• The Ecclesiology of Communion and Social Transformation: From the Second Vatican Council to the Second African Synod

      Skira, Jaroslav; Theology; Otu, Idara (University of Toronto, 2017-11)
      The Second Vatican Council (1962–1965) rediscovered diverse ecclesiological metaphors that had been somewhat less emphasized in Roman Catholicism, to articulate the self-understanding and mission of the Roman Catholic Church. These metaphors are interrelated and complementary in revealing the Church as mystery. An integral reading of the conciliar corpus points to the concept of communio as a fundamental hermeneutical key for unlocking the ecclesiology of the Council. More than fifty years after Vatican II, communion ecclesiology has yielded normative magisterial and synodal teachings on the theologies of the Church and social mission. 
 In contemporary sub-Saharan Africa, confronted with complex social questions, the vision of the Church as communion of God’s people has a missiological significance. This thesis examines the theological reception of Vatican II’s communion ecclesiology and social teaching at the First (1994) and Second (2009) Special Assemblies for Africa of the Synod of Bishops, demonstrating how these conciliar theologies have shaped the self-understanding and social justice mission of the Roman Catholic Church in Africa. 
 The appraisal provides the backdrop for constructing a missional praxis of social transformation for African Catholicism. This praxis comprises a tripartite theological dynamic, grounded in Vatican II, African Synods, and complemented by Catholic social teaching. The thesis contends that the communion ecclesiology and social teaching of the Second Vatican Council are critical trajectories for renewing the missional praxis for the Church in Africa as Family of God at the service of social transformation.
    • The Effect of Protestantism on Education before the Industrialization: Evidence from 1816 Prussia

      Economics; University of Munich; Becker, Sascha; Woessmann, Ludger (2017-06-20)
      This paper uses recently discovered data on nearly 300 Prussian counties in 1816 to show that Protestantism led to more schools and higher school enrollment already before the industrialization. This evidence supports the human capital theory of Protestant economic history of Becker and Woessmann (2009), where Protestantism first led to better education, which in turn facilitated industrial development. It rules out that the existing end-of-19th-century evidence can be explained by a Weberian explanation, where a Protestant work ethic first led to industrialization which then increased the demand for education.
    • The Effects of Caregiver Stress Upon Ethics At-Risk Behavior Among Florida Licensed Marriage and Family Therapists

      Gentry, Jack Eric (DigiNole Commons, 2005-06-10)
      A critical review exploring “at-risk” ethical practice of marriage and family therapy determined that there existed no empirical literature focusing upon the antecedent, correlative, or causal factors of unethical behaviors among LMFTs. Responding to this gap, this study was designed to test the hypothesis that a significant relationship would be found between caregiver stress and at-risk ethical practice among a sample of LMFTs of Florida. Two research questions were developed to help guide an exploratory component of this study with the hope of identifying factors contributing to the understanding of at-risk practice. Surveys containing a demographic collection tool, an instrument to measure the dependent variable (at risk ethical practice), and three instruments to measure five independent variables (caregiver stress, compassion fatigue, burnout, and satisfaction with life) were sent to a randomly selected sample of one-half (n=549) of the LMFTs in the state of Florida. After a 90-day data collection window, 82 useable surveys were returned (15%). The data were found to be significantly non-normal. Upon analyses, no significant relationship between caregiver stress and at risk practice emerged; therefore the null hypothesis was not rejected. In the exploratory portion of the study, only compassion fatigue emerged with a significant predictive relationship (R2=.140; p=.002) for at-risk practice among all the independent variables and demographic data. Nearly all respondents (86.4%) identified at least one area for which they were at-risk for practicing outside the boundaries of the AAMFT Code of Ethics. The sample for this study was remarkably healthy with positively non-normal scores for caregiver stress, compassion fatigue, burnout, and satisfaction with life. The validity of this study was challenged by a very low response rate, a non-normal and very healthy sample, and unacceptably poor psychometric performance of the Ethics At-Risk Test for Marriage and Family Therapists (Brock, 1997)—the instrument utilized to measure the dependent variable. Recommendations for future research resulting from the findings of this study primarily advocate studies designed to resolve the psychometric problems of measuring at-risk ethical practice. Following the resolution of the scaling problems, a program of research that recruits larger and more representative samples of cross-discipline professionals and compares this sample with professionals who have been adjudicated for ethical violations is suggested to begin to determine the antecedent, correlative, and causal factors related to professional caregivers’ practice outside the boundaries of ethical and legal constraints.
    • The effects of Islam on the goverment policies of Britain, France, and the Netherlands

      Fortier, Amanda L. (STARS, 2009-01-01)
      There has been a recent trend in Western Europe that is out of place with the liberal society that exists there. Governments have been passing laws that are discriminatory against Muslims. This may seem to be a result of the September 11th attacks in America. However, this is not the case. Britain, France, and the Netherlands have all had their own events that have changed the perspectives of their people. These events did not all make the international news in the way that September 11th did. Yet these events are just as important to look at when asking why this level of discrimination is allowed to exist. Once the event is identified, one must look at how the society and government are structured .. What are the unique cases and situations in each country that allowed the event to take place? Who decided to change the laws? What effect have these laws had? What could these changes mean in the future? With the War on Terror, Islam has come under the microscope. Using textual analysis of other authors and scholars, I hope to answer these questions. However, one cannot look at just Islam alone in hopes of solving the very real problems facing these states today. These states have to deal with a new wave of immigration, and those that are coming in have a much different culture. Values· are hard to change. A workable solution needs to be found in order for both groups, Muslims and non-Muslims, to live in peace.
    • The encyclical of Leo XIII on the condition of labour : Together with letters from the Vatican, 1889 /

      Catholic Church. Pope (1878-1903 : Leo XIII); Stead, W. T. (William Thomas), 1849-1912. Letters from the Vatican, 1889. (London : "Review of Reviews" offices,, 1891)
      At head of title: The Pope and the social question.
    • The essential Reinhold Niebuhr : selected essays and addresses

      Princeton Theological Seminary Library; Niebuhr, Reinhold, 1892-1971 (New Haven : Yale University Press, 1986-01-01)
      xxiv, 264 pages ; 24 cm
    • The Eternal Dissident

      N. Myers, David (University of California Press, 2018-05-08)
      The Eternal Dissident offers rare insight into one of the most inspiring and thought-provoking Reform rabbis of the twentieth century, Leonard Beerman, who was renowned both for his eloquent and challenging sermons and for his unrelenting commitment to social action. Beerman was a man of powerful word and action—a probing intellectual and stirring orator, as well as a nationally known opponent of McCarthyism, racial injustice, and Israeli policy in the occupied territories. The shared source of Beerman’s thought and activism was the moral imperative of the Hebrew prophets, which he believed bestowed upon the Jewish people their role as the “eternal dissident.” This volume brings Beerman to life through a selection of his most powerful writings, followed by commentaries from notable scholars, rabbis, and public personalities that speak to the quality and ongoing relevance of Beerman’s work.
    • The ethical foundations of restorative justice

      Summers, Charles E (2016-08-24)
      Restorative Justice offers a promising new approach for dealing with crimes in modern societies. There has been a considerable amount of research on the topic, yet much of this work has been done with limited reference to the discussions in political philosophy and the philosophy of punishment. This neglect means that there are still significant theoretical challenges facing the theory behind restorative justice. This thesis places restorative justice within the larger philosophical context and develops the necessary framework for restorative justice as a theory of criminal justice. The thesis beings by examining traditional justifications for punishment, as given by consequentialists and retributivists. The consequentialist justifications fall prey to empirical questions regarding the effectiveness of punishment in achieving the aim of prevention and theoretical objections to consequentialist theories. Retributivism is able to avoid the problems that face consequentialist theories, but the justification for punishment that it offers fails to prove that punishment is always necessary, and it is particularly problematic in non-ideal societies. Thus, while punishment is permissible in response to crime, it is not an obligation. The first step in the argument for restorative justice is to examine two approaches to desert in responding to crime. The approach advocated treats desert as a fluid and relational concept based on the conception of social justice known as democratic equality. The thesis then identifies three crucial aspects to the accounts of restorative justice that have been given in the literature. These are the theories of personhood and crime that restorative justice relies upon and the role that punishment and retribution play in restorative justice. The thesis argues that reliance on a relational conception of personhood is unnecessary and advocates justifying restorative justice on the basis of the conception of social justice. The thesis then examines traditional theories of crime and compares them to the relational understanding offered by proponents of restorative justice. The relational understanding is advocated based on its ability to provide a single principle of criminalisation that relies upon the more general theory of social justice within liberal egalitarian society. The place of punishment and retribution in restorative justice is then examined. I argue that neither concept is necessarily included or excluded from such processes, but that there are legitimate reasons to be concerned about the coerciveness of restorative practices. The thesis concludes by examining the type of system that the theory advocated could support in the current social context. In light of the worries about the coerciveness of restorative proposals and the inappropriateness of a restorative response to all instances of crime a multifaceted system is advocated. This system would treat restoration as the preferred response, while providing responses in situations where restoration is not appropriate and where due process concerns require a more traditional approach. It is argued that such a system would be a significant improvement over current practices and more in line with the conception of social justice as democratic equality.
    • The Ethical Imagination and the Anatomy of Change: A Perspective from Social Ethics

      Hogan, Linda (Catholic Theological Society of America, 2013-08-19)
    • The Ethical Limits of Power: On the Perichoresis of Power

      Schweiker, William (SAGE Publications, 2016-02-01)
      This article explores the interrelations among religious, moral and political power in an analogy to the Christian concept of ‘perichoresis’ of the Trinity. Starting with beliefs about power, the endoxa, the article explores, first, moments in Western thought to show how power has been grounded in God or gods and in the vitalities of nature. In each case, ultimately speaking, ‘might makes right’. Within this history the article also charts the ‘axial breakthrough’ in Christianity that places ‘ethical’ limits on religious and political power. In a second step, the works of Reinhold Niebuhr and Stanley Hauerwas are explored in order to show that current Christian ethics is caught in an aporia: it asserts the reality of power in history and the ‘world’, but also the ultimate claim of Christian love. The article concludes that Christian ethics needs a differentiated conception of power and a renewed conception of ‘conscience’ as the mode of moral being within complex social systems.
    • The Ethical Obligations of Humanity towards Refugees

      Salamon, Janusz; Franěk, Jakub; Radcliff, Douglas Meade (Univerzita Karlova, Fakulta sociálních věd, 2019-10-07)
      The thesis examines, philosophically and practically, what duties humanity has towards refugees. As the foundation for the thesis, a philosophical background related to human development is provided. Next, a control group of countries in the European Union is used to investigate how refugees impact societies in reality in order to analyze whether countries have an ethical duty to protect their own domestic population, overriding obligations towards refugees. Continuing in this vein, certain political ideologies and religious doctrines are examined in order to determine if there is an underlying theme towards refugees. Stemming from this is an analysis of various international treaties in order to understand what the treaties require and permit countries to do legally. Finally, everything is combined, and the ethical and moral argument related to helping refugees is thoroughly explored. The aim is to uncover the problematization of the current literature and to establish that everyone has ethical duties towards refugees. Refugees are shown not to be a group of people damaging society; not helping refugees in any way damages the human development of a refugee and the inherent moral duties of the person/state/community not providing assistance; all religious doctrines and political ideologies push for...
    • The Ethical Obligations of Humanity towards Refugees

      Salamon, Janusz; Franěk, Jakub; Radcliff, Douglas Meade (Univerzita Karlova, Fakulta sociálních věd, 2019-10-18)
      The thesis examines, philosophically and practically, what duties humanity has towards refugees. As the foundation for the thesis, a philosophical background related to human development is provided. Next, a control group of countries in the European Union is used to investigate how refugees impact societies in reality in order to analyze whether countries have an ethical duty to protect their own domestic population, overriding obligations towards refugees. Continuing in this vein, certain political ideologies and religious doctrines are examined in order to determine if there is an underlying theme towards refugees. Stemming from this is an analysis of various international treaties in order to understand what the treaties require and permit countries to do legally. Finally, everything is combined, and the ethical and moral argument related to helping refugees is thoroughly explored. The aim is to uncover the problematization of the current literature and to establish that everyone has ethical duties towards refugees. Refugees are shown not to be a group of people damaging society; not helping refugees in any way damages the human development of a refugee and the inherent moral duties of the person/state/community not providing assistance; all religious doctrines and political ideologies push for...
    • The Ethical Use of Telepsychiatry in the Covid-19 Pandemic

      Julia Stoll; John Z. Sadler; Manuel Trachsel (Frontiers Media S.A., 2020-07-01)
    • The Ethics of Coöperation

      Tufts, James Hayden, 1862-1942 (Houghton Mifflin Co., 1918)
      Boston and New York: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1918
    • The Ethics of Distribution /

      Pummer, Theron (eScholarship, University of California, 2013-01-01)
      For any badly off person we consider, there could be someone who is much worse off. For example, suppose that Jane is the currently worst off person. Jane is so miserable that her life is worth not living. Nonetheless, one would be much worse off than Jane if one were as miserable as her at each time, but lived for much longer. Since there could be such persons who would live indefinitely longer than Jane, there could be persons who would be indefinitely worse off than Jane. I call such extremely badly off persons Priority Monsters. The possibility of Priority Monsters raises new and important challenges in the ethics of distribution, an area of ethics which addresses how we ought to distribute benefits and burdens across separate persons. The principal challenge I focus on is how to avoid the conclusion that, if such Priority Monsters existed, we would be morally required to benefit them, no matter how little we provide them, at the expense of doing much more good for others, like Jane, who are themselves significantly badly off. Most of us find this conclusion very hard to accept - surely if it were between sparing Jane of many years of misery and sparing a Priority Monster of a mild headache, we should do the former. Utilitarian principles of distribution say that we ought to maximize the overall sum of benefits. Egalitarian and prioritarian principles place special moral weight on achieving benefits for persons who are worse off. Many contemporary philosophers contend that the latter principles are more plausible than utilitarian principles. I argue that while utilitarian principles easily and naturally avoid implausible conclusions about Priority Monsters, egalitarian and prioritarian cannot plausibly avoid such conclusions. Utilitarian principles thus avoid a significant difficulty that these other principles face, and they might therefore be more plausible, overall, than their non-utilitarian rivals
    • The Ethics of Migration. Reflections on Recent Migration Policies and "Non-Policies" in Italy and Europe

      BAGGIO, FABIO; ZANFRINI, LAURA; ZANFRINI, LAURA (ItalyMonzaPolimetrica International Scientific Publisher, 2006)
    • The Ethics of the Everyday: Can Normative Ethics Guide Daily Decisions?

      Lievers, M.; Salimian, S. (2018)
      This thesis asked whether normative ethics could tell us what is the right thing to in daily life. A case-study was employed that analyzed whether each theory could satisfy two requirements: the theory must be act guiding and the agent needs to able to justify the act to herself and to the relevant parties. The thesis discussed four ethical theories: act-consequentialism, rule-consequentialism, Kantianism and contractualism. Act-consequentialism was found to have a structural issue in that the second requirement is only another feature that is put into its calculus and not a starting point for evaluating the rightness of our actions. The other three theories could not satisfy the two requirements simultaneously, either. Each theory is forced to resort to judgment when we require them to weigh between two seemingly equivalent obligations. It would seem then that judgment is a better tool for deciding moral dilemmas than normative theory.
    • The ethics of the Syrian migration crisis

      Prosyukova, Ksenia O. (2021)
      The Syrian migration crisis is one of the biggest social crises of the modern era. This is evidenced by the geographical spread of the consequences, the number of refugees in each of the host countries and other bare statistics. In the context of this crisis, the governments of the host countries are making efforts to solve many problems related to the political status of refugees, their psychological adaptation to new surroundings, economic challenges for the host countries, along with issues connected with the integration and socialization of migrants. However, not many of us think about the ethical side of the migration process. Moreover, sometimes such aspects as the violation of human rights, confrontation between the ethical principles of Islam and the secular culture of Europe, and confrontation between Christian and Islamic values are simply ignored. Nevertheless, all these "inconvenient" topics are breeding grounds for concentrating misunderstandings and developing zero tolerance towards migrants, and which have an impact on the overall outcome. The migration crisis is not a temporary "inconvenience," not a desperate measure, it is a process of transformation of European society. We consider this process as a social evolution that can be in the best interest of all participants. However, this process is impossible without reaching a compromise on ethical issues. This article is devoted to examining the ethical dilemma of the migration crisis and finding ways of solving it.
    • The European Union as recently seen by two Italian economists

      Giacomo Costa (Firenze University Press, 2015-12-01)
      This is a review of the books on the European Union by two well-known Italian economists, Luigi Zingales and Giacomo Vaciago. It turns out there is a broad area of agreement and complementarity between them. Their treatments are summarized under the following ten headings: 1) The political genesis of the European Union; 2) the surprisingly narrow range of activities included in the present economic and monetary union; 3) the dubious validity of the “theory of forward reactions”, that should guarantee the forward direction of the unification process; 4) The unsure presuppositions of the Maastricht Treaty, and the reasons why it arose the skepticism of most American economists; 5) the Italian crisis and the European paralysis; 6) Italy stands to Europe as Southern Italy to Italy; 7) Italexit? 8) What brakes the progress of the unification process? 9) What corrections to existing institutions? 10) Is there still a role for a European Federation?