Environmental & Socio-economic Studies - the Journal of University of Silesia in Katowice, Poland - is an international, peer-reviewed journal publishing original research papers, review articles and scientific communications concerning the interactions between human activity and the environment in urban and industrial areas, and the functioning of society and nature, both in periods of urban growth and economic development, and in periods of the restructuring of the economy and the development of post-industrial space. The research attention is focused on cities, metropolitan areas and their associated suburban and rural areas, industrial and mining districts, and other areas under human impact.


The Globethics Library has vol. 1(2013) to current

Recent Submissions

  • Biophysical and anthropogenic factors affecting human and Tapanuli orangutan (Pongo tapanuliensis) conflict in Sumatran tropical rain forest, Indonesia

    Samsuri; Zaitunah Anita; Ashari Riyan Hari; Kuswanda Wanda (Sciendo, 2023-12-01)
    Tapanuli orangutan (Pongo tapanuliensis) is a critically endangered species that must be conserved. One of the locations where it is found is Dolok Sipirok Natural Reserve. The threat to this species arises from land use of agriculture and accessibility to the area, resulting in human-orangutan conflict. Identification of conflict areas is necessary. Information on the contributing factors to conflicts between humans and orangutans is also important. This research analyzed the relationship between spatial characteristics with conflict location. The factors including distance to the forest boundary, road, and the river, slope, altitude, and land cover were analyzed. Statistical analysis was performed using Rank Spearman correlation coefficient was. The results showed that distance to farmland and altitude were the main factors affecting the conflict, while the weakest factor was distance from the road. Arse Nauli village was the place where most conflicts occurred. The most robust relationship with conflict was altitude.
  • Changes in regional settlement systems in Poland

    Runge Anna (Sciendo, 2023-12-01)
    This article is an attempt to identify regularities in changes in regional settlement systems in Poland with an indication of the elements that showed the highest population dynamics (growth or decline) in particular periods, thus contributing to changes in the structure of these systems. In order to show similarities and differences in the course of the analyzed changes, univariate statistical measures (median, quartiles) were used. This allowed for presenting a dynamic typology of these changes in order to show their cyclical nature and spatial diversity. The results show that these processes do not occur in a similar direction in all regions. The model of consistent changes in the size structure of cities concerns the settlement core of the country (Mazowieckie, Wielkopolskie, Małopolskie), while the resequential changes generally took place in the agricultural peripheries of the country (Podlaskie, Warmińsko-mazurskie), which were drained from the demographic potential by the migration outflow of the population the earliest, as well as in industrial regions (Śląskie, Łódzkie), where the political and economic transformation significantly affected population processes.
  • Promotion of biosphere reserves: How to build awareness of their importance for sustainable development?

    Vaňová Anna; Vitálišová Katarína; Rojíková Darina; Škvareninová Dagmar (Sciendo, 2023-12-01)
    The biosphere reserves are hybrid territories united protected and non-protected areas with the soft economic and social activities. They bring unique opportunities for local people, businesses and other relevant stakeholders. However, because of low public awareness the potential of some biosphere reserves, is not adequately utilized. This article addresses the research gap related to the identification of the importance of promoting the sustainable development of biosphere reserves and the possibilities of exploiting and enhancing their spatial development. The aim of the research was to clarify the role and importance of promotion for the sustainable development of biosphere reserves. It was focused on investigating the importance of promotion tools in terms of creating awareness of biosphere reserves. The research took place in two Slovak biosphere reserves – Poľana and the Tatras. This article identifies and analyzes the use of promotional tools in these two selected biosphere reserves through secondary sources (websites, profiles on social networks) and in-depth interviews with the managers of these biosphere reserves. The awareness of biosphere reserves was researched with the use of a questionnaire survey in both biosphere reserves. This article defines the problem areas and opportunities, which may contribute to the development of awareness about biosphere reserves which is inevitable for their further sustainable development. The research results confirmed that their promotion influenced the sustainable development of the biosphere reserves. Thanks to their accurate promotion, entrepreneurs and residents can better evaluate the impact of their activities on the sustainability of a biosphere reserve. This contributes to reducing the conflicts that arise between nature protection and economic and social profit.
  • Cultivating communities in Mendoza, Argentina: Exploring social aspects of urban agriculture

    Mietz Lena K.; Civit Bárbara M.; Arena Alejandro P. (Sciendo, 2023-12-01)
    Global food production and security are current challenges. This is reflected, among other things, in the fact that more than 690 million people suffer from hunger or food shortages. The availability of nutritious food is critical for disease control and immune function. In this context, urban agriculture is promoted as a way to ensure access to food, which has developed due to rising prices, food shortages and urban growth. However, there is a lack of in-depth knowledge on the impacts as well as barriers to implementation. Therefore, this study investigates vegetable consumption patterns in the metropolitan city of Mendoza in Argentina, as well as interest in vegetable production, opinions on urban agriculture and barriers. Quantitative research methods were used, and a citizen survey was conducted. The data was analysed using SPSS software and correlations were determined using chi-square. The results show strong interest from citizen in urban agriculture, but also barriers such as lack of time and resources. Successful implementation requires initiative, political will, and acceptance. The results are consistent with other studies and could be further explored in longitudinal studies to assess effectiveness. This is helpful given the importance of urban agriculture and vegetable consumption for sustainable food production and supply.
  • Climate change as a factor enhancing the invasiveness of alien species

    Solarz Wojciech; Najberek Kamil; Tokarska-Guzik Barbara; Pietrzyk-Kaszyńska Agata (Sciendo, 2023-12-01)
    Climate is one of the key factors governing the biological invasions of alien species, thus its change may have significant consequences for the scale of this process. We analyzed the predicted influence of climate change on the invasiveness of alien species in Poland and identified species susceptible to climate change. A total of 60 species of alien plants and 58 animals were assessed through an expert elicitation process. For 79 species climate change was assessed as the factor enhancing the likelihood of introduction, establishment, spread and/or impact in the future. Currently, the majority of these species are not widespread in Poland, and this list includes species totally absent, or present only in cultivation and captivity. Climate change will increase the number of high-risk invasive alien species (IAS) from 38 to 63. Species originating in warmer parts of the world are most susceptible to climate change. The majority of the high-risk IAS are regulated under the EU and Polish legislature. However, no restrictions have been imposed on some of the high-risk IAS. Since climate change will further increase their invasiveness, implementation of legal provisions towards these species is recommended.
  • An evaluation of the effectiveness of distance learning using ICT in geographical education. From the experiences of teachers in Poland

    Hibszer Adam; Tracz Mariola (Sciendo, 2023-12-01)
    The article presents the results of a survey conducted among Polish geography teachers. The purpose of the research was to examine use of information and communication technologies (ICT) in geographical education, carried out remotely after the end of the Lockdown. The collected opinions show that the vast majority of teachers now use information obtained from the Internet and free applications in lessons much more often than before the Covid-19 pandemic. The forced abandonment of traditional classroom learning and its replacement with distance learning has contributed to the development of new skills among teachers and students. Despite the initial reluctance caused by the lack of preparation for the use of new information technologies, geography teachers see many advantages to remote teaching using ICT. In the opinion of those surveyed, the acquired practical digital and communication skills have a positive impact on the teaching of geography. Respondents emphasized that distance learning should only be a supplement to traditional education and used in exceptional situations.
  • Record of aeolian processes in Pleistocene deposits in the foreland of the European sand belt

    Dulias Renata (Sciendo, 2023-12-01)
    This article presents the degree of aeolization of Pleistocene deposits in the foreground of the European sand belt in southern Poland. Ten of the 13 sites were established in the Oświęcim Basin and three in the south part of the Silesian Upland. Attention was focused on four types of deposits formed during three glaciations (Sanian, Odranian, Vistulian): boulder clay, fluvioglacial sands and gravels, end moraine deposits, and aeolian sands. Quartz grain abrasion (for the 0.8–1.0 mm fraction) was examined by mechanical graniformametry and the morphoscopic method. The record of aeolian processes in analyzed deposits is the presence of quartz grains RM (very well-rounded and mat) and EM/RM (moderately rounded and mat). They were found in deposits of various origins and ages but in variable proportions. Considering only the average percentage of grains RM, it should be regarded that abrasion of deposits is low in the case of fluvioglacial deposits, moderate in the case of glacial deposits, and good in the case of aeolian deposits. However, the key factor in determining the degree of abrasion is the share of EM/RM grains, which in the abovementioned deposits are seven, three, and twice as many as RM grains. Therefore, the most noteworthy research result is the very high total share of grains with aeolian abrasion (RM + EM/RM), amounting on average to 84.1% for Odranian fluvioglacial deposits, 86.7% for Sanian glacial deposits and 92.6% for Late Glacial aeolian deposits. It means that in the study area, glacial and fluvioglacial transport included deposits with good aeolian abrasion obtained in the periglacial environment before the transgression of the ice sheets. Probably due to the longer persistence of periglacial conditions in southern Poland, compared to its central and northern parts, the degree of aeolization of fluvioglacial and glacial deposits is better. At the same time, there is a significant differentiation in the aeolization of fluvioglacial deposits within the outwash plain in the foreland of the maximum extent of the Odranian ice sheet. In its proximal part, near the front of the ice sheet, fluvioglacial deposits are characterized by much worse abrasion of quartz grains than in the distal part.
  • An approach to acquiring knowledge of the personal carbon footprint in Cartagena, in the Colombian Caribbean region

    Valdelamar-Villegas Juan Carlos; Fajardo-Herrera Reinaldo (Sciendo, 2023-09-01)
    CO2 is the main greenhouse gas due to the large volumes emitted by anthropogenic activities, which is why it is necessary to implement strategies that allow the identification of potential sources of CO2 emissions in order to design and implement strategies to reduce them. The aim of this research was to estimate the personal carbon footprint in the city of Cartagena. Through the use of a calculator available on the web and the use of social networks, the personal carbon footprint was estimated and its relationship with some sociodemographic and spatial aspects was characterized. The carbon footprint of the inhabitants of Cartagena varies between 0.4 and 17.6 TonEquivCO2 per year, in addition, there were no differences in terms of sex and age groups. On the other hand, the personal carbon footprint at the spatial level is relatively homogeneous, with a slight distribution of values greater than 9 TonEquivCO2 in the area where people with a lower socioeconomic status live. The results suggest the need to prioritize strategies to reduce the carbon footprint in these places.
  • From resilience to collapse: a cross-country study of tourist spending in Europe during the COVID-19 pandemic

    Korinth Bartosz (Sciendo, 2023-09-01)
    The aim of this study was to understand the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the tourism sector in Europe, particularly on tourist spending on transport, accommodation, and restaurants. The data used in the study were sourced from Eurostat statistics for the years 2019 and 2021. As part of the research method, a cartodiagram was used to present the percentage changes in tourist spending in selected European countries. Additionally, an analysis of the percentage change in spending on transport, restaurants, and accommodation in 2021 compared to 2019 was conducted using the ggplot2 package implemented in the R programming language. The study results indicate a varied situation regarding declines in tourist spending in 2021 compared to 2019, with smaller decreases noted in Central European countries, suggesting greater resilience to the pandemic crisis. Despite the declines, Germany and France maintained the highest spending values in 2021, underscoring their key role in the European tourism market. Conclusions from the study suggest that tourism-related spending has a huge impact on the economy. A more thorough understanding of how tourists spend money during their travels, including during a pandemic, can help better tailor tourism offers to their needs. By implementing the recommendations in the article, countries can better prepare for future challenges, build more resilient tourism industries, and ensure sustainable growth in the postpandemic era.
  • Consequences of the activities of Eurasian beaver on local plants and vegetation cover – an overview

    Rakowska Rita; Stachurska-Swakoń Alina (Sciendo, 2023-09-01)
    The Eurasian beaver has a significant impact on biotic and abiotic resources, thus it is known as an “ecosystem engineer”. Currently, the beaver population in Eurasia is estimated at more than 1.4 million individuals due to successful reintroductions in many countries. The recognition of its impact on ecosystems is increasing every year, therefore this article summarizes the current knowledge of how the Eurasian beaver affects the local flora and vegetation in the area where it settles. Beavers initiate a transformation of their closest surroundings with the dams and ponds they create by forming wetlands, and the newly developed vegetation is richer in plant species than previously. Beaver activities lead to a decrease in local woody plant resources and an increase in the species diversity of herbaceous plants. Beavers also cause damage to agricultural crops when they feed on cultivated plants. Observed changes can vary over time and landscape scales due to local conditions and persistence of beaver occurrence. Understanding how beavers affect plants and vegetation may be helpful not only in the protection of the species itself, but also in better management of the areas where they occur.
  • Carbon sequestration potential of trees from urban green spaces of Kolhapur city, Maharashtra, India

    Vasagadekar Priya R.; Gargate Anup V.; Patil Yojana Y.; Raut Prakash D. (Sciendo, 2023-09-01)
    This study was an investigation into the carbon storage and sequestration of trees grown in the green spaces of Kolhapur city, Maharashtra. Urban gardens and green spaces, mainly considering big trees, have a great potential to sequester carbon from the atmosphere and to mitigate the impacts of climate change in cities. Total ten green pockets (gardens) were selected from Kolhapur city. This study was a sustainability initiative to inventory tree species from the green pockets and to assess their carbon sequestration potential for improved urban planning in the future. The above ground biomass (AGB) and below ground biomass (BGB) were estimated by a non destructive method. This included the measurement of tree height and diameter. A total of 29 species of trees were recorded during the study with a storage potential of 688.77 tons of carbon dioxide. Polyalthia longifolia was found to sequester maximum carbon dioxide (CO2) followed by Albizia saman and Mangifera indica. This research highlights the role of urban forests or green spaces and gardens, not only as ornamental and aesthetic plantations but also for mitigating the impacts of climate change at a local level. Well planned urban spaces and urban trees have a major role as green vegetation cover which can act as a carbon sink with high potential which will help in policy making and decision making in the future.
  • The impact of weather conditions on the quality of groundwater in the area of a municipal waste landfill

    Dąbrowska Dominika; Rykała Wojciech; Nourani Vahid (Sciendo, 2023-09-01)
    The quality of groundwater in the source area of pollution depends on many factors, including the weather and hydrogeological conditions within the given area. Anassessment of water quality can be carried out based on data obtained from sensors placed in boreholes. This research examined the influence of air and water temperature, groundwater table position and precipitation on the value of electrical conductivity in groundwater in a selected piezometer belonging to the monitoring network of the Quaternary aquifer in the area of a waste landfill site in Tychy-Urbanowice in southern Poland. The influence of individual factors was checked by using twenty neural network architectures of a Multilayer Perceptron Model (MLP). Each of these indicated factors were selected as input variables. Ultimately, three neural networks were selected, which were characterized by the smallest validation and test errors and showed the highest learning quality. The significance of individual variables for the effectiveness of the model was checked using a global sensitivity analysis. Three selected MLP models contained seven to nine neurons in the hidden layer and used a linear or exponential function as the hidden and output activation. The maximum test quality was 0.8369, while the smallest test error was 0.0011. The results of the sensitivity analysis highlighted the important role of water temperature and water table position on the conductivity value. The obtained goodness of fit results of the models to the input data allowed us to conclude that the MLP was applicable to such forecasts and can be extended by the analysis of further factors.
  • A comparative study of urban land use efficiency of the cities of Hai Phong and Can Tho, Vietnam

    Tuan Nguyen Tran (Sciendo, 2023-09-01)
    The process of urbanisation involves shifts in space and population, and other socio-economic factors, and has far-reaching effects on the use of urban land. Governing affects the process of urbanisation. This study aimed to compare the results of urban land use of two large cities in Vietnam, Hai Phong and Can Tho. To accomplish this, the research used input data from JAXA land cover maps and population data from GSO in order to compute indicators on the effectiveness of urban land use (ULUE) between the years 2000 to 2020. The results indicate that the amount of land used for urban development has increased significantly in both of these locations, whereas the amount of land used for rice cultivation and agricultural purposes has decreased. In particular, the proportions of these two types of land have a greater tendency to decrease in Hai Phong than in Can Tho. In addition, urban land use has not yet achieved efficiency in either of these localities; however, urban land use in Hai Phong demonstrates a significantly higher level of efficiency when compared to that of Can Tho.
  • Having a better environmental performance translates into a better financial performance: A study of the European food industry

    Gomes Adriana Maria Silva; de Sousa Paulo Sérgio Amaral; Moreira Maria do Rosário Alves (Sciendo, 2023-09-01)
    This study examined the relationship between Environmental Performance (EP) and Financial Performance (FP) in the European food industry. The food industry is essential for population sustenance, but the rising population and the consequent increase in food production demand have implications for climate change. The aim of this study was to determine if businesses that consume water more efficiently and have lower CO2 emission intensities might experience improved financial performance. Financial and environmental data were sourced from external databases and company reports, and both quantile regression and correlation analyses were conducted. The results reveal that various sectors within the food industry exhibit different linkages between Environmental Performance and Financial Performance. Furthermore, our findings indicate that water use efficiency can significantly influence financial performance, either positively or negatively, while CO2 emission intensity did not exhibit a definitive impact on Financial Performance.
  • Analysing formal transformations in sustainable urban structures in Kufa City, Iraq

    Jedi Zena Ayad Jaber; Al-Jawari Sara Mahmood (Sciendo, 2023-06-01)
    The research discusses the formal transformation in urban structure, all the cities around the world have undergone a series of formal transformations, resulting in radical transformations to their functions. And to calculate this transformation the descriptive analytical method was applied to this research. First, local urban management data and Landsat-9 visual data were used after processing by GIS. Then, the data were processed mathematically based on their engineering sequences. The aims of this research were as follows: to explore the formal transformations in cities, their dimensions and their consequences and impacts; to identify the underlying causes of their occurrence by deriving realistic results from trends in such degrees of transformation; and to reduce the adverse effects and to establish a sustainable urban structure by taking Kufa City as a model. The research covered the following two time periods: 2002-2012 and 2012-2022, as they represent the time during which Kufa City experienced remarkable formal transformation in urban structure as a result of urbanisation and random growth. Different forms of land use were identified, and formal transformations were analysed. The results showed that the largest transformation occurred when the agricultural land transformed into construction land; which was used in different ways than the original intent. The land uses were visualised digitally at high resolution. The transformation in land use led to formal transformations in the city structure, both planned and randomly implemented. The other objective of this research is to address misuse of the city’s infrastructure; however, sustainability was not considered for several reasons. The agricultural land represents the nutritional value of the city as it provides Kufa and nearby cities with agricultural products. It also represents the green barrier as the environmental conduit for the city. This research recommends managing population growth by using basic city schemes of planning and predicting formal transformations. This approach is the basis for transforming city structures by identifying future structural features in sustainable ways.
  • Ecosystem services, vulnerability and threat levels of Ramsar wetlands in the complex of Aurès Sbkhates, North-Eastern Algeria

    Bougoffa Saida; Benzina Imene; Telailia Salah; Si Bachir Abdelkrim (Sciendo, 2023-06-01)
    A socio-economic study were carried out in the wetlands complex of Aurès Sebkhates, in North Eastern Algeria. This study aimed to identify the ecosystem services obtained by local stakeholders, describe the anthropogenic impacts and evaluate the vulnerability and threat levels of three Ramsar wetlands: Garaet Timerganine (freshwater), Garaet Annk Djemel & El Merhsel (brackish water) and Sebkhet Ezzmoul (salt water). A socio-economic survey was conducted of 70 randomly selected households (social group) and 24 people belonging to the local administration (focus group). Vulnerability and threat levels were analyzed. Provisioning and monetary value are the most relevant ecosystem services (water pumping, grazing, agriculture, area for recreation, plant and egg collection, salt mining). Indirect ecosystem services rendered by the studied wetlands (water treatment/flood control) are only known by the focus group. 95% of the surveyed locals believed that the studied wetlands have experienced significant degradation in recent years mainly by human activity. Our results revealed significant threats due to salt mining and the excessive water pumping practiced within the three sites. Natural stressors such as drying out, erosion and siltation also contribute to the disturbance of these wetlands. Analysis of vulnerability (Vt) and threat (T) indices revealed that Garaet Timerganine is highly vulnerable (Vt= 1.48; T = 17.16), Ezzmoul is moderately vulnerable (Vt = 0.23; T = 2.3) and Annk Djemel & El Merhsel are weakly vulnerable (Vt = 0.04; T = 0.28). This study highlighted the most vulnerable wetlands in order to prioritize them and to build a strategy for conservation and their wise use.
  • Long-term outcomes of the livelihoods of displaced households after hydropower dam construction: A case study in Thua Thien Hue Province, Vietnam

    Ty Pham Huu (Sciendo, 2023-06-01)
    Millions of people have been displaced and resettled worldwide to build hydroelectric dams. Most of the previous studies show that the livelihoods of the resettled people have been getting worse, but these studies have only been evaluated over a short time frame and only selected two-time periods for assessment, including before and after displacement. Few follow-up and evaluation studies have been conducted for periods longer than 10 years. Therefore, this study conducted a study that was long-term at a resettlement site for hydropower construction in Vietnam to observe the change in livelihoods over more than 12 years of the people that were resettled. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used in the research to determine livelihood outcomes and to explain the causes of changes in livelihood pathways after resettlement. Our findings indicate that the loss of productive land for upland rice and dry crops was the greatest challenge for displaced households. Households which were headed by women, or those that were handicapped, were more susceptible to land loss. Displaced people also lost their traditional jobs and faced food insecurity because they did not have productive land for cultivating rice and cassava crops. As a result of this significant reduction in economic and food conditions, displaced households could not maintain their culture and religion, and the coherence of Bo Hon, the study village gradually decreased. However, displaced households made a faster recovery in income generation than other communities displaced by hydropower dams in Vietnam after 12 years. They could generate more income because they live near Hue city and receive strong support from local authorities. Through this study, it has been shown that the selection and arrangement of a suitable resettlement site with good access to the job market will be a prerequisite to help displaced households to adapt and develop their livelihoods after resettlement in conditions of limited access to natural resources.
  • Current and potential landscape functions of areas with the remnants of World War II bombing in the Koźle Basin, southern Poland

    Waga Jan M.; Fajer Maria; Szypuła Bartłomiej (Sciendo, 2023-06-01)
    Wars bring civilisation and environmental disasters. In the forests and wetlands of the Koźle Basin (southern Poland), clusters of bomb craters remain, which are associated with the air campaign conducted by the USAAF to disable the Third Reich’s fuel facilities. They are among the most spectacular in Europe today. There are nearly 6,000 large bomb craters with a diameter of 7-15 meters and smaller ones from the fall of unexploded ordnance. These areas, with their characteristic scarred relief, currently pose difficulties in terms of economic use. The depressions left after the bombs fell, naturally became small sedimentation basins and niches that were taken over by nature. Landscape and nature mapping of the surveyed areas, altered by the bombing, in conjunction with historical data, suggest that they require protection in the form of two landscape-nature protected complexes (a form of landscape protection in Poland). They can serve as environmental and historical education zones, wildlife sanctuaries, as well as areas for the introduction and reintroduction of species. This is important in a region where hundreds of years of agricultural dominance, as well as decades of intensive industrial development and urban settlement, have caused major changes in the natural environment and degradation of its structures. Similar historical sites, trails and cultural parks dedicated to the war campaigns have been introduced in different European countries.
  • Floristic and phytoecological diversity of Holm Oak Quercus ilex forests in the Belezma Massif Biosphere Reserve, North-East Algeria

    Daoudi Iman; Farhi Kamilia; Si bachir Abdelkarim (Sciendo, 2023-06-01)
    The holm oak is a species that forms interesting stands in the Belezma National Park (PNB). Studying it has allowed us to understand it’s ecological and phytoecological characteristics. Despite the importance of this species, individual trees remain exposed to multiple threats. Surveys were carried out at the level of the massifs of Kassrou and Om rkhaa which enabled us to carry out the floristic groups of the Holm oak. The study area is characterized by high floristic diversity, with 120 plant species belonging to 106 genera and 34 families, 46 of which are not included in the list of flora of the Belezma National Park. The most dominant families are Asteraceae (32 species; i.e., 27%) and Fabaceae (13 species; i.e., 11%), which are also families that are frequently found in Algeria, particularly in the Mediterranean region. The study of the phytogeographical spectrum shows that the field stations studied are dominated by the Mediterranean element (75%, 58%). Analysis of the biological types revealed the predominance of hemicryptophytes (30.33%). Therophytes were present with a high percentage at the two study sites (21%, 32%); the disturbance indices were respectively 46%, and 50%, showing high anthropogenic pressure. It is important to take the necessary measures for the preservation and conservation of this precious heritage.
  • Certified reference material for coal in accordance with the PN-EN ISO 17034:2017-03 standard and ISO GUIDE 35:2017

    Więcek Katarzyna; Kocela-Jagiełko Aneta; Szulik Wojciech; Celary Piotr (Sciendo, 2023-03-01)
    Due to an absence of domestic certified reference materials for coal on the Polish market, an attempt was made to manufacture a new and innovative product tailored to its needs. The chosen candidate material was hard coal acquired from Poland’s coal mines. A single reference material unit consisted of 50g of an analytical hard coal sample with a grain size below 0.2 mm. A manufacturing method was developed enabling production of matrix reference materials addressing the needs of the domestic solid fuel market, and was directed at research laboratories carrying out analyses of solid fuels for the energy and coking sectors. The adapted manufacturing scheme of a certified reference material for coal was presented with a description of the chosen critical steps of the process and discussion of the obtained results in terms of homogeneity, stability, characterisation of the reference material as well as assigned values to particular properties and their uncertainty budget. The results obtained during homogeneity, short-term and long-term stability assessments as well as reference material characterisation confirmed the feasibility of the investigated certified coal reference material manufacturing process. The obtained levels of relative expanded uncertainties of the measurements confirmed the feasibility of the manufactured certified reference material for establishing and maintaining metrological traceability of measurement results. The presented research establishes a base for planning out production of additional reference materials as well as providing the know-how for designing manufacturing schemes for reference materials for solid fuels, or waste related materials like fly ash, or furnace waste.

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