentoring program, they recommended that any future program incorporate mentorship training and include access to collaborative spaces and targeted opportunities for students to develop these relationships.
  • Implications of Ubuntu/Synergy for the Education System of Ethiopia

    Teshager Ali; Aweke Shishigu (Hindawi Limited, 2020-01-01)
    In most sub-Saharan African states, education was carried out by missionaries, which resulted in the incursion of foreign language and/or culture. As one of the sub-Saharan countries, Ethiopia has faced the same scenario apart from the changes accrued during regime changes. In line with these changes, the education philosophy, education policy, and its accompanying epistemology have shown marked changes. However, all of them fail to encompass the sociocultural facets of the country. As a result, the quality of education at all levels of the system has been a point of discussion for the last several years. The current initiative (Ethiopian Education Development Roadmap (2018-30)) is one of the offspring of a marked debate in the education sector. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to provide a more comprehensive picture of the education system in Ethiopia on top of philosophical scrutiny of past and current education reforms. In analyzing education reforms, the paper draws on indigenous philosophical orientation and the values of Ubuntu. The paper argues that the reforms introduced during regime changes are short of pledging an indigenous knowledge base. As indigenous education is based on sound philosophical foundations, the paper further argues that the proposed philosophical foundation can easily fit with the culture and lifestyle of the community being considered.
  • Teacher-Related Factors as Predictors of Students’ Achievement in English Grammar in Gambian Senior Secondary Schools

    Oladotun Opeoluwa Olagbaju (Hindawi Limited, 2020-01-01)
    Studies have shown that several factors predict students’ achievement in any second language classroom. These factors include learner, school, text, and teacher-related variables. The teacher is indispensable in the instructional procedure; therefore, the quality of a teacher in terms of teaching experience, subject mastery, and questioning behaviour can determine ESL students’ learning outcomes to a large extent. This study examined the relationship between teachers’ subject mastery and questioning behaviour and students’ achievement in English grammar in the Gambia. The research design is a descriptive survey that comprised 300 students and 10 English language teachers from four senior secondary schools in Kanifing Municipal Council. Two research instruments were used and the data were analysed using PPMC and MRA. The result showed that independent variables predicted students’ achievement in English grammar. Teachers’ subject mastery (β = 0.476; t = 12.132; p<0.05) and questioning behaviour (β = 0.204; t = 5.195; p<0.05) contributed significantly to students’ achievement in English grammar relatively and jointly. Recommendations were made to stakeholders to ensure regular training of in-service and preservice language teachers on the teacher and teaching-related variables in ESL classrooms.
  • Survival Models for the Analysis of Waiting Time to First Employment of New Graduates: A Case of 2018 Debre Markos University Graduates, Northwest Ethiopia

    Muluye Getie Ayaneh; Askalemariam Adamu Dessie; Amare Wubishet Ayele (Hindawi Limited, 2020-01-01)
    This study was carried out to predict the time spell to first employment and to determine the effects of related factors on the timing of first employment on new graduates from Debre Markos University using survival models. The study used the 2018 Debre Markos University graduate tracer survey data. Cox PH and parametric accelerated failure time models were used. The Akaike information criterion (AIC) was used to select the best parametric model that could explain the waiting time to first employment. The median waiting time to first employment of graduates was found to be 15 months, showing that 50% of graduates managed to find their first job 15 months after their graduation date. In a comparison among parametric survival models, the log-logistic parametric model was better in describing the timing of graduates to first employment. Covariates such as gender, cumulative grade point average (CGPA) earned from the university, age at graduation, residence, field of study preference of graduates, and college/faculty were found to be statistically significant (p value <0.05) predictors of the waiting time to first employment. The log-logistic parametric model fitted the waiting time to the first employment data well and could be taken as an alternative for the Cox PH model.
  • Evaluating the Academic Performance of K-12 Students in the Philippines: A Standardized Evaluation Approach

    Porferio M. Almerino; Lanndon A. Ocampo; Dharyll Prince M. Abellana; Jana Gloria F. Almerino; Irene O. Mamites; Lilibeth C. Pinili; Janine Joy L. Tenerife; Regina E. Sitoy; Limuel J. Abelgas; Emerson D. Peteros (Hindawi Limited, 2020-01-01)
    With growing technological advancements, demands for the industry with skilled and equipped workforce are proportionately rising. While this match between curricular offerings in academia and needs in the industry has been addressed in many countries across the globe through initiatives such as the K-12 educational system, some countries like the Philippines have only started its adoption. In the Philippines’ early adoption of the K-12 educational system, several concerns have been raised regarding its implementation, mainly, the mismatch between coursework offered in Philippine K-12 educational institutions with industry demands. With such outcomes, it is necessary to determine the status of the K-12 educational system in the Philippines. This paper attempts to shed light on such concerns by evaluating the performance of the K-12 students using a standardized approach. The Scholastic Abilities Test for Adults, a standardized test for measuring the academic competence of adults, is used in this study to measure scholastic abilities. The descriptive analyses made in this paper may aid in the development of more robust strategy frameworks for positioning the current K-12 educational system to global and industry demands. Moreover, the results obtained in this study would aid stakeholders in overseeing strategies that would address current gaps in the K-12 educational system of the country.
  • Enumeration of Potential Teaching Methods in Higher Education: A Cross-Disciplinary Study

    Khalid Mohiuddin; Mohammad Aminul Islam; Mansoor Sharif; Shakila Nur; Md. Shahrear Talukder; Mohammed A Alghobiri (Hindawi Limited, 2020-01-01)
    In today’s multifaceted academic context, selecting, adopting, and adapting appropriate teaching methods (TMs) have been a pivotal concern for teachers. No study, to the researchers’ knowledge, has been conducted on compiling the maximum number of TMs in higher education. This study aims to list, describe, and provide a platform of the potential and the most practicing TMs in four major educational disciplines. This article, taking a cross-disciplinary lens, conducts an in-depth review of 90 articles and enumerates 110 TMs of higher education. It also identifies several TMs that are commonly used in each discipline. The article concludes that knowledge generated from this study fills up the existing literature gap. It calls attention to the current TM practices and provides teachers with an outline to employ available TMs in their respective disciplines.
  • Exploring the Related Factors in Education Quality through Spatial Autoregressive Modeling with Latent Variables: A Rural Case Study

    Anik Anekawati; Bambang W. Otok; Purhadi; Sutikno (Hindawi Limited, 2020-01-01)
    The principle of education for sustainable development (ESD) is that no child is left behind. Hence, the fourth sustainable development goal (SDG) of the United Nations (UN) emphasizes inclusion and equity in education by focusing on eliminating disparities among regions. This study explores factors related to education quality through modeling in rural areas of Sumenep Regency, in East Java, Indonesia. Currently, only a few kinds of research studies involve spatial data, latent variables and, at the same time, tests of their spillover effects. The modeling herein is the spatial autoregressive model with latent variables (SAR-LVs). The latent variables were estimated using the weighted least square (WLS) method, while the Lagrange multiplier (LM) test was used for spatial dependence testing. The parameters of the SAR-LVs were estimated using two-stage least square (2SLS). The results show that the quality of education is directly influenced by the infrastructure of the schools but not by the socioeconomic conditions of the local communities. The autoregressive spatial coefficient has a significant but negative effect, which shows a negative spillover from districts with a lower quality of education to the ones with a high quality of education. This is due to the students’ competition to get registered for a favorite or good quality school in a particular district, which stimulates the migration of students from its neighboring districts. This reveals the inequality of school quality, since not all students can get access to schools with good quality. Through this study, some recommendations are given as a contribution to achieving the fourth SDG in Indonesia.

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