Journal of Education Culture and Society is an international multi-, inter- and trans-disciplinary journal, which aims at promoting young scholar talents from the field of humanistic and social sciences, especially those functioning within the subfields of pedagogy, psychology, sociology, history of education, philosophy and economy. Articles relating thematically to education and teaching are preferred as the aim is to make educational issues a reason for a wider interdisciplinary scholarly discussion.

News Library has vol. 1(2010) to current.

Recent Submissions

  • Visual Dignity in Art

    Ruth Dorot (Foundation Pro Scientia Publica, 2020-06-01)
    Aim. The aim of this article is to deal with visual dignity in  the field of  western art throughout the ages as it seeks to present the artistic and design devices employed by artists in order to compose and convey this aura of dignity. Moreover, it addresses the ways in which they create various kinds of atmosphere of respect and dignity felt by the observer regarding the topic and object of the painting or sculpture. 
 Methods. In order to achieve this aim, the article examines seven masterpieces  which explore the visual representations of various perceptions of dignity and their implications. Among the elements affecting the creation of dignity in the visual domain one finds: an impressive or majestic appearance, noblesse, self-esteem, pride, self-confidence, inner strength, authoritativeness and charisma. At times, the respectful treatment of the figures is clear as soon as one views the work, but at others it is implied in the interpretation given to it. 
 It is not this article's intention to discuss the different perceptions or expressions of human dignity, historically, theologically, politically, psychologically, nationally or socially, but to present them artistically as they are the innate right of people to be appreciated, treated with courtesy and met with ethical behavior. 
 Results and conclusion. The research done in order to reach a conclusion confirming or contradicting the premises at its base, resulted in a mosaic of situations in which human dignity is reflected. The range of possibilities at the artists’ disposal for creating this value is diverse and includes: composition, use of color, mimesis, embellishment, disfigurement or distortion of reality. 
 The pieces examined present: a military commander at the moment of his foe's surrender; an author monumentally impressive, man of vision and power and of grand dimensions, rising up from a stone plinth; a stern-faced, disfigured dwarf considered a ‘curiosity’, seated on the ground; a family of farmers living an impoverished and meager life; and a Jesus-like mysterious intellectual and Moses the prophet. All these together at first glance appear to be a strange collection of works, in which the common denominator is unclear or seemingly absent. However, this diverse group is included in the article because of the aura of dignity the figures command or convey. At times, the respectful treatment of the figures is clear as soon as one views the work, but at others it is implied in the interpretation given to it.
  • The Role of Education in the Formation of Human Sociability

    Ivana Knežić (Foundation Pro Scientia Publica, 2020-06-01)
    Aim: The paper aims at highlighting philosophical roots of the relation issue between nature and education in the process of socialization. 
 Method: For the purpose of the research critical philosophical analysis and comparison of Thomas Hobbes’ and Jean-Jacques Rousseau’s texts has been used. 
 Concept: The first part of the paper clarifies the concept of nature and explains changes in understanding of this concept thorough the history of philosophy, with the special emphasis on transformation that happened in transition from medieval to modern period. Since both Hobbes and Rousseau are representatives of modern philosophy, the second section of the paper shows how modern concept of nature manifests in the works of the two philosophers and compares, in a more detailed way, their understanding of human nature or natural state of mankind, focusing on comparison of their concepts of human natural unsociability. The third part examines more closely the role of education in transformation of human individuals into social beings. 
 Results: Research shows that, for the two philosophers, the role of education in the process of socialization consists in denaturalization of human beings. 
 Conclusion: Hobbes’ and Rousseau’s idea of the relation of education and nature in the process of socialization constitutes a basis for justification of manipulations of education for political ends. To avoid such manipulations and find the adequate concept of education, paper suggests to search for the adequate concept of human nature first.      
 Key Words: education, human nature, sociability, Thomas Hobbes, Jean-Jacques Rousseau.
  • SWOT Analysis of Art Performance As City Promotional Strategy In Yogyakarta

    Cahyani Tunggal Sari; Hadi Subagyo (Foundation Pro Scientia Publica, 2020-06-01)
    Aim. Yogyakarta, a famous city in Indonesia, is well known for the Prambanan temple and its Ramayana Ballet performance. As the cultural and culinary city, Yogyakarta has been indirectly promoted by its cultural performances, such as Ramayana Ballet. The aims of the study were to identify the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats related to Ramayana Ballet Prambanan as a promotion strategy medium in Yogyakarta. 
 Methods. This study used a historical approach in understanding the art performance in Ramayana Ballet Prambanan. Besides, this study used the data of tourists’ visits to Ramayana Ballet Prambanan, Yogyakarta. 
 Results. This research shows that even though there are not many strengths of the Ramayana Ballet art performance, the opportunities related to this kind of promotional strategy compensate for the weaknesses and the threats. 
 Conclusion. We can conclude that Ramayana Prambanan as an example of performance art in Yogyakarta has a positive value and provides a significant contribution to Yogyakarta tourism. These can be seen from the increase of tourist visitors to Ramayana art performance from 2008 to 2016. The art performance has become one of many promotional strategy choices in Yogyakarta.

    Aida Kairiené (Foundation Pro Scientia Publica, 2020-06-01)
    Aim.The postmodernism manifested itself in the second half of the 20th century. The branch of postmodernism is poststructuralism - in fact, it was called French poststructuralism, with the dominant philosophy being “68 philosophy” (Marshall, 2004). In that period, alongside influential works such as Derrida “On Grammatology” (1968), M. Foulcalt “The Madness and Civilization” (1967), J. Kristeva “Semiotics” (1969) emerged and Deleuze, Guattari personalities. According to the Eurydice study, 9 out of 10 students in the European Union study English. Students can learn English not only in formal but also in non-formal and informal forms.  This enables the development of rhizomatic learning, which origins lie in Deleuze, Guattari (2004) philosophy.  Thus, the problem – related question arises: what is the essence of rhizomatic learning from a perspective of poststructuralism? The aim of the study is to review theoretical considerations in order to reveal the essence of rhizomatic learning from a perspective of poststructuralism. 
 Method.The research method – a scientific literature review. The literature review examines relevant, current, and recent literature (Grant & Booth, 2009). The literature review is based on philosophical and educational insights. The following sources have been selected for the analysis of rhizomatic learning of English: 1) philosophical and educational books that help to reveal the essence of rhizomatic learning; 2) publications and dissertations on the issue of rhizomatic learning, which helped to analyse the essence of rhizomatic learning from a perspective of poststructuralism. 
 Results. The antecedents of rhizomatic learning are rhizome and other Deleuze Guattari's (2004) concepts as assemblages, becoming, nomad. The rhizomatic learning based on Deleuze Guattari's (2004) term of rhizome, which has neither beginning nor end (Cormier, 2008), providing a dynamic, open, personalized learning network created by learners themselves that meets their perceived and real needs (Lian, Pineda, 2014). The concept of rhizomatic learning has its own meaning, but is closely related to the concepts of Deleuze, Guattari (2004), such as rhizome, assemblage, becoming, nomad, and so on. It should be noted that the rhizomatic learning from poststructuralism perspective develops and manifests itself through various 'moving' Deleuze, Guattari’s (2004) concepts.  The consequences of rhizomatic learning show that rhizomatic learning could be applied successfully in educational science as learning foreign languages in various learning forms. 
 Conclusion. The scientific analysis revealed that rhizomatic learning develops through Deleuze, Guattari concepts, especially through becoming learner and occurs in lifelong learning of English.
  • Impact of student exclusion (including from the SPE) on their digitisation behaviour in social media

    Marcin Prościak; Beata Prościak (Foundation Pro Scientia Publica, 2020-06-01)
    Aim. The aim of this thesis is to present the impact of students exclusion (including SPEs) on their virtual behaviour in social media. Students with no special educational needs and those with SEN were taken into account. The relationship between exclusion of SPE and digitisation exclusion will be indicated . In addition, social exclusion in the family area was included. 
 Methods: The analysis was based on statistical methods, such as: range, standard deviation, variance. Surveys were used. They were conducted on the Internet through the Facebook social portal on a national and global scale. 
 Results: Respondents from around the world feel more excluded by the SPE than respondents in Poland. In contrast, respondents from the SPE use fewer social networking sites than in groups of computer players, both in Poland and worldwide. 
 Conclusions: In Poland, SPE is not a barrier to communication with peers for most respondents, unlike global respondents. Respondents from the SPE spend less time on social portals because it absorbs their time devoted to learning, which can be an indicator of digital exclusion. 
 Cognitive value: The originality of the research is to focus on introducing the global and Polish scale of the problem excluding students from SPE from the social media, which was calculated by the author’s method based on the indicator digital exclusion.
  • The Concept of Patriotism as Perceived by Teenagers in Latvia

    Marina Marchenoka (Foundation Pro Scientia Publica, 2020-06-01)
    Aim. The aim of the research is: theoretical investigation of the problem of patriotism and its urgency, the empirical research for defining the level of perception of the concept “patriotism” by teenagers in Latvia. 
 Methodology of the research. The theoretical basis of the research includes theoretical analysis of various conceptual approaches to understanding of the phenomenon of patriotism in the philosophical aspect, as well as official documents of the European Union and the Republic of Latvia: documents of the Republic of Latvia (the preamble to the main law of the Latvian Republic – the Constitution; National Development Plan of Latvia for 2014-2020; Guidelines for the Development of Education for 2014-2020; Guidelines on national identity, civil society and integration policy 2012-2018); documents of international organisations (United Nations International Children’s Fund; European Commission; the EU Strategy for Youth – Investing and Empowering; Universal Declaration of Human Rights). The Empirical methods of the research: methods of data acquisition: a questionnaire (anonymous); methods of data processing and analysis: quantitative data processing with methods of mathematical analysis of statistical data and forecasting analytical methods in data processing software Microsoft Office Excel 2010 and SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences) 18.0 version; qualitative data processing (analysis of the content, coding and processing of the acquired data); interpretation of quantitative and qualitative. 
 Results. The theoretical analysis makes it possible to conclude that the main idea of the concept patriotism consists in considering it as one of the highest values of the individual and is the basis of life orientations, defining the strategy of the individual’s development, harmonisation of the society and the state. The main approaches for investigation of the concept of patriotism are: sensitively emotional, active and publically national.
  • Quality of health information on websites with the greatest potential to influence users in the Czech Republic

    Jitka Rusová; Ondřej Pleskot (Foundation Pro Scientia Publica, 2020-06-01)
    Aim. To determine which websites most influenced Internet users in the Czech Republic in health matters, to assess the quality of these websites according to predetermined criteria, and to analyse the impact of the project MedLike. 
 Methods. The points assigned to individual websites displayed when searching 734 terms (diseases and symptoms) were summed up to obtain a list of the most viewed websites. The quality of the websites was assessed according to predetermined criteria. 
 Results. The websites with the greatest potential to influence Internet users in terms of health information (the most viewed websites) are,, Most of them lack links to resources, information about the authors and dates of publication/updates. The articles are not easy to understand and contain unexplained medical terms. A vast majority of websites lacked updated information. 
 Conclusion. Incorrect, misleading, and not up to date information was found in the articles. This can lead to the harm to the user.
  • Chaplaincy Institute in Ukraine and EU countries

    Iuliia Kryvenko; Oleksandr Omelchuk; Iuliia Chernovaliuk (Foundation Pro Scientia Publica, 2020-06-01)
    Aim. The aim of the article is devoted to the research of chaplaincy institutes in Ukraine, taking into account the experience of EU countries. 
 Concept. During the study determined, that the interaction between military service and religion is based on a universal socio-cultural tradition, has a complex, multi-level structure, covering the whole socio-institutional level (society - social institutions - social organizations of the individual) and leads to the creation of a specific social structure - military-religious institute the institute of military chaplaincy. 
 Conclusions. It is found that there are no historical analogies in the world for the creation of a military chaplaincy institute under such conditions, which makes the present Ukraine experience unique, but to this day the issue of state regulation in the field of pastoral care of military personnel of the Armed Forces of Ukraine and the creation of a military chaplaincy institute remains unregulated. In contrast to Ukraine, the legal support for the existence of an institute of military chaplaincy in Poland is provided by the relevant state normative-legal acts and by-church documents. Most European countries have the opportunity to serve for both military and civilian chaplains. Due to the analysis of legal acts and experience of European countries it should be determined that Ukraine chooses the "European" model of chaplaincy. The article also identifies the positive aspects of the organizational experience of military chaplaincy as to possible borrowing for Ukraine. The notion of a chaplain-volunteer is typical of Ukrainian legislation.

    MARTA GARCÍA-SAMPEDRO; Susana Agudo Prado (Foundation Pro Scientia Publica, 2020-06-01)
    Aim. Due to the disappointing results in English oral competence achieved by Spanish students in international and national evaluations, the main aim of this research is to know teachers perceptions on the importance of affective factors and motivation in teaching and learning English in primary and secondary education. It is also essential to know whether these factors help students to improve their oral skills. 
 Method. A qualitative paradigm was utilised in this research in which three focus groups with ten teachers each and a moderator, were organised in two different Teacher Training Faculties (Spain and the United Kingdom). The categories of analysis were previously established according to the research aims. 
 Results and conclusion. The results obtained through the analysis of categories indicated that the participant teachers consider affective factors and motivation as fundamental aspects in the process of teaching and learning a second language. In addition they agreed with prestigious experts on the matter, such as Dörnyei, Ushioda or Chomsky, that these aspects are crucial to improve students' linguistic oral competence. The teachers demonstrate their opinions based on their professional experiences and educational philosophy constituting altogether a valuable bunch of information for other experts and researchers.

    Susana AGUDO PRADO; Marta García-Sampedro (Foundation Pro Scientia Publica, 2020-06-01)
    Aim. This article presents the results of research whose aim is to establish if social networks are useful tools to promote social relationships and support for the elderly citizens. 
 Method. One hundred thirty people over the age of 65 participated in the research. For this purpose, the scale “elderly people and social network” (elaborated ad hoc) was applied. 
 Results and conclusion. The results obtained through descriptive analysis of the gathered data indicate that social networks provide support for elderly people who had already acquired digital competence in the past. The study also reveals that there are personal variables, especially of an educational nature, that determine the acquisition of an active role as generators and producers of digital content (prosumers). In conclusion, it could be said that social networks have a positive influence on the well-being of the elderly and their fight against undesirable loneliness. The more heterogeneous the social network is, the more active the elderly people are.
  • The pedagogy of shame. Education in the face of the demokratur of ignoramuses

    Aleksander Kobylarek (Foundation Pro Scientia Publica, 2020-06-01)
    This article relates to the slogan of one of the populist political parties in Poland – “the pedagogy of shame”. It is an example of manipulation and the creation of simulacra in social life in order to justify the necessity of assuming power. On accomplishing this,  the slogan becomes the primary principle in the management and rearing of a new society fed on illusions. The author points to the deeper roots of a pathologies which define corrupt power – indifference or acceptance of minor injustices, lack of civic engagement, insouciance with regard to the natural and social environments, the creation of unhealthy arrangements and relationships in small social groups and institutions, including educational – from the lowest level up to the university. In conclusion, the author indicates the necessity of supporting the development of civic society as understood by M. Gruntvig.
  • Self-assessment of ESP oral performance

    Nijolė Burkšaitienė (Foundation Pro Scientia Publica, 2020-06-01)
    Aim. Research to date acknowledges the learning, instructional and assessment advantages of self-assessment used in different fields of study in higher education contexts, yet little known research has focused on its use for learning and raising learner awareness while studying English for Specific Purposes (ESP). To this end, the present small-scale study examines the use of self-assessment of philology students’ ESP oral performance at a university in Lithuania. 
 Method. The data for this research was collected from undergraduate students’ written reports on their project presentations on the chosen ESP topics. To analyse the data, qualitative methodology of inductive content analysis was used. 
 Results. The study resulted in the identification of five major dimensions covering problem areas in the students’ ESP oral performance. The findings indicate that self-assessment enabled the students not only to identify some gaps and difficulties in their ESP oral performance that call for action but also to establish the reasons which caused them, foresee how the gaps can be closed or the difficulties coped with. Furthermore, it allowed the students to make decisions that reached far beyond the self-assessment task. The results also demonstrate that self-assessment raised the students’ awareness of themselves as learners by giving them direction on how to perform better in the future. 
 Conclusion. Self-assessment, as used in the present research, proves to be a valuable tool both for the students of ESP and their teachers as it reveals areas in the students’ performance that call for improvement, which enables ESP teachers to support their students to achieve better results in the future.

    Iuliu-Marius Morariu (Foundation Pro Scientia Publica, 2020-06-01)
    Aim/Thesis. In this  inquiry, the author  examines the  12th chapter of the 2nd letter of Paul  to the Corinthians in a hermeneutical way, highlighting its relevance for a Christian's spiritual autobiography  and emphasizing the influence  it has had on the later development of the genre. 
 Concept/Methods.  Using patristic exegesis (like that of Saint Chrysostom)t and also that of more recent authors dedicated to this theme, he tries not only to present and explain the event, but also to offer new interpretive keys for  reading it. 
  Results and conclusion. The approach focuses on keywords and phrases like "the rapture", "glimpse" or "thorn in the flesh" and it tries to presents Paul's understanding of the link between the spiritual experience of encountering  God and the suffering that follows it, as a useful  means of humbling a person. The research also highlights some important examples that show how the Apostle influenced the style and the way of thinking of later authors like Saint Augustine or Saint Silouan from Mount Athos. 
 Originality/Cognitive value. The relevance of showing why Saint Paul's second letter to Corinthians (12, 2-) represents the beginning of the spiritual autobiography in the Christian space is a very big one due to the fact it can helps the reader to have a deeper understanding of latter spiritual autobiographies like the one of Saint Siluan, father John of Kronstadt, Teresa of Calcutta or Maria Faustina Kowalska.
  • “Odd and Luna” – pedagogical fairy tale about otherness and being different

    Anna Sanecka (Foundation Pro Scientia Publica, 2020-06-01)
    Aim. The aim of the article is to present the pedagogical potential of the puppet performance “Odd and Luna” staged in Wroclaw Puppet Theatre. The performance is interpreted from the philosophy of dialogue’s point of view, focused mainly on the philosophy of Polish philosopher Józef Tischner. 
 Methods.The plot and the main theme of the performance – the otherness, loneliness and meeting the Other as a way of overcoming one’s own lack of self-confidence and fear of being different – are described and analysed. The contents of the performance are studied in order to find in its significant categories present in philosophy of dialogue: “the Other”, “the face”, “the meeting”, “the speech”/ “the word” and “the dialogue” 
 Results and conclusion. The article shows that such difficult subject as otherness on the one hand and being different on the other, can be shown and discussed within a stage performance as a relatively easy way of transferring to the children the values and demands of social life like openness to differences, openness to dialogue and relations, willingness of meeting Other and building one’s own identity and self-confidence. Mentioned above characteristics seem quite important in Polish increasingly diversifying society.

    Eduard Balashov; Halyna Handzilevska; Serhiy Shturkhetskyy; Oleksii Kostiuchenko; Roman Shulyk (Foundation Pro Scientia Publica, 2020-06-01)
    Aim. This research aims to theoretically characterize and empirically research the indicators of barriers and resources for journalists’ success in life through the prism of their professional scripts. The focus is on the axiological component of the professional script of media professionals. 
 Methods. We used theoretical analysis of the psychological works aiming at studying journalists’ success in life, and such methodological instruments as the Lifetime Orienteering Test (Leontiev, 2000); an adapted version of James Crambo’s Purpose-in-Life Test (PIL); Leonard Maholiсk’s Personal Readiness for Change Questionnaire (1993), and Methodology Completeness of Life. Statistical correlation was analyzed with the use of Pearson’s correlation coefficient. 
 Results. The theoretical analysis and empirical data revealed the correlation between the indicators of sense-of-life orientations and the indicators of personal readiness for change, script settings, perceptions of self, others and life. The results identify psychological barriers, and allocate directions of development of the technologies for optimization of journalists’ success in life. 
 Conclusions. The results of the study made it possible to distinguish priority values-goals and values-instruments, important in the construction of the architectonics of the axiological component of the journalists’ professional script. The correlation between indicators of journalists’ middle level life-sense orientations and indicators of personal change readiness empirically confirmed a claim that innovative readiness of journalists intensified the process of reaching success in life. Psychological barriers of the cognitive process were stated as script attitudes. The development of technologies for the psychological support of journalists was considered as a prospect for our future studies.

    Michal Vostrý; Ladislav Zilcher (Foundation Pro Scientia Publica, 2020-06-01)
    Aim. The main objective of the research was to find out the efficacy of the combined therapy suitable for patients after ischemic stroke (promoting social adaptability). The therapy itself is then focused on robotic, psychomotor and cognitive therapy. 
 Methods. 58 probands diagnosed with a stroke participated on the research (ischemic type I60-I69; ICD-10: International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems), out of which 49 were male patients ages between 50-55 and women between the age of 52–57. The data collection was finished in 2017-2018. Indicators were evaluated and tested firstly after the initiation of the combined therapy, then after 15 weeks of intensive therapy, which took place 4 times a week 50 minutes for each patient participating in the research. 
 Results. A statistically significant difference was recorded among all observed indicator areas (somatic, psychological, social and even cognitive), in which patients scored during the final testing significantly better results, than during the initial testing. 
 Conclusion. The results of the research point to the fact, that combined therapy of robotic, psychomotor and cognitive can have positive effect, and is suitable as a treatment for patients after ischemic stroke, regarding their productive age. Positive results have been therefore overt among all tested areas.
  • Emotional factors in senior L2 acquisition: A case study of Japanese speakers learning Spanish

    Emi Shibuya (Foundation Pro Scientia Publica, 2020-06-01)
    Aim. This research tries to explore whether a training course on tour guiding in a foreign language designed for senior learners could maximize their life experience, knowledge, and motivation (Author, 2018, 2019). The discussion argues that language learning for older adults is to be considered not only from cognitive aspects, but also from emotional and social aspects, since these are malleable and susceptible of being changed by the teaching method and the teacher's skills. 
 Method. We discuss the case of senior Japanese learners of L2 Spanish through their questionnaires, class observations and introspective materials. Literature regarding emotional factors such as tolerance to ambiguity is reviewed. Also, we further focus on the social factors including gender divide, a major issue in Japanese society that affects the older generation in particular. 
 Results. We used the Multidimensional Mood State Questionnaire (MDMQ questionnaire, English version of Der Mehrdimensionale Befindlichkeitsfragebogen MDBF; Steyer, Schwenkmezger, Notz, and Eid, 1997) to determine their mood before and after the course 5 times in total. We also introduce 4 learners’ cases (2 female and 2 male learners) including introspective materials results from senior learners showing their Spanish level transition. 
 Conclusion. A content-based course linked to practical occasions to be a volunteer tour guide seems not simple for the students and some learners felt ambiguous with regards to contents; however, independently of their Spanish level, they tried to find simple and alternative ways to manage the conversations or explanations. Some typical cultural and social factors in Japan, learners’ language level, experience, knowledge, and emotional factors seem more important elements for the creation of class atmosphere in this content-based L2 learning.
  • Cyberbullying prevention and intervention programs - are they enough to reduce the number of online aggressions?

    Elena Zavoianu; Ion-Ovidiu Pânișoară (Foundation Pro Scientia Publica, 2020-06-01)
    Aim. In order to provide a complete image of this phenomenon in the world and how different countries are dealing with it, I analysed some reasearch regarding the methods of prevention and intervention in cyberbullying that they have adopted. 
 Methods. After studying the programs implemented in other countries, I counducted a research on 22 psychologists from Romania in order to find out their oppionions about these programs. 
 Conclusions. The results of this research study showed that the intervention and prevention programs adopted by different countries are esential in reduction of the cyberbullying cases, but these programs have to be combined with personalised intervention.
  • Between thought and action: symbolization in depressive position and its external expressions

    Marta Iwaszuk (Foundation Pro Scientia Publica, 2020-06-01)
    Aim. The paper will revisit nature of symbolization in depressive position with respect to its realization in external reality. Base for the analysis will be Hanna Segal paper Delusions and artistic creativity: some reflections on reading “The Spire” by William Golding (Segal, 1974/1988), enriched with findings she presented in her later paper Acting on phantasy and acting on desire (Segal, 1992/2007), context for the analysis will be provided by Kleinian psychoanalytic framework. 
 Methods. Psychoanalysis core interest is thinking and thought formation. In the paper I will try to move this emphasis on examining pure thinking into exploration of mixture that thought and action create. I will therefore analyse on what tokens mind content can be put into action, and conversely how action is being incorporated into thought. I will perform the study using Hanna Segal interpretation of The Spire by William Golding, which she issued on 1974. I will also reach out to her other papers to broaden the interpretation, including the paper she wrote almost twenty years later on Festschrift for her colleague, philosopher Richard Wollheim (Segal, 1992/2007), that actually proposes the solid linkage between thinking and its expressions in the world. The study will be performed with reference to Kleinian psychoanalytic framework, it will be centred around object relation and anxieties the object arouses (paranoid schizoid and depressive positions), with respect to their impact on thought formation (symbolization, sublimation). 
 Results and conclusions. Analysis of relationship between symbolisation and action enhances understanding of two main responses to depressive position: sublimation and maniac defences, for it explores the extent to which ego benefits/refuses to benefit from internal and external reality. While the rereading Segal interpretation of The Spire allows to spot how creative act enables capturing most difficult internal and external truths, it also  reveals – when put in context of Wollheim’s concept of acting on phantasy and acting on desire- that maniac response is less a form of protection and more a direct attack on receptivity and penetrating exploration for their associations to primary scene. 
 Cognitive value. Studying depressive symbolization as a vehicle for acting on either phantasy or desire reveals, that employment of behavioural component forces to revisit maniac defences in light of their actual aftermath in external world. Such refined view onto depressive defences further contributes to improved differentiation of symbolization in depressive position, for it puts under scrutiny relation between ego and performed action. It allows to recognize that in addition to symbol proper (formed by anxiety for object) and symbolic equation (defined by anxiety of object), there is also partly malformed form of symbol shaped by maniac defences (and so by absence of anxiety for object), which disfiguration is best examinable in changes to external reality it makes.
  • Process Drama as a Method of Pedagogy in ESL Classrooms: Articulating the Inarticulate

    Sohaib Alam; Mohammad Rezaul Karim; Farhan Ahmad (Foundation Pro Scientia Publica, 2020-06-01)
    Aim. The present study intends to explore how process drama can be effectively used and implemented in Indian classrooms. It further highlights the aspects of the conventional classrooms and discusses why Indian students are lacking in productive skills of the English language and how it can be diagnosed through using the theory and practice of process drama as an instructional method. 
 Concepts/Methods. Data collection method through a questionnaire has been used in the study and SPSS version 20 is implemented to observe, analyze, and comprehend the data. Reliability and validity have been checked through a pilot study before using the questionnaire and the suggestions of an expert and responded were incorporated. 
 Research Restrictions. The present study is limited to the Indian classrooms and especially the respondents were purposively chosen from undergraduate classrooms of different faculties. So it cannot be implemented thoroughly but the praxis of using process drama can be a potent strategy to teach English in ESL classrooms according to the level, background and nature of the learners.  
 Practical Application. The findings of the study clearly indicate that the use of process drama in classroom pedagogy has a positive impact on receptive and productive skills of language.     
 Cognitive value. The modern classroom pedagogy needs an approach of teaching which can foster the learning process easier and emphasize all four skills in an effective way.

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