• Saudi and Bahraini Mothers’ Experiences of Including their Autistic Adolescent Sons in Education: A Capabilities Approach

      Daghustani, Wid; MacKenzie, Alison (2021-10-13)
      Saudi Arabia and Bahrain have both signed the 2006 UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and have a number of Acts and policies which support inclusive education for children with disabilities. However, achieving the goals of equitable education at all levels remains a challenge, especially for autistic children. This paper reports on the experiences of mothers from Saudi Arabia and Bahrain in trying to find schools or autism centres for their autistic adolescent sons. The research is based on in-depth interviews with 17 mothers, the majority of whom reported that educating their sons is challenging, and that the schools and centres are inadequate or expensive, with the result that a number of participants’ children had to stay at home to the detriment of the boys and their mothers’ wellbeing. The findings are interpreted using the Capabilities Approach, a normative, evaluative framework on questions of social justice and individual flourishing. A capability evaluation reveals that many mothers experience capability corrosion as a result of gender, cultural and legal restrictions, difficulties in accessing appropriate education, with respect to three central capabilities: Bodily integrity, Affiliation, and Control over one’s environment.
    • School actors’ enactment of a performative accountability scheme in Russia::Tensions, dilemmas and strategies

      Gurova, Galina; Camphuijsen, Marjolein K. (2019-07-08)
      In European and global educational debates, performative or test-based accountability has become central to modernizing and raising the performance of education systems. However, despite the global popularity of performative accountability modalities, existing research finds contradictory evidence on its effects, which tend to be highly context-sensitive. With the aim of gaining a deeper understanding of the mechanisms and contextual factors that explain the effects of performative accountability, this study investigates the enactment of a performative accountability scheme adopted in the Russian school system. The analysis is based on interview and observation data collected during an in-depth qualitative study of two neighbouring schools with contrasting logics of action. Our findings illuminate the specific ways in which accountability policy outcomes are mediated and shaped by schools’ context and agency. We show how schools with different logics of action react to external pressures, and how different professional groups within schools experience policy pressures in dissimilar ways. We conclude that performative accountability mechanisms reinforce instrumental, and impede expressive, logics of action in schools. In both cases they produce tensions, particularly for schools in disadvantaged areas.
    • School actors’ enactment of a performative accountability scheme in Russia::Tensions, dilemmas and strategies

      Gurova, Galina; Camphuijsen, Marjolein K. (2019-07-08)
      In European and global educational debates, performative or test-based accountability has become central to modernizing and raising the performance of education systems. However, despite the global popularity of performative accountability modalities, existing research finds contradictory evidence on its effects, which tend to be highly context-sensitive. With the aim of gaining a deeper understanding of the mechanisms and contextual factors that explain the effects of performative accountability, this study investigates the enactment of a performative accountability scheme adopted in the Russian school system. The analysis is based on interview and observation data collected during an in-depth qualitative study of two neighbouring schools with contrasting logics of action. Our findings illuminate the specific ways in which accountability policy outcomes are mediated and shaped by schools’ context and agency. We show how schools with different logics of action react to external pressures, and how different professional groups within schools experience policy pressures in dissimilar ways. We conclude that performative accountability mechanisms reinforce instrumental, and impede expressive, logics of action in schools. In both cases they produce tensions, particularly for schools in disadvantaged areas.
    • School engagement projects as authentic and empowering alternatives to research-led honours projects

      McClure, Colin D.; Hudson, Matthew; Higgins, Kieran (Queen's University Belfast, 2022-10-24)
      Here we introduce School-Engagement Projects (SEPs) as an alternative to lab-based capstone projects for STEM undergraduate students, an initiative between Queen’s, W5 and the STEM Hub NI for students to develop, deliver, and determine the impact of outreach activities within local schools on current research undertaken within the University.
    • School Responsiveness to Quality Rankings. An Empirical Analysis of Secondary Education in the Netherlands

      Koning, P.W.C.; van der Wiel, K. (2012)
      This paper assesses the response of Dutch secondary schools to the publication of relative quality ratings in a national newspaper (Trouw). Our research design exploits the discontinuities in the ranking formula that was used to generate five consecutive levels for the overall quality of schools. We find previous Trouw quality scores to have an offsetting effect on school quality performance, i. e. both average grades and the number of diplomas go up after receiving a negative score. These effects are confined to the lower support of the performance distribution. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media New York.
    • School Responsiveness to Quality Rankings. An Empirical Analysis of Secondary Education in the Netherlands

      Koning, P.W.C.; van der Wiel, K. (2012)
      This paper assesses the response of Dutch secondary schools to the publication of relative quality ratings in a national newspaper (Trouw). Our research design exploits the discontinuities in the ranking formula that was used to generate five consecutive levels for the overall quality of schools. We find previous Trouw quality scores to have an offsetting effect on school quality performance, i. e. both average grades and the number of diplomas go up after receiving a negative score. These effects are confined to the lower support of the performance distribution. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media New York.
    • School-based approaches to the correction of refractive error in children.

      2012
      The World Health Organization estimates that 13 million children aged 5-15 years worldwide are visually impaired from uncorrected refractive error. School vision screening programs can identify and treat or refer children with refractive error. We concentrate on the findings of various screening studies and attempt to identify key factors in the success and sustainability of such programs in the developing world. We reviewed original and review articles describing children's vision and refractive error screening programs published in English and listed in PubMed, Medline OVID, Google Scholar, and Oxford University Electronic Resources databases. Data were abstracted on study objective, design, setting, participants, and outcomes, including accuracy of screening, quality of refractive services, barriers to uptake, impact on quality of life, and cost-effectiveness of programs. Inadequately corrected refractive error is an important global cause of visual impairment in childhood. School-based vision screening carried out by teachers and other ancillary personnel may be an effective means of detecting affected children and improving their visual function with spectacles. The need for services and potential impact of school-based programs varies widely between areas, depending on prevalence of refractive error and competing conditions and rates of school attendance. Barriers to acceptance of services include the cost and quality of available refractive care and mistaken beliefs that glasses will harm children's eyes. Further research is needed in areas such as the cost-effectiveness of different screening approaches and impact of education to promote acceptance of spectacle-wear. School vision programs should be integrated into comprehensive efforts to promote healthy children and their families.
    • Schooling costs and child work in rural Pakistan

      Hazarika, Gautam; Bedi, Arjun S. (2003-06)
      <
    • Schooling progress, learning reversal:Indonesia's learning profiles between 2000 and 2014

      Beatty, Amanda; Berkhout, Emilie; Bima, Luhur; Pradhan, Menno; Suryadarma, Daniel (2021-09)
      <
    • Schooling, numeracy, and wealth accumulation:A study involving an agrarian population

      Estrada-Mejia, Catalina; Peters, Ellen; Dieckmann, Nathan F.; Zeelenberg, Marcel; De Vries, Marieke; Baker, David P. (2020-06)
      <
    • Science exemplars in the eye of the beholder: How exposure to online science information affects attitudes

      Knobloch-Westerwick, S.; Johnson, B.K.; Silver, N.A.; Westerwick, A. (2015)
      Drawing on exemplification theory and confirmation bias, this study examined exposure to online science information and subsequent attitude impacts. Participants freely browsed online messages manipulated to feature (a) either exemplar or numeric information and (b) opposing viewpoints, resulting in a 2 (exemplar vs. numeric) × 2 (supporting vs. opposing technology) within-subjects design. Online search findings pertained to four different topics: fracking, biofuels, genetically modified foods, and nanotechnology. Attitudes toward science topics were measured before and after exposure. Exemplar messages fostered longer reading among high-empathy individuals but less exposure among high-numeracy individuals. Participants preferred attitude-consistent messages, which produced attitude shifts.
    • Science Visualization:Guiding principles for the motion design of scientific disseminations

      Vistisen, Peter (Routledge, 2021)
      This paper discusses the use of motion design in creating visual and animated scientific dissemination - in the paper labeled as ‘science visualization’. Through a review of prominent animation theory, science visualization is framed a genre of functional animation, which uses animation outside the field of arts and entertainment. This includes a discussion of the potentials and constraints animation holds when used for didactic communication purposes. Based on the review, we propose and discuss six continuums for motion designers to consider when building science visualizations in collaboration with scientist and provide examples of its possible configurations.
    • Score Gains on g-loaded Tests: No g

      te Nijenhuis, J.; van Vianen, A.E.M.; Van der Flier, H. (2007)
      IQ scores provide the best general predictor of success in education, job training, and work. However, there are many ways in which IQ scores can be increased, for instance by means of retesting or participation in learning potential training programs. What is the nature of these score gains? Jensen [Jensen, A.R. (1998a). The g factor: The science of mental ability. London: Praeger] argued that the effects of cognitive interventions on abilities can be explained in terms of Carroll's three-stratum hierarchical factor model. We tested his hypothesis using test-retest data from various Dutch, British, and American IQ test batteries combined into a meta-analysis and learning potential data from South Africa using Raven's Progressive Matrices. The meta-analysis of 64 test-retest studies using IQ batteries (total N = 26,990) yielded a correlation between g loadings and score gains of - 1.00, meaning there is no g saturation in score gains. The learning potential study showed that: (1) the correlation between score gains and the g loadedness of item scores is - .39, (2) the g loadedness of item scores decreases after a mediated intervention training, and (3) low-g participants increased their scores more than high-g participants. So, our results support Jensen's hypothesis. The generalizability of test scores resides predominantly in the g component, while the test-specific ability component and the narrow ability component are virtually non-generalizable. As the score gains are not related to g, the generalizable g component decreases and, as it is not unlikely that the training itself is not g-loaded, it is easy to understand why the score gains did not generalize to scores on other cognitive tests and to g-loaded external criteria. © 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    • Screening Symptoms of Reactive Attachment Disorder: Evidence for Measurement Invariance and Convergent Validity

      Vervoort, E.; de Schipper, J.C.; Bosman, G.; Verschueren, K. (2013)
      The Relationship Problems Questionnaire (RPQ) was developed to screen symptoms of the inhibited and disinhibited subtype of reactive attachment disorder (RAD). This study further examines the psychometric properties of the RPQ in children with severe emotional and behavioural problems by testing its measurement invariance across informants and its convergent validity. Parents and teachers of 152 children [mean age (M
    • Sekularisering som politisk projekt og moderne uddannelsesreformer i 'provincialized Europe':Historisk forskning i religion og uddannelse efter 'Secularization R.I.P:

      Buchardt, Mette (2021-01-10)
      How can the history of education - after the declaration of the death of the secularization theory paradigm – return to do historical research on secularization as a broad and complex political project with contradicting voices and alliances? What will it take for historians of education to move on and let the notions of and divide between an “age of religion” and an “age of reason and Enlightenment” finally ‘Rest In Peace’?
    • Selecting students for a South African mathematics and science foundation programme: effectiveness and fairness of school-leaving examinations and aptitude tests.

      Van der Flier, H.; Thijs, G.D.; Zaaiman, H. (2003)
      The identification of students with the potential to succeed in mathematics- and science-based study despite previous educational disadvantage is a critical issue currently facing many South African higher education institutions. The possible use of school-leaving examination (Matric) results and/or scores on specially developed aptitude tests for the selection of disadvantaged students was investigated during a four year UNIFY Selection Research Project. UNIFY is a mathematics and science foundation year programme at the University of the North, intended specifically for disadvantaged students from previously black-only educational systems. The research results show that both Matric results and aptitude tests have predictive validity for student performance in UNIFY. Matric results add significantly to the predictive validity attained by the UNIFY selection tests. No significant predictive bias against home and school background is found for the UNIFY student group for either Matric results or aptitude tests. © 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.