Social ethics is distinct from social politics or socialism which, since the end of the 18th century is a political answer to the social question and a counter model to the economic mode of capitalism. Social and economical ethics and philosophy are the meta domain of varieties of applied ethics, considered as professional good praxis.
Social ethics may as well include domains, such as sports ethics, sexual ethics, philosophy of race, but also "religious" social ethics, e.g. the social doctrines or teachings of religious communities on social justice, socio-economic problems, social work, social relations, and the role of religion in politics, economics, society, the arts and sciences.
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- Obiora Ike, Faith and Action Rooted in Christ (2021)
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Image in the public domain. Le cortège des mineurs du Pas-de-Calais en grève parcourant les corons (1 April 1906, Le Petit Journal, Source: Wikimedia Commons).
URDU-RELIGIOUS TOLERANCE IN PAKISTAN AND THE EFFORTS OF THE LEARNEDTolerance refers to dealing with all human beings fairly irrespective of differences in class, creed, religion, race, color, country and belief. We should accept the concepts and ideas of others and respect their feelings without taking into account whether they are right or wrong. Difference of opinion should inculcate exchange of ideas and positive thought process rather than hate. We should therefore not hate other religions and their followers, although we do not agree with their philosophies and views, yet we should accept and fulfill their rights as human beings which God has bestowed with high status. In short, religious tolerance means to treat the followers of other religions without hurting their feelings and without any mistreatment just because of their views. This tolerance is not limited to non-Muslims. Muslims should also keep away from sectarian differences and if they exist, they should not be a means for division in the Ummah. We can all co-exist even with differences of opinion as our predecessors did. Theologians of different sects have written several books for religious tolerance and the moderate way to deal with the differences of belief. This paper provides a comprehensive literature review on this subject taking ‘religious tolerance’ as a particularistic case study.
Peningkatan ekonomi masyarakat melalui Usaha Mikro Kecil Menengah (UMKM) di Rumah BUMN Semarang menurut prespektif pengembangan masyarakat IslamRumah BUMN Semarang merupakan rumah bersama untuk berkumpul, belajar dan membina para pelaku UMKM menjadi UMKM Indonesia yang berkualitas, mendorong para pelaku UMKM dalam menjawab tantangan utama pengembangan usaha UMKM dalam hal Peningkatan kompetensi, Peningkatkan Akses Pemasaran dan Kemudahkan akses Permodalan serta mendampingi pelaku UMKM dalam pengembangan usaha untuk meningkatkan kualitas produk, standarisasi bahan baku, standarisasi produksi, bimbingan pengembangan produk baru, packaging, branding, quality control dan bimbingan pendanaan, untuk tercapainya Indonesia sebagai Energi Digital Asia. Rumusan masalah dalam penelitian ini yaitu : 1. Bagaiman proses peningkatan ekonomi masyarakat melalui UMKM di Rumah BUMN Semarang. 2. Bagaimana hasil peningkatan ekonomi mayarakat melalui UMKM di Rumah BUMN Semarang. Dengan tujuan untuk mengetahui proses peningkatan ekonomi masyarakat melalui UMKM di Rumah BUMN Semarang dan untuk mengetahui hasil peningkatanekonomi masyarakat melalui UMKM di Rumah BUMN Semarang. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini yaitu menggunakan jenis penelitian kualitatif. Informasi yang didapatkan dari penelitian ini memerlukan beberapa metode pengumpulan data, yaitu dengan observasi, wawancara dan dokumentasi yang dilanjutkan dengan menggunakan reduksi data, penyajian data, dan kemudian verifikasi data. Temuan dalam penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa proses peningkatan ekonomi masyarakat dilakukan melalui beberapa tahapan yaitu proses penyadaran, proses pelaksanaan tindakan, dan proses pendayaan. Hasil dari penelitian ini adalah peningkatan kualitas UMKM dari bertambahnya ilmu pengetahuan, meningkatnya ekonomi pelaku UMKM, timulnya solidaritas yang tinggi dan meningkatnya sumber daya pelaku UMKM.
Sebepleri ve sorunlarıyla göçmenlik : İstanbul’daki AfganlarGünümüz dünyasında uluslararası göç önemli bir olgu haline gelmiştir. Türkiye’de göç alan bir ülke olarak bu olgunun dahilinde yer almaktadır. Bu tezin konusunu İstanbul’daki Afgan göçmenler oluşturmaktadır. Afganlar, Suriye’den gelen sığınmacılardan sonra Türkiye’deki en büyük ikinci göçmen grubunu oluşturmaktadır. Resmî olarak kayıt altına alınmış Afgan göçmenlerden çok daha fazlası kayıt dışı olarak Türkiye’de hayatta kalmaya çalışmaktadır. Afgan göçmenlerin 2015 yılı sonrasında gerek Türkiye’ye gerekse Türkiye üzerinden Avrupa’ya olan hareketliliklerinde ciddi bir artış yaşanmaktadır ve bu artış Afgan göçmen grubunun akademik bir bakışla kavranmasının önemini vurgulamaktadır. Son yıllarda Türkiye’ye gelen genç Afganların sayısında önemli bir artış görülse de göç Afganlar için yeni bir fenomen değildir. Afganlar için hareketlilik, özellikle çatışma ve yoksulluğa mukavemet biçimi olarak uzun yıllardır kullandıkları hayatta kalma stratejilerinden biridir. Bu tez Türkiye’ye göç eden düzensiz statüdeki 19 Afgan göçmen ile yapılan derinlemesine mülakat verilerine ve sahadaki gözlemlere dayanmaktadır. Araştırmanın örneklemini İstanbul’da yaşayan ve düzensiz statüde bulunan Afgan göçmenler oluşturmaktadır. Bu görüşmeler ve sahadaki gözlemlerle Türkiye’ye gelen Afganların göç etme motivasyonları, kullandıkları rota ve kaçakçılık ağları ana hatlarıyla ortaya koyulmakta, göç rotasında ve Türkiye’deki yaşantılarında karşılaştıkları zorluklar ve maruz bırakıldıkları kırılganlıkları sorunsallaştırılmaktadır. Çalışmada, göç terminolojisinde kullanılan geleneksel kavramlar, insan hakları, göçmenlerin medyadaki temsilleri ve küreselleşme tartışmaları da yer almaktadır.--------------------International migration has become an important phenomenon in today's world. Under these circumstance Turkey is one of the receiving countries. The main subject of this thesis is Afghan immigrants in Istanbul. Afghans, following the Syrian refugees, are the second-largest immigrant group in Turkey. There is a lot more irregular Afghan migrants who have been trying to survive in Turkey than the officially registered ones. After 2015 there has been a significant increase in the mobility of Afghan immigrants to Turkey and to Europe through Turkey, so this phenomenon emphasises the importance of understanding the Afghan immigrant group from an academic perspective. Even though there has been a major increase in the number of young Afghan immigrants who have come to Turkey in recent years, migration is not a new phenomenon for Afghans. For Afghans, mobility is one of the survival strategies they have used for many years; especially as a form of resistance to conflict war and poverty. This thesis is based on the data from in-depth interviews with 19 irregular Afghan immigrants and observations in the field. The sample of the study consists of Afghan immigrants living in Istanbul and having irregular status. These interviews and observations in the field reveals outlines of emigration motivations of Afghans who came to Turkey; their migratory route and human trafficking networks, the challenges they faced in their migratory routes and their life, also their vulnerability in Turkey. This study also includes traditional concepts that used in migration terminology, argumentations about human rights and globalisation and the representation of immigrants in the media.
Homo Islamicus : the reinvention of and Islamic vision of economics and finance (1940-2014)This thesis aims at highlighting "worldviews" appearing in relation to the economic precepts of Islam.They reveal fundamental transformations between politics, law, morality, knowledge, history and society.A cosmological shift will be shown to occur between the classical period of Islam and modernity, entailing a renewed conception of religious principles with the advent of "social justice". The "worldview" of Jamaat-i-islami claims to set up the "Economic system of Islam", which will be determined in confrontation with ideologies such as Communism, Socialism, National-socialism, Secularism, Nationalism,and Capitalism, during the partition of India and the creation of Pakistan. This conception will ultimately be in conflict with a new one under the name of Islamic Finance in the mid-70s, giving birth to an unprecedented definition of this religion.
Tinjauan hukum positif dan hukum pidana Islam tentang perlindungan hukum terhadap suami yang menjadi korban kekerasan dalam rumah tangga (studi kasus di Unit Perlindungan Perempuan dan Anak Polres Sukoharjo)Kekerasan dalam rumah tangga merupakan hidden crime karena meskipun sering terjadi namun sangat jarang sekali di proses ke ranah hukum. Korban kekerasan dalam rumah tangga pada umumnya adalah perempuan dan anak dimana yang menjadi pelaku adalah laki-laki (suami). Di era modernisasi ini tidak dapat dipungkiri bahwa meskipun suami dalam lingkup rumah tangga merupakan kepala rumah tangga bisa jadi menjadi korban kekerasan dalam rumah tangga. Penelitian ini secara khusus ingin menkaji tentang pelaksanaan perlindungan hukum yang diberikan oleh penegak hukum kepada suami yang menjadi korban kekerasan dalam rumah tangga secara nyata dalam kehidupan masyarakat. Rumusan masalah dari penelitian ini adalah apa yang menjadi latar belakang terjadinya kekerasan dalam rumah tangga yang dilakukan oleh istri kepada suami yang terjadi di perum pucangan baru II Kabupaten sukoharjo dan bagaimana bentuk perlindungan yang diberikan oleh Unit Perlindungan Perempuan dan Anak Polres Sukoharjo selaku penegak hukum diwilayah tersebut.jenis penelitian ini adalah yuridis empiris atau penelitian yang dilakukan terhadap keadaan yang sebenarnya atau fakta yang terjadi di masyarakat dengan maksud untuk mengetahui dan menemukan data yang dibutuhkan penelitian ini menggunakan metode kualitatif dengan teknik pengumpulan data lapangan (field Research). Hasil penelitian menunjukan bahwa suami yang menjadi korban kekerasan dalam rumah tangga ditangani oleh Unit Perlindungan Perempuan dan Anak, hal tersebut menunjukan bahwa dalam segi perlindungan hukum suami dianggap lebih memiliki potensi untuk menjadi pelaku daripada menjadi korban. Bentuk perlindungan hukum bagi suami yang menjadi korban kekerasan dalam rumah tangga menurut hukum positif yaitu dalam bentuk upaya pemenuhan hak-hak korban, berupa pelayanan hukum, kesehatan, dan pelayanan psikologis. Bentuk perlindungan tersebut ditetapkan dalam Pasal 10, Pasal 16 ayat (1), Pasal 17, Pasal 21 ayat (1), Pasal 23, Pasal 25, Pasal 35, dan Pasal 36, Undang-Undang Republik Indonesia Nomor 23 Tahun 2004 tentang Penghapusan Kekerasan dalam Rumah Tangga. Sementara dalam hukum Islam, bentuk perlindungan hukum bagi suami yang menjadi korban kekerasan dalam rumah tangga bisa dalam bentuk adanya peluang bagi suami memberikan pelajaran dan pengajaran kepada isteri atau suami dapat mengajukan perkara tindak kekerasan yang dilakukan istrinya ke pengadilan atau muka hakim, selain itu Islam memberi peluang bagi setiap orang, baik itu keluarga, masyarakat maupun pemerintah untuk menolong korban dalam bentuk pelayanan hukum, kesehatan, maupun psikologis. Perlindungan hukum tersebut dinyatakan dalam QS. Al-Nisa ayat 34, kitab Kifiyatul Akhyar fii Ghayatil Ikhtisar fil Fiqhis Syafi’i, Abu Bakar Al-Hushni Al-Husaini Ad-Dimsyiqi.
ENGLISH-ISLAM, HUMAN RIGHTS AND GLOBALIZATIONThe objective of Islam is to establish economic equality, social justice, and fairness in all spheres of the life of individuals and societies. Islam put a very clear prohibition on slavery and discriminated social grades and caste-systems, and asserts on the human dignity through the golden principles of universal brotherhood among all human and gave a special honor to the women. These principles are considered integral parts the UN charters and constitutions of civilized world for establishing exploitation free society. In the view of Islam, in the divine religions as well, all races of human, white and black or brown are born from Adam and Eve. Allah, the almighty creator, has made them vary in colour, language and has placed them in different lands, but before Him they are all one and cherished by Him alike, and he is most honoured who is most righteous. Islam described the rights and duties of all kinds of people as all are equal in gender as human being. This paper examines the rights of individual in the lights of Holy Quran specially Surah al-Nisa verse 36 and the Sunah specially the last sermon of the Holy Prophet Muhammad (PBUH).
Disentangling national and religious identification as predictors of support for religious minority rights among Christian majority groupsIt is often assumed that, in Western societies, Christian values are embedded in national identities, yet, the association between religious identities and prejudice has seldom been studied in parallel to national identity. According to both the social identity theory approach and integrated threat theory, group identification is important for perceiving threats and expressing corresponding attitudes. Nevertheless, their independent roles on intergroup outcomes have often been ignored, although they are two of the most salient and important identities when considering support for religious minority rights. We address this gap in research by looking at the associations of religious identity with support for religious minority rights in general and Muslims in particular in parallel to national identity through diversity threat. This study was conducted among the members of majority groups in four Western countries: Australia, Finland, Germany, and Norway (N = 1,532), all of which are characterised as traditionally Christian. We found that a higher religious identification was associated with greater support for religious minority rights in general and for those of Muslims in particular, while national identification had no direct association with support for either groups' religious rights. However, both group identifications were also associated with heightened perceived diversity threat, which in turn, predicted reluctance to support religious minority rights. This demonstrates the dual role that religious identities may play in intergroup relations.
ENGLISH- RELIGIOUS TOLERANCE - A TOOL FOR INTERFAITH HARMONY IN PAKISTANPakistan provides home to people from diverse cultural, ethnic and religious backgrounds. Such variation has become responsible for misunderstandings and conflicts among different groups be it sectarian violence among Muslims throughout country, the language riots, or the continuous violence against non-Muslims. Most of the violence among religious communities is caused by misconceptions about other faiths. Unfortunately, Pakistan has become the victim of such social evils. Pakistan has to take some serious long term steps to eradicate this issue. It is duty upon her citizens and the state to create the environment of harmony and tolerance. In today’s modern world where distances mean nothing to us, we can promote peace and harmony in the light of Quran and other divine books. We can also promote positive behaviors and curb ill behaviors such as anxiety, extremism, angriness and violence. This paper aims to achieve the objective of promoting interfaith harmony, peaceful co-existence and acceptance among people belonging to different faiths in Pakistan and alike countries. For conduct of research doctrinal method has been employed with analytical approach.
ENGLISH-FREEDOM OF SPEECH IN ISLAM AND IN INTERNATIONAL CONVENTIONSThis article discusses Free Speech as a fundamental human right and the use of this right with a sense of responsibility. Conflicts arising out of unqualified use of free speech by the Western world when it touches the religious sensibilities of people belonging to different faiths asks for certain limitations to be imposed of the absolute use of this freedom. International legal documents on freedom of speech, ‘defamation of religions’ and ‘religious tolerance’ are analyzed. Islamic viewpoint on ‘pluralism’ and ‘freedom of speech’ is also discussed and compared with contemporary secular understanding of free speech. Finally with reference to Jylland-Posten cartoons International reactions and statements issued by Muslim and Secular states are analyzed to understand the complexity of the issue. It is concluded that majority of the World supported the view that Danish cartoons were provocative and injured the religious sensibilities of Muslims and an apology should be rendered for doing so. However violent reactions from the Muslim world were condemned at International level.
Evaluating faith after conversionIn 2017, the Finnish Immigration Service received approximately 1,000 asylum applications and appeals based on conversion from Islam to Christianity. The applications claimed that converted asylum seekers would face mortal danger if returned to their countries of origin. The applications posed an unprecedented dilemma for the Finnish Immigration Service: how was it, as a secular state institution, to evaluate these claims of conversion? This question also became an object of significant public and media debate. In this article, I examine how journalists writing for a religious media publication, Kirkko ja kaupunki, the newspaper of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in the Helsinki region, sought to intervene in the debate on asylum seekers’ conversions. I focus my analysis on one central line of argument in their reporting: a call for the better- inclusion of and engagement with religious expertise on Christianity by the Finnish Immigration Service when evaluating conversion-based asylum applications and appeals. I show that this call both positioned religious expertise as an antidote to the challenges that efforts to evaluate conversion-based asylum appeals posed to Finnish Immigration Service employees in this time period, and constituted expertise as a site for negotiations over the ‘proper’ relationship between religion and state.
Teologické základy lidských právThe paper focuses on the question of the importance of the theological justification of human rights. Firstly, it reflects in which way the philosophical and theological rationale of human rights is present in the current discourse on human rights and in the most important documents on human rights. Secondly, the author reflects on theological rationalisation of human rights as present in Church documents, starting with the encyclical Pacem in Terris, and the models of theological justification of human rights in contemporary German theology (Huber/Tödt, Saberschinsky, Sander) is presented. Thirdly, the basic theological-anthropological rationale of human rights is formulated. In the conclusion, the paper notices a tension among theological rationalisation on human rights and the reality of cultural and religion plurality.