individual psychological empowerment
creative organizational climate
Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM)
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Abstract[[abstract]]現今的社會以服務業為導向，為了更進一步提高人們的生活水準與滿足顧客的需求，有賴於服務業的創新。然而，組織的創新需要透過員工創造力的表現。服務業的第一線員工與顧客間有最直接的互動，當他們面對工作時，需要擁有較大的自主權作出決策，進而增加服務傳遞的效率與促進員工創造力。因此，本研究試圖回答：服務業員工「心理賦權如何透過中介機制進而促進員工創造力?」。服務業多半以團隊工作方式運作，因個人與團隊認知心理賦權的程度可能不同，因此，本研究採取過去學者的建議將心理賦權區分成個人與團隊心理賦權，進而探討對於員工創造力的影響，並同時探討兩變數間的關鍵中介機制。過去影響創造力的因素不僅來自個人特質，也會受到外在環境的影響，本研究整理過去影響創造力的因素，並將之分成個人與組織層次，個人層次中介機制放入創意自我效能與內在動機；組織層次中介機制放入組織創新氣氛愈高，並採用階層線性模型進行跨層次整體模型的驗證。本研究貢獻分為三部分，首先，將心理賦權分成個人層次與組織層次，同時探討對於個人層次員工創造力的影響，有別於過去研究多以單一層次的角度，探討個人心理賦權對於個人行為與態度的影響或團隊心理賦權對於團隊表現的影響。第二、本研究提出關鍵中介機制，並證實個人或團隊心理賦權會透過內在動機與創意自我效能中介，進而促進員工創造力，而團隊心理賦權會透過組織創新氣氛中介，進而促進員工創造力。此研究結果，有別於過去對於心理賦權影響創造力的研究僅針對兩變數間單一關係探討更具有整合性，將心理賦權影響員工創造力的研究往前推進。第三、採用階層線性模型對整體架構進行跨層次分析與探討，可以有效且精確評估影響員工創造力的變異，並使用多層次中介效果檢驗原理，將整體模型投入HLM進行驗證，藉以減少分析的誤差。 Nowadays, our society is a service-oriented society. It relies on the service innovation to improve the living standard and meet customers’ needs. Moreover, the innovation of an organization relies on the employee creativity. There is a directive interaction between frontline service employees and customers. When facing customers with quite diverse needs, frontline service employees need autonomy to make a decision to increase the effectiveness of service delivery and improve employees’ creativity. Most service organizations focus on organizational work teams. Psychological empowerment at the individual level focuses on individual’s perceptions, while that at the team level focus on shared perceptions among team members. It is only by explicitly evaluating both levels that researchers would begin to construct a complete and accurate scope. Therefore, this study divides psychological empowerment into individual and team psychological empowerment, and concurrently discusses the influence on employees creativity with mediators between psychological empowerment and employee creativity. Personal characteristics and contextual environment have been acknowledged as crucial factors which pose a significant influence on employee creativity. Among these factors, we adopt creativity self–efficacy and intrinsic motivation as mediators at the individual level and creative organizational climate at the team level and use hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) to verify the cross-level model. Three contributions are made by our study. First, we divide the psychological empowerment into the individual level and team level, and discuss their influence on employee creativity. This study differs from previous studies which merely use a single-level perspective to discuss the influence of individual psychological empowerment on individual behavior or the influence of team empowerment on team's performance. Second, key mediators are proposed and justified to be dominant. A Significant influence of individual or team psychological empowerment on employee creativity through mediators of intrinsic motivation and creativity self-efficacy are confirmed a great influence of team empowerment on employee creativity through the mediator of creative organizational climate is also verified. Unlike other researchers only discuss for a single relationship between psychological empowerment and employee creativity, the results derived from the multi-correlated considerations are more integrated. Third, we use HLM to discuss the cross-level framework and verify our hypotheses. HLM has a robust capability to effectively and accurately analyze the variation of employee creativity and verify multilevel mediation.