The Role of Single End-Users and Producers on GHG Mitigation in Pakistan—A Case Study
end energy user
Environmental effects of industries and plants
Renewable energy sources
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AbstractEnd energy user is dependent on fossil fuel-based main-grid and contributes toward greenhouse gasses (GHG) emissions. Changing its energy source will change the dynamics of the power plant, contribution towards GHG production. This case study aims to highlight the minute but positive role of a single end energy user, invisible to the main grid in GHG mitigations through photovoltaic energy source, selected among Pakistan’s top 10 most populous cities as per census 2017. Quetta is a selected city in Pakistan as the best fit location based on annual average daily solar radiations (AADSR) data retrieved from National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) meteorological data. Helioscope software is used to select −15° tilt and 180° azimuthal angles, which further increased Quetta’s AADSR value from 5.54 kWh/m<sup>2</sup>/d to 5.93 kWh/m<sup>2</sup>/d. For research significance, a realistic approach is undertaken by proper selection of solar panel type based on Quetta’s annual average temperature, load categorization, user selection and inputs from a solar energy expert. Finally, initial cost, investment and GHG mitigation analysis are carried out in RETScreen Expert software, which validates the minute but the prominent role of a single, end energy user by mitigating 122 tons of CO<sub>2</sub> in 25-year project life span. Further, the proposed project favors end-user financially by recovering its $4501 initial cost in less than four years by effectively meeting its energy demand and saving $1195 per annum.