Mokinių kritinio mąstymo gebėjimų ugdymas dirbant su istoriniais šaltiniais Lietuvoje ir užsienyje
Istorijos mokymas ir mokymasis
Istorijos pagrindinio ugdymo bendroji programa
History teaching and learning
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AbstractStraipsnyje išanalizuotos ugdymo turinį reglamentuojančios bendrosios programos (Lietuvos ir užsienio šalių) ir moksliniai kritinio mąstymo gebėjimų ugdymo, dirbant su istoriniais šaltiniais, tyrimai, fiksuojantys šaltinio supratimo augimo reikalavimus. Pristatomi empirinio tyrimo rezultatai, identifikuojantys problemas, kylančias istorijos mokytojams per istorijos pamoką ugdant mokinių kritinį mąstymą, kai jiems tenka savarankiškai dirbti su istoriniais šaltiniais.
The multitude of objectives set forth in the general education programme of history in Lithuania, their inconsistency and the lack of connections show the indecisiveness of historical education policy-builders, the superficial perception of fashionable ideas and the failure to understand what the key objective of history teaching actually is. In the Lower Secondary Education General Programmes the objectives of the curriculum concerning the work with historical sources are provided without the conceptual level of the development of pupils’ understanding of the historical source; therefore, the aim of historical literacy – to develop the faculty of critically evaluating the events of the past by taking a multiperspective rather than a monoperspective approach towards them – is very difficult to achieve. The research object is the general programmes regulating the curriculum (in Lithuania and abroad), which establish the requirements for the understanding of the source, the research on the development of critical thinking skills as well as the identification of didactic problems faced by history teachers in developing pupils’ skills of working with historical sources. The aim of the study is to carry out the theoretical analysis of the development of pupils’ critical thinking skills in the work with historical sources in Lithuania and abroad and to compare it with the findings of the empirical study in Lithuania. The first part of the article analyses and evaluates the academic literature about the work of pupils with historical sources and presents the model of the levels of understanding development. The second part addresses the requirements for the understanding of the source laid down in Lithuanian, Canadian and Australian general education programmes and reveals the similarities and differences of the levels of understanding development. The third part reveals the importance of independent source analysis while developing the skills of comprehension of historical meaning and thinking, whereas the fourth part analyses and presents the experience of history teachers in the development of pupils’ skills to analyse historical sources under the general programmes and points out the arising problems. The research revealed that compared to the programmes of Canada and Australia, the aims and objectives declared in the Lower Secondary Education General Programme of History are abstract as they do not define the development of the pupils’ understanding of the historical source and the clear requirements for the learning achievements on the satisfactory, basic and advanced levels while working with historical sources (the model of development (levels) of the understanding of the historical source is not provided). The empirical study revealed that the Lower Secondary Education Programme of History and the content of history textbooks do not help history teachers to conceptually develop pupils’ critical thinking skills while learning to analyse historical sources independently; it forms the gap in the pupils’ understanding of the significance of historical events in contemporary processes in society.