This journal aims to: provide a vehicle for scholarly presentation and exchange of information between professionals, researchers and practitioners in the technology-enhanced education field; contribute to the advancement of scientific knowledge regarding the use of technology and computers in higher education; and inform readers about the latest developments in the application of information technologies (ITs) in higher education learning, training, research and management.


The Library contains vol. 13(2016) to current.

Recent Submissions

  • VR-based health and safety training in various high-risk engineering industries: a literature review

    Ryo Toyoda; Fernando Russo-Abegão; Jarka Glassey (SpringerOpen, 2022-08-01)
    Abstract This article provides a critical review of the current studies in VR-based health and safety training, assessment techniques, training evaluation, and its potential to improve the training evaluation outcomes in various high-risk engineering industries. The results of this analysis indicate the breadth of VR-based applications in training users on a combination of topics including risk assessment, machinery, and/or process operation in various industries. Data showed that the use of fully immersive VR increased significantly due to the improvements in hardware, display resolution, and affordability. Most of the articles used external assessment to measure the changes in the satisfaction and the declarative knowledge of trainees as these are easier to implement, while some articles started to implement internal assessment that provides an automated assessment capable of measuring complex skills. The results of the study also suggest that it has the potential to improve the training evaluation outcomes compared to traditional training methods. The findings from this study help practitioners and safety managers by providing a training design framework that may be adopted to optimise the condition of a VR-based training.
  • Network analysis of gratitude messages in the learning community

    Masami Yoshida (SpringerOpen, 2022-09-01)
    Abstract In pedagogical practice, gratitude is recognised not as an emotion, but as an approach to learning. This study introduced gratitude messages into the academic online communication of university students and specifically examined the community in which students shared their messages with gratitude. This study examined the tendency of message connections and how gratitude messages prompted replies. To elucidate their connections, exponential random graph models (ERGMs) were used. A post-event questionnaire to evaluate gratitude experiences was also administered. Results revealed that 77.3% of the 172 connected messages from 123 students involved gratitude. When the post-event questionnaire results were examined using an ERGM, the score effects on increasing message connections were found not to be significant. The most prominent indication was a higher level of significant propensities to make mutual connections. The homophily of the message content was found to have a significant propensity to increase connections. The ERGM results and a review of messages revealed that students expressed gratitude for being both benefactors and beneficiaries of gratitude messages, which confirmed their prosocial behaviour.
  • Video-based simulations in teacher education: the role of learner characteristics as capacities for positive learning experiences and high performance

    Michael Nickl; Sina A. Huber; Daniel Sommerhoff; Elias Codreanu; Stefan Ufer; Tina Seidel (SpringerOpen, 2022-09-01)
    Abstract Assessing students on-the-fly is an important but challenging task for teachers. In initial teacher education, a call has been made to better prepare pre-service teachers for this complex task. Advances in technology allow this training to be done through authentic learning environments, such as video-based simulations. To understand the learning process in such simulations, it is necessary to determine how cognitive and motivational learner characteristics influence situative learning experiences, such as the perception of authenticity, cognitive load, and situational motivation, during the simulation and how they affect aspects of performance. In the present study, N = 150 pre-service teachers from German universities voluntarily participated in a validated online video-based simulation targeting on-the-fly student assessments. We identified three profiles of learner characteristics: one with above average knowledge, one with above average motivational-affective traits, and one with below average knowledge and motivational-affective traits. These profiles do not differ in the perception of the authenticity of the simulation. Furthermore, the results indicate that the profiled learners navigate differently through the simulation. The knowledgeable learners tended to outperform learners of the other two profiles by using more learning time for the assessment process, also resulting in higher judgment accuracy. The study highlights how learner characteristics and processes interact, which helps to better understand individual learning processes in simulations. Thus, the findings may be used as a basis for future simulation research with a focus on adaptive and individual support.
  • The influence of digital competences, self-organization, and independent learning abilities on students’ acceptance of digital learning

    Laura Scheel; Gergana Vladova; André Ullrich (SpringerOpen, 2022-08-01)
    Abstract Despite digital learning disrupting traditional learning concepts and activities in higher education, for the successful integration of digital learning, the use and acceptance of the students are essential. This acceptance depends in turn on students’ characteristics and dispositions, among other factors. In our study, we investigated the influence of digital competences, self-organization, and independent learning abilities on students’ acceptance of digital learning and the influence of their acceptance on the resistance to the change from face-to-face to digital learning. To do so, we surveyed 350 students and analyzed the impact of the different dispositions using ordinary least squares regression analysis. We could confirm a significant positive influence of all the tested dispositions on the acceptance of digital learning. With the results, we can contribute to further investigating the underlying factors that can lead to more positive student perceptions of digital learning and build a foundation for future strategies of implementing digital learning into higher education successfully.
  • Assessing digital competence and its relationship with the socioeconomic level of Chilean university students

    Juan Silva-Quiroz; Erla Mariela Morales-Morgado (SpringerOpen, 2022-08-01)
    Abstract Digital competence (DC) is one of the key aspects in citizen development in the digital age. The DC is particularly important in forming university students and future teachers. This article presents the main results of a study to evaluate DC and its relationship with the socioeconomic level of first-year students of pedagogy in three Chilean public universities, located in the north, center, and south of the country. A quantitative research methodology was used, with a sample of 817 students, the data were collected through the DIGCOMP-PED evaluation instrument, which evaluates DC development using the DIGCOMP framework. The results were analyzed at the general and socioeconomic level on the variables of the educational establishment where they attended high school and the territorial area of the university they attended. The main results indicate that the level of DC achievement is intermediate, the areas with the highest levels of achievement were “network security” and “online communication and collaboration.” On the other hand, the lowest levels of achievement were reached in the areas “information and digital literacy,” “digital content creation,” and “problem solving.” The level of DC is higher among students of private establishments and those who attend universities located in the central area.
  • Exploring the relationship between computational thinking and learning satisfaction for non-STEM college students

    Chien Hsiang Liao; Chang-Tang Chiang; I-Chuan Chen; Kevin R. Parker (SpringerOpen, 2022-08-01)
    Abstract While various studies have focused on the significance of computational thinking (CT) for the future career paths of individuals in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM), few studies have focused on computational thinking for non-STEM college students. This study explores the relationship between computational thinking and learning satisfaction for non-STEM-major college students. A conceptual model is proposed to examine the structural relationships among computational thinking, self-efficacy, self-exploration, enjoyment and learning satisfaction in an AppInventor-based liberal education course. Collecting data from 190 undergraduate students from Taiwan and analyzing the data by using partial least squares (PLS) methods, the research framework confirms the six proposed hypotheses. These results show that both computational thinking and enjoyment play significant roles in both self-exploration and digital self-efficacy. Moreover, digital self-efficacy and self-exploration also have a significant positive influence on learning satisfaction. These findings have implications for influencing the learning outcomes of non-STEM-major college students, computational thinking course instructors, and computational thinking relevant policies.
  • Early-warning prediction of student performance and engagement in open book assessment by reading behavior analysis

    Brendan Flanagan; Rwitajit Majumdar; Hiroaki Ogata (SpringerOpen, 2022-08-01)
    Abstract Digitized learning materials are a core part of modern education, and analysis of the use can offer insight into the learning behavior of high and low performing students. The topic of predicting student characteristics has gained a lot of attention in recent years, with applications ranging from affect to performance and at-risk student prediction. In this paper, we examine students reading behavior using a digital textbook system while taking an open-book test from the perspective of engagement and performance to identify the strategies that are used. We create models to predict the performance and engagement of learners before the start of the assessment and extract reading behavior characteristics employed before and after the start of the assessment in a higher education setting. It was found that strategies, such as: revising and previewing are indicators of how a learner will perform in an open ebook assessment. Low performing students take advantage of the open ebook policy of the assessment and employ a strategy of searching for information during the assessment. Also compared to performance, the prediction of overall engagement has a higher accuracy, and therefore could be more appropriate for identifying intervention candidates as an early-warning intervention system.
  • Generation gap, learning from the experience of compulsory remote architectural design studio

    Aminreza Iranmanesh; Zeynep Onur (SpringerOpen, 2022-08-01)
    Abstract Physical design studio has been the mainstream method of architectural pedagogy for more than a century. Although the past two decades have brought forth emerging possibilities via advancements in digital communication, Virtual Design Studio (VDS) remained an experimental novelty until 2020. The interruption of face-to-face educational activities saw architecture schools facing a rapid paradigm shift because their studio-centred pedagogy retains intrinsic spatial qualities that are often attributed as critical dimensions of the learning process. This article explores the transition to the virtual design studio in a department of architecture after distance education became mainstream due to the global pandemic. The paper provides a comparison between students’ and lecturers’ points of view regarding different aspects of the virtual design studio. This addresses a potential generational gap concerning digital communication in a case study. A survey was administered to a group of architecture students who travelled back home and continued their education online and to the teachers of design studios who instructed VDS after the pandemic outbreak. The findings show the significant influence of effective communication, access to proper resources, maintenance of peer connections, and group works on the positive outcomes of the architectural design studio.
  • Development of pre-service early childhood teachers’ technology integrations skills through a praxeological approach

    Taibe Kulaksız; Mehmet Toran (SpringerOpen, 2022-07-01)
    Abstract How to improve and what should be carried out for pre-service teachers’ technological competencies for teaching purposes is still an important issue on the agenda of the higher education field. In light of this, we aimed to reflect the individual and collective technology integration knowledge and skills construction process of pre-service early childhood education teachers with democratic participation. We utilized the praxeological approach as a method and learning approach to reveal the reflections of the instructional technologies course. The participants in this study were 52 sophomore pre-service teachers in the early childhood education department. We collected the data from various sources such as interviews, portfolios, researchers’ field notes, e-mails, online course evaluation form. We carried out the thematic analysis method to analyze the data. The findings indicated that three main themes emerged as initial challenges, learning process, and learning outcomes during enhancement of pre-service early childhood teachers' technology integration knowledge and skills. As a result, the praxeological approach used in instructional technologies courses in teacher education programs leads to a crucial digital transformation to be ready to become future teachers.
  • The university students’ self-regulated effort, flexibility and satisfaction in distance education

    Zeynep Turan; Sevda Kucuk; Sinem Cilligol Karabey (SpringerOpen, 2022-07-01)
    Abstract Distance education offers flexible learning opportunities in terms of time, place and learning speed to teachers and students through internet technologies. However, the learning opportunities provided in distance education environments require students to act more autonomously and take more responsibility for regulating their learning processes to achieve their learning goals. For this reason, it is crucial to reveal the relationships between flexibility, self-regulated effort and satisfaction factors to provide efficient and effective learning environments in distance education. Accordingly, within the scope of this study, it is aimed to investigate university students’ perceptions of flexibility, self-regulated effort and satisfaction with the distance education process, and their views on distance education. Survey research was used as the research method in the study. The study sample consisted of 1760 university students studying at 28 different universities. Data were analysed using t-test, ANOVA, and regression methods. As a result of the study, male students were more satisfied with distance education than female students, and education faculty students had the highest level of satisfaction. In addition, self-regulated effort and flexibility variables were significant factors affecting students’ satisfaction towards distance education. Furthermore, the advantages and problems of distance education and suggestions for future distance learning environments were presented in the light of students views. Finally, the study’s implications and various recommendations for practitioners and researchers were discussed in detail.
  • Augmented reality in architecture and construction education: state of the field and opportunities

    Aso Hajirasouli; Saeed Banihashemi (SpringerOpen, 2022-07-01)
    Abstract Over the past decade, the architecture and construction (AC) industries have been evolving from traditional practices into more current, interdisciplinary and technology integrated methods. Complex and intricate digital technologies and mobile computing such as simulation, computational design and immersive technologies, have been exploited for different purposes such as reducing cost and time, improving design and enhancing overall project efficiency. Immersive technologies and augmented reality (AR), in particular, have proven to be extremely beneficial in this field. However, the application and usage of these technologies and devices in higher education teaching and learning environments are yet to be fully explored and still scarce. More importantly, there is still a significant gap in developing pedagogies and teaching methods that embrace the usage of such technologies in the AC curricula. This study, therefore, aims to critically analyse the current state-of-the-art and present the developed and improved AR approaches in teaching and learning methods of AC, addressing the identified gap in the extant literature, while developing transformational frameworks to link the gaps to their future research agenda. The conducted analysis incorporates the critical role of the AR implications on the AC students’ skillsets, pedagogical philosophies in AC curricula, techno-educational aspects and content domains in the design and implementation of AR environments for AC learning. The outcomes of this comprehensive study prepare trainers, instructors, and the future generation of AC workers for the rapid advancements in this industry.
  • Who engaged in the team-based assessment? Leveraging EdTech for a self and intra-team peer-assessment solution to free-riding

    Tiffany K. Gunning; Xavier A. Conlan; Paul K. Collins; Alecia Bellgrove; Kaja Antlej; Adam P. A. Cardilini; Catherine L. Fraser (SpringerOpen, 2022-07-01)
    Abstract A STEM-based faculty in an Australian university leveraged online educational technology to help address student and academic concerns associated with team-based assessment. When engagement and contribution of all team members cannot be assured, team-based assessment can become an unfair and inaccurate measure of student competency. This case study explores the design and capacity of an online self and intra-team peer-assessment of teamwork strategy to measure student engagement and enable peers to hold each other accountable during team-based assessments. Analysis of student interactions across 39 subjects that implemented the strategy in 2020, revealed that an average of 94.4% of students completed the self and intra-team peer-assessment task when designed as part of a summative team-based assessment. The analysis also revealed that an average of 10.3% of students were held accountable by their peers, receiving feedback indicating their teamwork skills and behaviours were below the required minimum standard. Furthermore, the strategy was successfully implemented in cohorts ranging from seven to over 700 students, demonstrating scalability. Thus, this online self and intra-team peer-assessment strategy provided teaching teams with evidence of student engagement in a team-based assessment while also enabling students to hold each other accountable for contributing to the team task. Lastly, as the online strategy pairs with any discipline-specific team-based assessment, it provided the faculty with a method that could be used consistently across its schools to support management and engagement in team-based assessments.
  • Persistence and time challenges in an open online university: a case study of the experiences of first-year learners

    Marlon Xavier; Julio Meneses (SpringerOpen, 2022-07-01)
    Abstract Student persistence in the first year of studies is a crucial concern in online higher education. Recent accelerated growth in online programs due to the COVID pandemic has increased concerns over higher dropout rates, which are often connected to students’ time challenges—time poverty, juggling multiple commitments, and fitting studies into busy lives. However, research seldom focuses on students’ perceptions of time issues related to persistence. This study addresses this gap by exploring how 20 second-year students retrospectively viewed their experiences of time challenges and how they impacted their persistence in their first year at an online open university. Content analysis of in-depth interviews demonstrated that time pressure and time-conflicts were crucial barriers for success in the foundational semester; the main barrier was juggling study with multiple priorities. Most persisters had good time management and high levels of intrinsic motivation, satisfaction, and self-determination. However, even procrastinators with heavy work-family duties managed to persevere due to their resilience and personal motivation. Lastly, recommendations and strategies for effective student-based interventions to foster persistence are suggested.
  • Exploring the roles of information search and information evaluation literacy and pre-service teachers’ ICT self-efficacy in teaching

    Palmira Peciuliauskiene; Giedre Tamoliune; Elena Trepule (SpringerOpen, 2022-06-01)
    Abstract This study analyzes the relationship between pre-service teachers’ information search and information evaluation literacy and their information and communication technology (ICT) self-efficacy in teaching. Theoretical analysis confirmed a direct relation between information literacy and pre-service teachers’ ICT self-efficacy in teaching. However, there is insufficient understanding regarding the effect that specific components of information literacy, i.e., information search and evaluation, have on teachers’ ICT self-efficacy in teaching. Data were collected using an online survey of students in teacher training programs who were engaged as research participants. The analysis disclosed that perceived information evaluation literacy has a more strongly expressed indirect impact on teachers’ ICT self-efficacy than a direct impact, while perceived information search literacy has a stronger direct impact on teachers’ ICT self-efficacy in teaching. Therefore, for teacher educators, it is important to develop a sufficient level of information literacy and ensure a positive experience with information search and evaluation, which are related to higher pre-service teachers’ ICT self-efficacy in teaching. This finding may help support calls for teacher training and/or professional development programs with a focus on information literacy, which might increase teachers’ ICT self-efficacy in teaching and improve ICT use in teaching.
  • How learner engagement impacts non-formal online learning outcomes through value co-creation: an empirical analysis

    Cenlan Wang; Tala Mirzaei; Tao Xu; Hui Lin (SpringerOpen, 2022-07-01)
    Abstract From the perspective of service science and its core concept of value co-creation, promoting learner engagement is critical for learning outcomes in a non-formal online learning environment. To promote online learning performance, we study how multidimensional learner engagement affects both instrumental and experiential learning outcomes. By incorporating the service-dominant logic perspective into the research model, we designed an online survey to investigate the impact of platform value co-creation on learners’ engagement outcomes. By employing a partial least squares-structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM), the results show that behavioral engagement, cognitive engagement, and emotional engagement have a significant impact on learning outcomes through the mediating effect of platform value, a second-order hierarchical latent variable. This study has multiple theoretical contributions and practical implications. First, we found new evidence that pursuing good learning outcomes in a non-formal online learning setting is not just a technological architecture or pedagogic guidelines, but also a “win–win” value co-creation process. Second, our results confirm the posited direct and indirect effects, thus evidencing functional value, emotional value, social value, and personalized value as components of the platform value construct, and it as a driver and mediator for better online learning outcomes. Third, our results underscore the importance of platform value in studying the impact of learner engagement on learning outcomes and provide a sharper theoretical lens to evaluate online learning platform value from the perspective of online learners.
  • Incorporating fantasy into gamification promotes student learning and quality of online interaction

    Shurui Bai; Khe Foon Hew; Donn Emmanuel Gonda; Biyun Huang; Xinyi Liang (SpringerOpen, 2022-06-01)
    Abstract We used the design-based research approach to test and refine a theoretically grounded goal-access-feedback-challenge-collaboration gamification model. The testbed was a 10-week, university-level e-learning design course offered in two consecutive semesters. In Study 1, we implemented the initial goal-access-feedback-challenge-collaboration model in semester one of the 2020–2021 academic year (N = 26). The aim was to enhance student behavioral engagement in online discussion forums, affective engagement in the class, and learning performance. The results of Study 1 showed that although most participants were engaged in this gamified learning experience during the first two sessions, they gradually lost interest and their participation in online discussions dropped over the next eight weeks. Thus, we introduced a new element, fantasy, into the original model. In Study 2, we tested the effectiveness of the goal-access-feedback-challenge-collaboration-fantasy model on students’ learning outcomes in semester two of 2020–2021 (N = 23). The results of Study 2 suggested that, compared to the original model, the goal-access-feedback-challenge-collaboration-fantasy model can better promote students’ engagement in online discussion, as measured by increased interaction with peers, learning experience, and learning performance.
  • Focused self-explanation prompts and segmenting foster pre-service teachers’ professional vision - but only during training!

    Monika Martin; Meg Farrell; Tina Seidel; Werner Rieß; Karen D. Könings; Jeroen J. G. van Merriënboer; Alexander Renkl (SpringerOpen, 2022-05-01)
    Abstract When analyzing classroom video, pre-service teachers can improve their professional vision, that is, their ability to notice important events in a classroom and to interpret them based on theoretical knowledge. However, learning with video is especially challenging for novice learners. Thus, video needs to be embedded into an instructional context to be effective. In an experimental study with 89 pre-service biology teachers, we investigated the effect of a short professional vision training and whether two design principles from multimedia learning research—namely segmenting and self-explanation prompts—could additionally increase training effects. In a one-hour training session on small-group tutoring strategies, participants watched practice video examples either as a whole or segmented. After each video or video segment, respectively, they received either open or focused self-explanation prompts to analyze the scene. We assessed participants’ professional vision skills before and after training. Overall, participants’ performance substantially increased from pretest to posttest. Moreover, during training, both segmented video examples and focused self-explanation prompts led to increased noticing of relevant strategies. This advantage during training, however, did not result in higher professional vision improvement in posttest scores compared to participants who worked in the less supported training phase conditions. We discuss possible explanations why additional support increased training performance but not learning gains and suggest an additional fading phase as a means to achieve persistent effects.
  • Exploring the applicability of virtual reality- enhanced education on extrovert and introvert EFL learners’ paragraph writing

    Farzaneh Khodabandeh (SpringerOpen, 2022-06-01)
    Abstract During the past decade, Virtual reality (VR)-enhanced education has been adopted as a pedagogically new learning approach to smooth the learning progress. With the rise of VR-enhanced activities, investigating the effect of personality types of EFL learners on their writing performance to use VR-based instruction for learning may be a crucial factor influencing their achievement. This study was an attempt to research the impact of VR- enhanced classes on paragraph writing of extrovert and introvert English foreign language (EFL) Learners. To achieve the purpose of the study, first, the Preliminary English Test (PET) was administered for ensuring the homogeneity of the sample. Once the homogeneity was established, a total of 52 EFL intermediate students were selected and placed into two comparative and two control groups, with 13 participants in each group. Four groups took part in the study, with two groups undergoing treatment with the non-VR teaching approach of paragraph writing and two groups undergoing treatment of VR-enhanced education. Among these four groups, two consisted of introverts and two extroverts that were identified through Eysenck Personality Inventory. The two comparative groups received 12 sessions of VR-enhanced education in online classes (instead of drawing pictures and sharing them within their group, they watched the process activities in the VR environment.), but the control group received learning writing paragraphs through using instructor’s instructional materials. After 6-weeks of treatment sessions, all participants of the study took the post-test. According to the results, the VR-enhanced education was more effective than the non-VR teaching approach in developing paragraph writing of both introverts and extroverts. Moreover, the results of the research showed no significant differences between the performance of the introverts and extroverts, meaning that both had the same performance. The results of this study may pave the way for teachers to use VR-based technology in online and traditional classes without worrying about how learners with different personality traits respond.
  • Toward just and equitable micro-credentials: an Australian perspective

    Renee Desmarchelier; Lisa J. Cary (SpringerOpen, 2022-06-01)
    Abstract The current historic COVID-19 Pandemic moment has thrown into sharp relief the need for flexible and rigorous higher education that meets upskilling and reskilling needs of global workforces. Discussions of micro-credentialing predate the Pandemic but have received increased focus as potentially assisting in addressing perceived skills gaps. However, not all commentators have been complimentary about the possibilities inherent in micro-credentialing. In this paper we discuss Ralston (Postdigital Science and Education 3:83–101, 2021) criticism of the “microcredentialing craze” as provocation to consider how equitable, thoughtful and just educative aims may be met. We address Ralston’s argument that micro-credentials present an educative “moral hazard” by arguing that micro-credentialing will allow universities to respond quickly to changing worker educational needs rather than only offering full degrees that may not be economically viable or personally desirable for individuals. Rather, we suggest, the potential of micro-credentials lies in their pathways and potential to enhance lifelong learning and suggest that micro-credentials do not stand outside of the pedagogical ethical imperative that learning experiences should be positive and inclusive.
  • Why do open and distance education students drop out? Views from various stakeholders

    Ayşe Bağrıacık Yılmaz; Serçin Karataş (SpringerOpen, 2022-06-01)
    Abstract While the demand for open and distance education is increasing, it also faces high dropout rates. The reasons and solutions for student dropouts need considerable attention. This study aims to uncover the reasons for student dropouts considering the perspective of students, field experts, instructors, administrators, and support staff. Data from semi-structured interviews with 40 participants revealed that students decide to drop out mainly due to four main reasons: internal reasons, external reasons, student characteristics, and student skills. These reasons include 37 sub-factors such as academic integration, social integration, financial status, personality, and self-regulation. The sub-factors and selected quotations from the interviews are presented in the findings. According to the results, administrators, field experts, instructors, and support staff are not aware of all the dropout reasons. The results of this research are believed to guide researchers, practitioners, and administrators in enhancing the quality of open and distance education.

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