Indigenous Environmental Justice within Marine Ecosystems: A Systematic Review of the Literature on Indigenous Peoples’ Involvement in Marine Governance and Management
marine governance and management
collaborative natural resource management
marine protected areas
marine spatial planning
Environmental effects of industries and plants
Renewable energy sources
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AbstractWe develop and apply a systematic review methodology to identify and understand how the peer-reviewed literature characterises Indigenous peoples’ involvement in marine governance and management approaches in terms of equity and justice worldwide. We reviewed the peer-reviewed English-language research articles between January 2015 and September 2020 for examples of Indigenous peoples’ involvement in marine governance and management using the analytical lens of environmental justice. The majority of research studies highlighted that Indigenous peoples experienced some form of environmental injustice linked to existing marine governance and management, most notably in the context of inequitable decision-making procedures surrounding the establishment and operation of marine protected areas. However, there are significant gaps in the current literature, including a notable absence of studies exploring Indigenous women and other gender minorities’ involvement in marine planning and management and the limited number of studies about Indigenous peoples living throughout Asia, the Arctic, Russia, and Africa. More studies are needed to explore collaborative and intersectional approaches, including co-governance and co-management and ecosystem-based management, and critically evaluate what constitutes inclusive, equitable, and just marine governance and management processes, practices, and outcomes for different Indigenous peoples occupying diverse social–ecological systems.
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Physiological advantages of dwarfing in surviving extinctions in high-CO2 oceansGarilli, V.; APEMA Paleosofia, Research & Educational Service, Via Alla Falconara 34, 90136 Palermo, Italy.; Rodolfo-Metalpa, R.; UMR ENTROPIE—Laboratoire d’Excellence CORAIL, Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, BP A5, 98848 Nouméa cedex, New Caledonia - IAEA EL—International Atomic Energy Agency, Environmental Laboratories, 4 Quai Antoine 1er , 98000, Principality of Monaco; Scuderi, D.; BIOMLG—Department of Biological, Geological and Environmental Sciences, University of Catania, Via Mauro de Mauro 15b, Piano Tavola, 95032 Belpasso, Catania, Italy; Brusca, L.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Palermo, Palermo, Italia; Parrinello, D.; STEBICEF—Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Biologiche Chimiche e Farmaceutiche, Università degli studi di Palermo, Via Archirafi 18, 90123 Palermo, Italy; Rastrick, S. P. S.; IMR—Institute of Marine Research, PO Box 1870 Nordnes, 5817 Bergen, Norway; Foggo, A.; MBERC—Marine Biology and Ecology Research Centre, School of Marine Science and Engineering, Plymouth University, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA, UK; Twitchett, R. J.; NHM—Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD, UK; Hall-Spencer, J. M.; MBERC—Marine Biology and Ecology Research Centre, School of Marine Science and Engineering, Plymouth University, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA, UK; Milazzo, M.; DiSTeM—Department of Earth and Marine Sciences, University of Palermo, Via Archirafi 28, 90123 Palermo, Italy (2015-04-20)Excessive CO2 in the present-day ocean–atmosphere system is causing ocean acidification, and is likely to cause a severe biodiversity decline in the future1, mirroring e ects in many past mass extinctions2–4. Fossil records demonstrate that organisms surviving such eventswere often smaller than those before5,6, a phenomenon called the Lilliput e ect7. Here, we showthat two gastropod species adapted to acidified seawater at shallow-water CO2 seeps were smaller than those found in normal pH conditions and had higher mass-specific energy consumption but significantly lower whole-animal metabolic energy demand. These physiological changes allowed the animals to maintain calcification and to partially repair shell dissolution. These observations of the long-term chronic e ects of increased CO2 levels forewarn of changes we can expect in marine ecosystems as CO2 emissions continue to rise unchecked, and support the hypothesis that ocean acidification contributed to past extinction events. The ability to adapt through dwarfing can confer physiological advantages as the rate of CO2 emissions continues to increase.
The Deep Sea and Sub-Seafloor FrontierKopf, A.; MARUM, Univ. Bremen Leobener Strasse 28359 Bremen, Germany; Camerlenghi, A.; Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale (OGS), Trieste; Canals, M.; Departament d’Estratigrafia, Paleontologia i Geociències Marines de la Facultat de Geologia de la Universitat de Barcelona; Ferdelman, T.; Department of Biogeochemistry at the Max-Plank-Institute for Marine Microbiology, University of Bremen; Mevel, C.; Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris; Pälike, H.; The National Oceanography Centre, University of Southampton; Roest, W.; Unitè Gèosciences Marines Laboratoire Gèophysique et Gèodynamique Centre Bretagne - ZI de la Pointe du Diable - CS 10070 - 29280 Plouzané; Ask, M.; Rock Mechanics and Mining Engineering, 2006, Luleå University of Technology, Sweden; Barker-Jørgensen, B.; MPI for Marine Microbiology Celsiusstr. 1 D-28359 Bremen Germany; Boetius, A.; HGF-MPG Group for Deep Sea Ecology and Technology, Max Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology Celsiusstr. 1, 28359 Bremen, Germany; et al. (European Commission, 2012)The deep sea and its sub-seafloor contain a vast reservoir of physical, mineral and biological resources that are rapidly coming into the window of exploitation. Assessing the opportunities and the risks involved requires a serious commitment to excellent deep sea research. There are numerous areas in this field in which Europe has cutting-edge technological potential. These include drilling and monitoring technology in the field of renewable energies such as geothermal, offshore wind and seafloor resources. Scientific ocean drilling will continue to play a valuable role, for example in the exploration of resource opportunities, in obtaining estimates for ecosystem and Earth climate sensitivity, or in improving understanding about the controlling factors governing processes and recurrence intervals of submarine geohazards. In Europe, there is also the scientific expertise needed to define a framework for policymakers for environmental protection measures and to carry out ecological impact assessments before, during and after commercial exploitation. Taking up these societal challenges will strengthen European scientific and educational networks and promote the development of world-class technology and industrial leadership.
Codition of Coral Reef at Teluk Pandan Sub-District East Kutai DistrictSyahrir R, Muhammad; Fisheries and Marine Science Faculty of Mulawarman University, Kampus Gunung Kelua Samarinda, East Kalimantan; Jayadi, Achmad; Marine and Fisheries Office of East Kutai District, JalanSosial, Government Offices Complex of Bukit Pelangi, Sangatta, East Kutai District, East Kalimantan; Adnan, Adnan; Fisheries and Marine Science Faculty of Mulawarman University, Kampus Gunung Kelua Samarinda, East Kalimantan; Yasser MF, Muhammad; Fisheries and Marine Science Faculty of Mulawarman University, Kampus Gunung Kelua Samarinda, East Kalimantan; Hanjoko, Tedy; Fisheries and Marine Science Faculty of Mulawarman University, Kampus Gunung Kelua Samarinda, East Kalimantan (Chemical Engineering Diponegoro University, 2014-12-26)Coral reef of TelukPandan Sub-district East Kutai District still low in both monitoring and management, thus also poorly in coral reef database. This research purpose was to obtain the data of coral reef condition and distribution description in this sub-district. Research was held on October 2013 at six observation stations using lifeform line intercept transect survey method. The coral condition estimation was based on live coral cover (LC) and hard coral mortality index (HCM). Coral reef distribution and wide were estimated by satellite image Landsat 7 ETM+ processing and direct field tracking using GPS. There estimated ± 618.63 ha of coral reef area consist of fringing and patch reef formation type. Live coral cover vary 2.1-67.8% or categorized “poor” to “good” reef condition and in average LC = 38.1% (“fair/moderate” condition). Hard coral morality (HCM) index ranged 0.14 – 0.8 and in average 0.31.