A storm like no other: changes that shaped Seward Peninsula communities at the turn of the 20th century
Influenza Epidemic, 1918-1919
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AbstractThesis (M.A.) University of Alaska Fairbanks, 2009
"This thesis explains how four events at the turn of the twentieth century--the start of an American administration, the introduction of schools and missions, the introduction of reindeer, and the 1918 influenza epidemic--brought sweeping changes to Inupiat on the Seward Peninsula, and contributed to the decline of two formerly-prominent Seward Peninsula communities: Kingegan and Kauwerak"--Leaf iii
National Park Service Bering Land Bridge Preserve historic resource study (HRS) grant
1. Introduction -- Prehistoric cultures of the Seward Peninsula -- 2. Kingegan and Kauwerak -- Whalers and American explorers -- The Gilley affair -- 3. U.S. administration and the Seward Peninsula -- 4. Missions and schools on the Seward Peninsula -- Mission schools in Northwest Alaska -- Role of missionaries -- Wales Mission history -- Spread of Christianity on the Seward Peninsula -- New teachers and new missions on the Seward Peninsula -- Bureau of Education's medical services -- Schools after the missionary period -- End of Bureau of Education work in Alaska -- 5. Reindeer on the Seward Peninsula -- Creation of the Alaska Reindeer Service -- "The reindeer are the schoolbooks" -- Influence of Chukchi and Sami herders -- The first Inupiaq herders -- Influence of the Sami -- Moving the reindeer station Eaton -- The overland relief expedition to Barrow -- Fate of the reindeer -- Return voyage -- Impacts of the expedition for herders -- Impacts of the expedition on reindeer herding -- Changes in the Native ownership of deer -- Changes to the reindeer program under Jackson -- Reindeer fairs -- A burgeoning industry -- Following the 1918 flu epidemic -- Reindeer industry in the 1930s -- Major impacts to the reindeer industry following the 1940s -- Influence of herding on Inupiat -- 6. Devastation of the 1918 influenza epidemic -- Influenza reaches Alaska -- Influenza decimates villagees on the southern half of the Seward Peninsula -- Shishmaref and deering saved -- Aftermath -- Effects of the influenza -- 7. Conclusions -- References.
Northern Studies Program