Keywordsbond graph, cushioning
Environmental effects of industries and plants
Renewable energy sources
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AbstractThe internal cushioning systems of hydraulic linear actuators avoid mechanical shocks at the end of their stroke. The design where the piston with perimeter grooves regulates the flow by standing in front of the outlet port has been investigated. First, a bond graph dynamic model has been developed, including the flow throughout the internal cushion design, characterized in detail by computational fluid-dynamic simulation. Following this, the radial movement of the piston and the fluid-dynamic coefficients, experimentally validated, are integrated into the dynamic model. The registered radial movement is in coherence with the significant drag force estimated in the CFD simulation, generated by the flow through the grooves, where the laminar flow regime predominates. Ultimately, the model aims to predict the behavior of the cushioning during the movement of the arm of an excavator. The analytical model developed predicts the performance of the cushioning system, in coherence with empirical results. There is an optimal behavior, highly influenced by the mechanical stress conditions of the system, subject to a compromise between an increasing section of the grooves and an optimization of the radial gap.