Social Inclusion is a peer-reviewed open access journal, which provides academics and policy-makers with a forum to discuss and promote a more socially inclusive society. The journal encourages researchers to publish their results on topics concerning social and cultural cohesiveness, marginalized social groups, social stratification, minority-majority interaction, cultural diversity, national identity, and core-periphery relations, while making significant contributions to the understanding and enhancement of social inclusion worldwide.


Globethics Library has vol. 1(2013) no. 2 to current.

Recent Submissions

  • Implementing a Senior Community Care Model: An Italian Top‐Down Cohousing Project and Nursing Home

    Isabella Riccò; Claudia María Anleu-Hernández; Adele De Stefani (Cogitatio, 2024-01-01)
    Not ageing in place is an increasing reality for many older Europeans. For several decades societies have applied different care models in developing initiatives to provide safe and age-friendly spaces. This article presents the community care model implemented by the Italian service provider ISRAA in Treviso (Italy) in one of its nursing homes and senior cohousing projects. The aim of our study was to analyse this senior community care model and find out how residents have responded to it. Participants were both the older adult residents in the two ISRAA facilities and professionals responsible for their social attention. A qualitative methodology was used: questionnaire, interviews, and focus groups with professionals and care facility residents. Results reveal the care philosophy implemented, residents’ experiences, the main barriers to creating a community, and how this model could be improved by following community development principles, with the older people’s help, participation, and engagement. The conclusions highlight the importance of applying principles of self-determination and social inclusion in a preventive care model for the senior community. In addition, a key factor in promoting community development is for professionals to act as community development practitioners and to allow older adults to be part of the change.
  • Older People Reimagining and Envisioning Preventive Care Through Land Acquisition: Evidence From Rwanda

    Albert Irambeshya (Cogitatio, 2024-01-01)
    This article presents findings about older people reimagining and envisioning preventive care through land acquisition in the Karongi district, Rwanda. My primary objective was to understand how land acquisition constitutes a means for older people’s preventive care arrangement. Ethnographic data were collected from 15 older people’s households. Empirical findings indicate that land scarcity makes it a coveted resource that attracts care around older people possessing it. Those unable to use their land rent it out to someone else who accepts to use the land and share the harvest equally with the owners. Furthermore, caring relationships between the landowner and the land user go beyond sharing the harvest to provide other forms of caring practices, such as assistance to access health care, firewood, and water provision, as well as helping older people sell their harvest. Renting out the land displays the image of an older person actively engaged with the community and who attracts caring practices using the land. Besides, land acquisition is the basis for intergenerational care negotiation, as expectations to inherit the land encourage children to care for their older parents. Thus, this article shows preventive care that is happening outside the realm of the Western biomedical model, but rather within an imagined model of owning an asset that benefits older people, their kin, and the community.
  • A Scoping Review of Older LGBTI People's Experiences of Homecare

    Mel Duffy; Giovanni Frazzetto; Anthony Staines; Anne Matthews; James Geoghegan; Collette Gleeson; Claire Mooney; James O'Hagan; Sean Vail (Cogitatio, 2024-01-01)
    Amidst the global growth of the ageing demographic in the world, an inclusive assessment of the care needs of the older lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and intersex (LGBTI) population is receiving increasing attention, especially in view of reported health inequalities for these minority groups and the position of their sexual orientations and gender identities within a predominantly heteronormative health and social system. This literature review aims to identify and analyse previous research on older LGBTI people’s views, experiences, and perceptions of homecare provision. We searched the CINAHL, Medline, and PsychINFO databases and found a total of 337 records. After an eligibility assessment, 12 studies were selected, comprising 11 qualitative studies, and one mixed methods study. Under an overarching theme of fears of discrimination and of receiving suboptimal care, we further categorised our findings in the following three interlinked subthemes: (a) disclosure of gender identity and sexual orientation; (b) emerging meanings of LGBTI‐competent care; and (c) recommendations for improved quality of LGBTI‐friendly services. The overall surfacing outcome of our analysis of the participants’ experiences described in the studies examined is an aspiration for homecare services ensuring quality of holistic, person‐centred care that recognises this population’s distinct set of requirements, including knowledge and consideration of their histories of inequalities and oppression. Wider awareness about the need to re‐imagine more inclusive care for the LGBTI community has the potential to improve services and practices, reduce access barriers, and prevent inequalities.
  • Dancing With Care: Promoting Social Inclusion Among Older Women in China Through a Novel Preventative Care Model

    Chun Xia; Jia Xu; Jianzeng An; Jianwen Ding (Cogitatio, 2024-01-01)
    This article examines how a new form of preventative care provision—dancing with care (DWC)—promotes social inclusion among older women in China and explores whether DWC can be regarded as an effective way to address the challenges these older women face in improving their social inclusion and achieving a healthy lifestyle. Our study demonstrates that various dimensions of DWC play a vital role in addressing the difficulties these older women encounter in their struggle to end their own social exclusion: These dimensions include levels of happiness, social network involvement, access to social support in “preventative care terms”, and the role of own’s grandchildren as a means to social bonding. Various dimensions of DWC align with the concept of preventative care for older women in urban communities. Using semi-structured interviews in selected “DWC communities” located in southern China, this article demonstrates that DWC contributes to addressing older women’s social inclusion by providing preventative care. In addition, we also performed an empirical data analysis that included institutional regulations for DWC design and implementation, publications by DWC communities, and academic research focused on DWC communities. DWC proposes an appealing path for older women to actively engage with and within their community. Furthermore, it offers valuable insights into the potential of a new model of preventative care and our conclusions will serve as a reference for enhancing social involvement among older individuals globally.
  • A Community Project to Supplement Social Care Services

    Frances H. Barker; Mollie Roach (Cogitatio, 2024-01-01)
    Solva in West Wales, UK, is a small community with about 700 people on the electoral roll. In 2013, Solva Community Council faced the fact that things were not going well for the elderly in our village. Many had to leave home and go “into care.” They didn’t want to go and we didn’t want to lose them. A community councillor at that time, author Mollie Roach, did some research and decided that the village could look after its own. A small working party including first author Frances Barker was set up to plan the way forward. The original idea was not a volunteer service. We wanted to set up a local domiciliary care service, where the carers would live locally and not have to spend their precious time travelling between wide-spread destinations. We soon found that there were several administrative and monetary barriers in the way of setting up such a scheme, especially for a small community. Registration needed money and qualified people. and the “rules” were such as to prevent rather than encourage individual response to individual circumstances. However, we could see that there was a need for a local volunteer service. It is disturbing when you discover you cannot go up a ladder and change a light bulb. It is devastating when you are told you cannot drive anymore because of an eye problem. It is worrying when you cannot take the dog for a good walk or collect your prescription because of arthritis. All these problems are under the radar of statutory services. This is a gap that can be alleviated by a local community-based volunteer scheme. Solva Care evolved with a paid co-ordinator to mediate between volunteers and those needing help. We are now getting closer to the original idea, doing our best to integrate domiciliary and social care, working with agencies, private carers, families, and individuals, as well as continuing to run the volunteer service.
  • Reflections on Community Development, Preventative Care, and Ageing

    Fiona Verity; Frances H. Barker; Jonathan Richards; Simon Read; Mark Llewellyn (Cogitatio, 2024-01-01)
    Recently there has been a chorus of demands to “re‐imagine” social care. Community and faith‐based organisations, policy, and academic communities are engaged in discussions on issues such as human rights for older populations, the future of residential care, how to better support family/community care, and strengthen local place‐based community development. Moreover, the Covid‐19 pandemic has added new urgency to this mission, galvanizing developments for change and collective action and exposing public troubles of endemic system failings, prevailing discourses of ageism, tensions with health systems, and limitations of market models of care and support. Prevention is a central social welfare principle in many countries. It is associated with policy and practices that aim to meet social care needs early and is explored in this thematic issue.
  • Pirnilu Nintipungkupayi (Everyone Is a Teacher): Keeping Old People's Spirit Healthy Through Education

    Jennie Buchanan; Daisy Ward; Elizabeth Marrikiyi Ellis; Jan Turner; Dave Palmer (Cogitatio, 2024-01-01)
    In the Ngaanyatjarra Lands of desert Western Australia, older people are being encouraged to participate meaningfully in student education. This initiative is being led by two of the authors of this article, senior Ngaanyatjarra women, both of whom work with the Ngaanyatjarra Lands School with its campuses in eight remote communities spread over hundreds of kilometres. Elderly men and women, some of whom are residents in the Ngaanyatjarra Aged Care home (Ngaanyatjarra Health Service, 2021), are eagerly participating in the planning of bush trips, gathering their traditional resources, seeds, grinding stones, bush resins, recalling stories, songs, and dances—as they prepare for the bush camps with students. During the camps the schoolteachers step back and the elderly lead in what is known as two‐way science. At first glance, this work may look like it is simply focused on the educational needs of students with senior Yarnangu acting in a supporting role. However, this article will demonstrate the continuous connections and responsibilities, laid out in the Tjukurrpa (the Dreaming), between the old and the young, to their ancestral lands. It sets out how according to “Tjukurrpa thinking,” the principal way to provide good care is by helping senior people remain on country with family, pass on their knowledge to younger people, and thus keep strong languages and kurrunpa (people’s spirit) alive.
  • Preventative Social Care and Community Development in Wales: “New” Legislation, “Old” Tensions?

    Simon Read; Fiona Verity; Mark Llewellyn; Gideon Calder; Jonathan Richards (Cogitatio, 2024-01-01)
    Prevention is becoming ever more central in UK care policy for older people, though precisely what this entails, and how it works most effectively in social care and support, remains ambiguous. Set against the “newness” of recent social care legislation in Wales, this article explores the perspectives of professionals on prevention and community development, particularly for older people. This draws on qualitative data collected from 11 Welsh local authorities, four NHS Wales health boards, and eight regional third-sector organisations, incorporating 64 interviews with directors, executives, and senior managers. Recent research has highlighted concerns over the slipperiness of prevention as a concept, resulting in multiple interpretations and activities operating under its banner. Consistent with this, our data suggested a kaleidoscopic picture of variously named community-based initiatives working to support the intricate web of connections that sustain older people, as well as provide practical or material help. Similarly, professionals highlighted varied agendas of community resilience, individual independence, and reducing the need for state-funded health and social care, as well as a range of viewpoints on the roles of the state, private sector, and the third sector. Analysis revealed fragments of familiar themes in community development; positive hopes for community initiatives, tensions between the mixed agendas of state-instigated activities, and the practical challenges arising from systems imbued with neo-liberal ideas. Realising the promise of prevention will require deft steering through these challenges.
  • Ageing in Place, Healthy Ageing: Local Community Involvement in the Prevention Approach to Eldercare

    Chiara Lodi Rizzini; Franca Maino; Celestina Valeria De Tommaso (Cogitatio, 2024-01-01)
    The increase in ageing societies is posing new and urgent societal and political challenges to meeting people’s medical, personal, and social needs in old age. Ageing should not be considered a uniform phase of life and at least three phases should be distinguished: (a) silver age, (b) the mildly frail age, and (c) those at risk of dependency. Policy tools and logics should prevent and support specific needs in a life‐course approach and the preventive approach is seen as among the most useful interventions, with a baseline objective to promote ageing in place, minimize the institutionalization of care, and prevent psychophysical deterioration by supporting older people and their families through tailor‐made approaches and policies. Our study focuses on the project Invecchiare bene/Bien vieillir (ageing well) funded by Interreg Alcotra France–Italy and implemented in the Valleys of Monviso in northern Italy. The project targets older people living at home in mountainous areas, where healthy ageing is difficult due to chronic diseases and social isolation. This article presents an analysis of preventive‐based interventions and services that promote innovative ageing policies and investigates the involvement of the local community and how it can lead to the deployment of new preventive measures. The research covers the direct impact on the health and living conditions of the recipients (older people) and innovation by the local care model (among social workers and the local community). Qualitative (documentary analysis, semi‐structured interviews, and focus groups) as well as quantitative (questionnaire and secondary data analysis) methods were used.
  • Person‐Centred Planning in Centres of Activities for Inclusion

    Lénia Carvalhais; Ana Rita Fernandes; Lígia Almeida (Cogitatio, 2023-12-01)
    Person‐centred planning includes the active social participation of individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) and is the fairest path towards assuring human rights and citizenship among people with IDD. Semi‐structured interviews were undertaken with four technicians from centres of activities in Portugal, four family members, and four adults with IDD to observe the best practices that facilitate/hinder the implementation of person‐centred interventions. Several discrepancies were identified regarding inclusive practices in centres of activities and capacity building, associated with the sense of mission, vision and perspective of technical structures, the bureaucratic weight that conditions the transition between intervention models, the participation and positioning of families regarding their representation of the centres, as well as the investment these centres make concerning effective and fair inclusion in surrounding communities. Still far from successful implementation, a person‐centred approach must be considered and include all participants’ perspectives to build robust and integral life projects.
  • Women and the Federation of Disability Organizations in Malawi: Experiences of Struggle and Solidarity

    Sarah Huque (Cogitatio, 2023-12-01)
    Women with disabilities are among the most marginalised members of the Federation of Disability Organizations in Malawi (FEDOMA), facing particular challenges related to sexual and gender‐based violence and family/home life; women with disabilities are both abused because of their embodied womanhood and denied many socially‐valued “traditional women’s roles.” However, women within Malawi’s disability rights movement transgress the boundaries of these social restraints. In this article, I share stories of women disability activists, drawn from an interview and participant observation‐based project, co‐designed with FEDOMA to explore the experiences of grassroots activists. In telling their stories, the women of FEDOMA detailed processes of empowerment and change, combatting their own and others’ experiences of violence, abuse, and exclusion. I discuss the ways in which women activists embodied roles that altered their communities and built activist networks, supporting one another in expressing agency, strength, and solidarity. Their work highlights a politics of care that emphasises the “traditional” and the “modern,” incorporating individualised human rights discourse into an ethics of community caring and expanding this collective inclusion to the oppressed and marginalised. In focusing on the experiences of Malawi’s women disability activists, we gain a more complex understanding of mechanisms of marginalisation, resistance, and empowerment.
  • Intersecting Disability and Poverty in the Global South: Barriers to the Localization of the UNCRPD

    Shaun Grech; Jörg Weber; Sarah Rule (Cogitatio, 2023-12-01)
    The UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD) remains in place as the major disability rights instrument recognising that all persons with disabilities must enjoy human rights and freedoms as every other person. However, the CRPD does not automatically confer realization of these rights. In practice, its implementation is met by multiple hurdles, most pronounced at the local level in the Global South, where disability and poverty intersect. This article reports on findings from a study in five countries (Kenya, Philippines, Jamaica, Guatemala, and South Africa) looking at the extent to which the CRPD is being implemented locally in contexts of poverty, and the factors and processes impacting this localization. The findings highlight multiple barriers, becoming more pronounced in local rural areas. These include weak and fragmented organisations of persons with disabilities (OPDs), political and legal issues, and a siloed approach where disability is marginalised in mainstream areas, including development. These barriers are accentuated as intersectional dimensions are factored in, including indigeneity, age, gender, race, and ethnicity. Overall, each local context is left to its own devices, with urban stakeholders, unknowing of what life in poverty is like and how this reframes the CRPD in discourse and practice at the forefront. Our study concludes that there is a profound need for an informed, contextualized, intersectional, and geopolitical analysis where poverty is kept sharply in focus. This is essential to move beyond unrealistic assumptions about disability rights frameworks and to work towards truly localized and transformative efforts.
  • Intersectional Praxis and Disability in Higher Education

    Marie Sépulchre (Cogitatio, 2023-12-01)
    This article explores whether intersectional praxis can be discerned in the provision of disability/accessibility resources in higher education in Sweden and the United States. Analysing interviews with administrative staff based on hypothetical scenarios (vignettes) that could qualify as situations of disability discrimination, this article identifies several situations of (missed) opportunities for intersectional praxis. It then proceeds with a discussion of participants’ conceptions of disability and organisational possibilities for collaborations with other offices at their university or college. Although opportunities for intersectional praxis are generally absent or missed in both countries, the article argues that American participants were closer to such critical praxis because they tended to consider disability in terms of barriers and as a structural issue, and advocated for the recognition of disability as diversity. By contrast, the Swedish participants seemed further away from an intersectional praxis because they tended to view disability as a difficulty that requires individualised support measures and as a situational issue regarding the learning environment. The article proposes that these differences are connected to differences regarding disability and anti‐discrimination politics in both countries. In the US, disability politics have been characterised by a civil rights and social justice approach, while in Sweden disability politics have been conceived in terms of welfare services and a relational approach to disability. This article concludes that the conception of intersectionality as a critical praxis offers an original lens to gain new insights into how disability inclusion is promoted in different contexts.
  • Disabled People and the Intersectional Nature of Social Inclusion

    Alexis Buettgen; Fernando Fontes; Susan Eriksson (Cogitatio, 2023-12-01)
    This editorial introduces a thematic issue of Social Inclusion focusing on disabled people and the intersectional nature of social inclusion. This thematic issue includes transnational and transdisciplinary studies and expressions of lived experiences facing disabled people, their families, and allies across the globe from a social, human rights, and/or disability justice perspective. The articles comprising this issue include an explicit recognition and discussion of intertwined and socially constructed identities, labels, power, and privilege as explicated by pioneering Black feminists who introduced the concept of intersectionality. Taken together, the articles within this issue identify and articulate the powerful ideological forces and subsequent policies and practices working against transformational action. As such, we are not calling for the inclusion of disabled people into society as it is today—wrought with social, economic, and environmental crises. Rather, we seek a transformation of the status quo whereby disabled people are respected as an inherent part of human diversity with gifts and worthiness untangled from a capitalist and colonial system of exploitation, extraction, and oppression. This means that achieving social justice and inclusion requires radically reordering our economic and political systems. This thematic issue illuminates the impacts and root causes of exclusion to foment critical thinking about the possibilities for social inclusion from the perspective of those who are marginalized by the status quo.
  • Disability, Religion, and Gender: Exploring Experiences of Exclusion in India Through an Intersectional Lens

    Stephen Thompson; Brigitte Rohwerder; Dolon Mukherjee (Cogitatio, 2023-12-01)
    Despite the existence of national and international laws and conventions to avoid discrimination in India, exclusion due to an intersection of disability, gender, and religious identity continues, resulting in marginalisation from society. This article investigates the lived experiences of people by exploring how aspects of their identity intersect to influence their inclusion or exclusion within society. Narrative interviews were undertaken with 25 participants with disabilities in the states of Tamil Nadu and West Bengal. This qualitative methodology was employed to allow the participants to recount their experiences (both positive and negative) in their own words. A thematic analysis of the data provided rich evidence of the complex social structure in India, manifested by the multifaceted intersectional nature of social inclusion and exclusion. Our research found that for our participants disability was the main factor upon which discrimination was based, but that this discrimination is often compounded for people with disabilities due to their minority religious status, or gender. Marginalisation of people with disabilities is shown to be exacerbated when these identities intersect. Action is needed to ensure the human rights of people with disabilities are realised and that discrimination and marginalisation are avoided for those who have different identities compared to the majority of the population.
  • Latin American Perspectives on Parenthood and Disability: Vulnerability, Risk, and Social Inclusion

    Laura Sanmiquel-Molinero; Joan Pujol-Tarrés; Marisela Montenegro (Cogitatio, 2023-12-01)
    Despite the growing recognition and acceptance of disabled people’s sexuality, there are barriers to parenthood anchored in metaphors of vulnerability and risk. The social inclusion of disabled parents seems both desirable and risky, making disabled parenthood one of the current frontiers of inclusion for the disabled body. The interest in disabled parenting in Anglo-Saxon academic literature has barely been considered related to Latin American production. This article aims to address this gap by exploring the Latin American scientific community’s understanding of parenthood and disability. To do so, we conduct a pragmatic discourse analysis of Latin American scientific articles in Web of Science (in English) and RedALyC and SciELO (in Spanish). Our findings show how the Latin American scientific community draws on different models of disability—in some cases introducing an intersectional perspective—that reproduce metaphors of vulnerability/risk regarding parenthood. We conclude by highlighting the importance of establishing dialogues between critical perspectives on disability from the Anglo-Saxon and Latin American contexts to address the complexities of the reproduction processes of disabled people. These dialogues can contribute to problematising the metaphor of vulnerability/risk currently associated with disabled parenthood.
  • Halin ai: Intersectional Experiences of Disability, Climate Change, and Disasters in Indonesia

    Desy Ayu Pirmasari; Katie McQuaid (Cogitatio, 2023-12-01)
    Halin ai centres the lived experiences of climate change and disasters of people living with disabilities in two urban sites in Indonesia—Banjarmasin in South Kalimantan and Mataram in West Nusa Tenggara. We call for an intersectional and decolonial approach to better understand how disabilities intersect with social and structural injustices in urban settings to shape diverse responses to climate change and disasters. We highlight the economic, socio‐cultural, and embodied challenges that increase vulnerability to—and ability to recover from—disasters including urban flooding and earthquakes. We draw on ethnographic and visual data from our research, including a comic illustrated by Ariel and Zaldi and sketches by Rizaldi, to centre diverse lived experiences of structural vulnerabilities and socio‐cultural marginalisation, particularly concerning education and livelihoods. Foregrounding life stories in this way serves to challenge the absence of meaningful engagement of people with disabilities in disaster risk reduction and climate change actions and decision‐making. Our article highlights disability as a site of both discrimination and critical embodied knowledge, simultaneously a product of structural, socio‐cultural, political, and environmental injustice while also a source of innovation, resilience, and agency.
  • Work‐Related ICT Use and the Dissolution of Boundaries Between Work and Private Life

    Ines Entgelmeier; Timothy Rinke (Cogitatio, 2023-11-01)
    Information and communication technologies (ICTs) promote flexible forms of work. Based on analyses of data from the German BIBB/BAuA Employment Survey 2018, this article shows that ICT (computer/internet) use is associated with both overtime and better temporal alignment of work and private life. Additional analyses show that these associations differ by gender and parenthood. Especially if also working from home, men with and without children do more overtime when they use ICTs than women with and without children. Better temporal alignment is found only among men without children who use ICTs and work from home compared to women without children.
  • Domestic Cleaners in the Informal Labour Market: New Working Realities Shaped by the Gig Economy?

    Laura Wiesböck; Julia Radlherr; Mai Linh Angelique Vo (Cogitatio, 2023-11-01)
    Previous studies show that gig economy‐based work opens up new ways in which inequalities are (re)produced. In this context, it is particularly important to look at female cleaners in private households, where gender inequalities intersect with other axes of disadvantage such as class, migratory experience, or ascribed ethnicity. This spatially and linguistically fragmented group presents challenges for scientific research, which is reflected in insufficient data available to date. The aim of the project GigClean—from which research for this article is drawn—is to address this gap. The guiding research question is: How do domestic cleaners in the informal labour market experience working in the gig economy? The methodological design consists of 15 problem‐centred interviews with platform‐based cleaning labourers in private households in Vienna, who predominantly operate in the informal economy. Our results suggest that undeclared domestic work via online plat‐forms is associated with increased power gaps between workers and clients as well as changing working conditions to the detriment of cleaners. Specifically, three recurring themes could be identified: reserve army mechanisms; lookism, objectification, and sexual harassment; and information asymmetry and control.
  • Dependency and Social Recognition of Online Platform Workers: Evidence From a Mixed‐Methods Study

    Dominik Klaus; Barbara Haas; Maddalena Lamura (Cogitatio, 2023-11-01)
    This article is about those who need or want to make a living from working on online platforms. Moreover, questions of financial dependence are related to why this work is done and what social recognition the workers expect from it. Our mixed‐methods approach captures this heterogeneous field of online platform work by dividing it into three categories: (a) microwork, (b) mesowork, and (c) macrowork. Microwork involves offering short, repetitive tasks to an anonymous crowd, such as human intelligence tasks. Macrowork consists of market‐based freelance platforms offering highly skilled professionals complex and more extensive tasks. In between, mesowork covers platforms offering specialized tasks such as software testing or content creation. While income opportunities and working conditions vary widely between these platforms, common features include self‐employment and the ability to work from anywhere. Quantitative results show that only for a few highly skilled workers does income from platform work account for a crucial share of their household income. Surprisingly, workers’ household incomes do not differ by skill level. Qualitative results complement this picture by giving us a more contextual understanding of the significant variation among workers. We find cases in which monetary remuneration is not the only reason for doing platform work. So, despite all the criticism of precarious working conditions, platform work does have some positive aspects and can also hold the potential for the social inclusion of people who cannot participate in traditional labor markets. This article contributes to these discussions by providing workers’ perspectives on the risks and challenges of online platform work, acknowledging their different living situations, socioeconomic status, and health issues.

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