International Journal of Multicultural Education (IJME) is a peer-reviewed open-access journal for scholars, practitioners, and students of multicultural education. Committed to promoting educational equity for diverse students, cross-cultural understanding, and global justice for marginalized people in all levels of education, including leadership and policies, IJME publishes three types of articles: (1) qualitative research studies that explicitly address multicultural educational issues; (2) conceptual and theoretical articles, typically grounded on in-depth literature review, which advance theories and scholarship of multicultural education; and (3) praxis articles that discuss successful multicultural education practices grounded on sound theories and literature. We accept submissions of high quality from the global community in the fields of education, anthropology, sociology, cultural studies, and other social sciences.

News Library has vol. 9(2007) to current.

Recent Submissions

  • An Education Scholar and a Tightrope Walker: Reflexivity and Self-Discovery through the Research on How African American Women Navigate the Contested Spaces of Predominately White Colleges and Universities

    Haynes, Christina S. (Eonsei University, 2022-08-22)
    Chronicling my research on academically successful Black women attending predominately white institutions (PWIs), I reflect upon the anxiety, anger, and disillusionment that I personally experienced in graduate school. I discovered while completing the dissertation that other Black women at PWIs navigate similar challenges. Using narrative inquiry, I explore how this research program developed and how the high-achieving women interviewed shaped my ideas about gender, race, and belongingness and the complexity of coping with racism. I wish for other women of color to realize they are not alone in their frustrations; I hope my research helps these women understand that their presence is both needed and valued in the academy.
  • The Creation of National Cultures through Education, the Inequities They Produce, and the Challenges for Multicultural Education

    Smagorinsky, Peter (Eonsei University, 2022-08-22)
    This essay compares and contrasts the educational movements of three nations—the United States, Mexico, and the Soviet Union—established according to Eurocentric cultural values. In each country, mass education was undertaken to help produce an assimilative national culture during formative periods characterized by instability. In two of these nations, the U.S. and Mexico, this foundation eventually required an accommodation to address multiculturalism. This latter-day perspective is designed to recognize, respect, and appreciate a variety of cultures. This essay examines the ways in which these two oppositional goals—monoculturalism and multiculturalism—have intersected in schools.    
  • Challenges for Teachers Working in Mainstream Schools with Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Students in Chile: Two Case Studies

    Tapia Parada, Carla Ignacia; Tour, Ekaterina (Eonsei University, 2022-08-22)
    Recently, Chile has experienced a significant increase in linguistically and culturally diverse immigrants from Haiti. However, little is known about how Chilean teachers cope with this issue. Using Haworth’s (2009) model of contextual layers of teachers’ work as a conceptual lens, this article reports the findings from two case studies. Findings show that participants often struggled to teach their culturally and linguistically diverse students. These difficulties were attributed to teachers’ low levels of professional preparedness to work with these students and limited in-school support. The article offers several implications for different stakeholders.
  • “I’m Brazilian, Not Brazilian American”: The Experiences of Second-Generation Brazilian Adolescents Preserving Their Heritage Language and Resisting Assimilation

    Halpern, Clarisse; Austin Ward, Zachary; Aydin, Hasan (Eonsei University, 2022-08-22)
    Culture and heritage language (HL) preservation are crucial to developing children of immigrants’ ethnic and social identity, creating a sense of belonging, and fostering family and ethnic community support. However, numerous challenges permeate the experiences of underrepresented ethnolinguistic groups like Brazilian immigrants who are largely invisible in the United States. Therefore, this study investigated the lived experiences of second-generation Brazilian adolescents with culture and HL preservation. In-depth interviews and a focus group were conducted with 13 participants. The findings highlighted the participants’ embrace of their Brazilian ethnic identity and rejection of their American citizenship, and emphasized HL in affirming their identities and confronting discrimination.
  • The Wrong Tools for the Job: Teachers' Voices on Cultural Capital Mismatch

    Recknagel, Crystal; Hong, Ji; Francis, Dionne Cross; Wang, Qian; Parsons, Alexandra; Lewis, Laura (Eonsei University, 2022-08-22)
    This case study investigates how teachers in a school with a large population of low-income students of color in the U.S. perceived students’ cultural capital and associated teachers’ roles. Twenty-seven teachers were interviewed and discussed four domains of cultural capital mismatch between students and teachers: behavioral, experiential, academic, and family norm. Teachers often characterized these misalignments as students’ deficits and undertook parenting or friendship roles. This study highlights the need to support and train pre-service and in-service teachers’ critical consciousness, so that teachers leverage students’ cultural tools to enhance instruction and to counteract deficit views of students of color.
  • Assessing Preservice Teachers’ Perceptions and Practices to Differentiate Instruction for Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Students in Secondary Classrooms

    Zaier, Amani; Maina, Faith (Eonsei University, 2022-08-22)
    This study examined self-reports and instructional videos provided by 25 preservice teachers to demonstrate differentiated instruction in meeting the needs of culturally and linguistically diverse students (CLDS) in the United States. Self-reported journals were thematically analyzed and compared with corresponding instructional videos. The results revealed a mismatch between perceptions and practices of differentiation. Clearly, additional efforts must be taken to prepare preservice teachers to differentiate their instruction for CLDS in the areas of content, process, product, and environment. Teacher preparation programs must invest time and resources to adequately prepare preservice teachers for the challenge of differentiating instruction for CLDS.
  • Using Transformational Leadership to Create Brave Space in Teaching Multicultural Education

    Brazill, Shihua; Ruff, William (Eonsei University, 2022-08-22)
    The study explores how multicultural education instructors use transformational leadership to establish “brave space” as a foundation for critical conversations about identity. Establishing brave space within education courses is essential to facilitating pre-service teachers’ understanding of social justice; yet, little research exists regarding the use of transformational classroom leadership to achieve this. This qualitative study is comprised of semi-structured interviews with three instructors through a lens of transformational classroom leadership. Our findings suggest that transformational leadership practices such as modelling the way, challenging the process, encouraging the heart, etc. facilitate students’ understanding of identity, relational trust, and their tacit values.
  • Preparing Linguistically and Culturally Conscious Pre-service Teachers with a Community-based Service-learning Project

    Arabaci Atlamaz, Tuba (Eonsei University, 2022-08-22)
    Teacher preparation for culturally and linguistically diverse communities is crucial as classrooms become increasingly diverse. This study reports on the interaction between 20 pre-service teachers (PSTs) and adult emergent bilinguals during a community-based service-learning (CBSL) project. The project was part of a course offered at a state university in the northeastern USA. The qualitative data demonstrated that the PSTs gained sociolinguistic consciousness, learned about language learners’ prior experiences and linguistic proficiencies, and identified the linguistic demands of the interaction. The study also revealed that CBSL projects can possibly be an effective means of teacher preparation for emergent bilinguals worldwide.  
  • A Pedagogy of Inclusion for All Students: Three Small Steps Forward to Achieve Socially Just Education for All

    Buchanan, Dawna Lisa; Song, HeeGyoung (Eonsei University, 2022-04-25)
    This article chronicles the findings of two university professors who wanted to support cultural awareness and competence in their teacher education students at both pre-service and graduate levels. Many of their students did not understand the concept of social justice as it applies to classroom practice. The authors propose a model for first approaching the topic of culturally inclusive pedagogy that begins with self-awareness; progresses to understanding and valuing others; and advances as action in the educational setting to support equity for all. This is not a comprehensive model, but addresses beginning steps for creating an inclusive, diverse classroom community.  
  • More than Words: Teacher Candidates Turn and Talk about the Hidden Messages in Children’s Literature

    Archey, Xochitl (Eonsei University, 2022-04-25)
    Multicultural education curriculum often seems to get lost in the implicit biases of formal education. As K-12 classrooms continue to increase in linguistic, cultural, racial, gender, socioeconomic, and ability diversity, the call for educators to develop mind frames of equity becomes more urgent. This study asks teacher candidates to explore children’s literature for overt and covert messages of oppression, silencing, and indoctrination. Each theme is discussed within the context of picture books and their corresponding analysis. A suggested chart for selecting critically intelligent books is provided as a consolidated extension of the study’s findings.  
  • Theory-to-Practice: Researching Indigenous Education in the United States

    Masta, Stephanie (Eonsei University, 2022-04-25)
    This article advances theories and scholarship focused on Indigenous educational research in the U.S. by engaging with the scholarship of Bryan Brayboy and Sandy Grande. This article provides an overview of the history of Indigenous education research and suggests that engaging with Indigenous-centered theories is essential for scholars undertaking this research endeavor. This article also acknowledges how past research practices inform current research and offers researchers a brief demonstration of how to apply these theories to their own educational research practices.
  • “All Children Matter”: A Preservice Teacher’s Understanding and Practice of Culturally Responsive Teaching in a Third-Grade Mathematics Classroom

    Mburu, Jane (Eonsei University, 2022-04-25)
    As public schools in the United States become increasingly diverse, the need to prepare competent preservice teachers who can teach in culturally diverse contexts is imperative. There is dire need to prepare mathematics teachers who understand the importance of aligning classroom experiences with students’ home cultures to enhance their academic, social, and cultural wellbeing. This study, therefore, was designed to examine how one preservice teacher understood the concept of culturally responsive teaching, and how she later implemented culturally responsive practices in a third-grade mathematics classroom during her student teaching assignment.
  • International Students’ Lived Experiences with Intercultural Competence in a Southwest Florida University

    Halpern, Clarisse; Halpern, Bruno; AYDIN, Hasan (Eonsei University, 2022-04-25)
    Intercultural competence reflects higher education institutions’ commitment to the internationalization of campus, programs, and curricula and results in attracting/retaining international students. Numerous studies explore international students’ challenges adapting to the receiving country; however, limited research investigates their experiences with intercultural competence. Thus, a phenomenological study was conducted to investigate the lived experiences of 12 international students with intercultural competence at a Southwest Florida university. The constant comparison method identified three dimensions of the participants’ lived experiences: institutional, curricular, and interpersonal. The findings indicated a lack of intercultural competence in each dimension, significantly impacting students’ academic and social experiences.
  • Fostering Pre-service English Teachers’ Intercultural Awareness through Lesson Designs

    Chien, Chin-Wen (Eonsei University, 2022-04-25)
    This study explored Taiwanese pre-service teachers’ intercultural awareness through lesson designs. Based on the data analysis of textbook evaluation; lesson plans; self, peer, and expert evaluations on lesson plans; videos; and reflection notes, this study had the following major findings. First, the textbook evaluation helped the participants to identify the visual culture and linguistic elements in the textbooks and their relevance to young Taiwanese learners’ home or target culture. However, these participants lacked competence in identifying the appropriateness and authenticity of the cultural concepts in the textbooks, introducing relevant cultural issues, and designing activities on practice and production procedure.
  • Exposing White Fragility and White Emotionalities in Hello Privilege. It’s Me, Chelsea

    Adu-Gyamfi, Mary; Demoiny, Sara B.; King, LaGarrett; Simmons, Greg (Eonsei University, 2022-04-25)
     In a society steeped in media, teacher educators receive an education inside and outside the classroom. Thus, we aim to engage in critical race media literacy through an analysis of Hello Privilege. It’s Me, Chelsea. We do so through a frame of white fragility (DiAngelo, 2011) and white emotionalities (Matias, 2016). In this article, we argue that it is vital to disrupt and challenge notions of white supremacy and whiteness by highlighting examples of white fragility and white emotionalities in the media to make visible what often operates as invisible in society.
  • Fostering Pre-Service Teachers’ Antiracist Expectations through Online Education: Implications for Teacher Education in the Context of Global Pandemics

    Rojas, Leticia; Liou, Daniel (Eonsei University, 2021-12-30)
     The increase in online education programs, accompanied by the current COVID-10 pandemic, has led universities to reconsider alternative ways to prepare teachers for social justice. One under-researched area in this conversation is the need for teacher candidates to examine their racialized expectations that often negate students of color in TK-12 classrooms. This self-study describes one faculty member’s digital critical race praxis (DigitalCrit praxis) as a mediator of her expectations to prepare pre-service teachers for social justice. Research findings have implications for critical multicultural education, digitally based instruction, and teacher preparation.
  • Educating Children and Navigating Digital Literacy in COVID-19: Latina Mothers and Mother-Child Pedagogies

    Park, Jie; Ross, Laurie; Ledezma Rodriguez, Deisy (Eonsei University, 2021-12-30)
    This article reports on a qualitative study of 22 Latina mothers and their experiences supporting their children’s remote education during COVID-19. Drawing on digital literacies and mujerista theory, the authors analyzed focus group data to find the following: Latina mothers’ struggles involved not just understanding online learning platforms but an educational system that was not responsive to the economic constraints and stressors faced by families; Latina mothers  perceived the school district’s response to COVID-19 as performative and inadequate; Latina mothers developed mother-child pedagogies or pedagogies in which the mother and child are involved in teaching to and learning from each other. The findings lend support to the idea that the digital literacy divide does not exist outside of social and economic structures, and to the resourcefulness of everyday Latina mothers.
  • Supporting Online Learning in an Unfamiliar Language: Immigrant Parents and Remote Schooling during COVID-19

    Chen, Emma Xing (Eonsei University, 2021-12-30)
    This article reports on a qualitative study of 22 Latina mothers and their experiences supporting their children’s remote education during COVID-19. Drawing on digital literacies and mujerista theory, the authors analyzed focus group data to find the following: Latina mothers’ struggles involved not just understanding online learning platforms but an educational system that was not responsive to the economic constraints and stressors faced by families; Latina mothers  perceived the school district’s response to COVID-19 as performative and inadequate; Latina mothers developed mother-child pedagogies or pedagogies in which the mother and child are involved in teaching to and learning from each other. The findings lend support to the idea that the digital literacy divide does not exist outside of social and economic structures, and to the resourcefulness of everyday Latina mothers.  
  • Access and Inclusion of Students with Disabilities in Virtual Learning Environments: Implications for Post-Pandemic Teaching

    Porter, Susan G.; Greene, Kai; Esposito, M. C. Kate (Eonsei University, 2021-12-30)
    This article reviews the extant literature showing impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on access to inclusive education for students with disabilities. It also explores the disproportionate impacts of distance learning and school closures during the COVID-19 pandemic on the legal rights, social-emotional supports, and quality of instruction for special education students and their families. Early data show that educational impacts of COVID-19 have exacerbated long-standing issues of inequity; these impacts may have long-term repercussions for this underserved group of students. The authors introduce frameworks that may inform future instructional practices to successfully teach students with disabilities in virtual learning environments.
  • Beyond Apple Pies, Popsicles and Patriotism: Leveraging Digital Literacy to Unpack Matters of Race, Power, and Privilege

    Shelby-Caffey, Crystal (Eonsei University, 2021-12-30)
    It is important for all educators, but especially those working in P-12 systems, to not only be prepared to navigate the digital terrain but to do so while taking a critical stance and encouraging students to critically examine and confront injustice. To that end, this article spotlights the work being done in a literacy methods course for preservice teachers. Consideration is given to efforts to engage preservice teachers in the integration of information communication technologies (ICTs) in ways that develop critical consciousness while promoting social justice and equity.

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