Environmental & Socio-economic Studies - the Journal of University of Silesia in Katowice, Poland - is an international, peer-reviewed journal publishing original research papers, review articles and scientific communications concerning the interactions between human activity and the environment in urban and industrial areas, and the functioning of society and nature, both in periods of urban growth and economic development, and in periods of the restructuring of the economy and the development of post-industrial space. The research attention is focused on cities, metropolitan areas and their associated suburban and rural areas, industrial and mining districts, and other areas under human impact.


The Globethics.net Library has vol. 1(2013) to current

Recent Submissions

  • Organic farms are the fundamental basis for the sustainable foreign economic activities of agrarians in Ukraine

    Ohanisian Alina; Levchenko Nataliia; Shyshkanova Ganna; Abuselidze George; Prykhodko Volodymyr; Banchuk-Petrosova Olena (Sciendo, 2022-06-01)
    The article emphasizes the importance of organic production development in the agricultural sector of the Ukrainian economy and substantiates that one of the important priorities of agribusiness is organic production, which is mainly export-oriented, and therefore is the fundamental basis for the sustainability of the foreign economic activity of its farmers. An increase in organic production, in particular cattle products, is accompanied by additional methane emissions (but lower than those from nonorganic production), while Ukraine, having joined the Global Methane Pledge initiative to reduce methane emissions, has committed to taking measures to reduce its methane footprint and consequently the decision to invest and/or provide government support for development programs should be based on historical analysis using a decoupling approach. The trends of changes in the average annual livestock population, the livestock production volume and dynamics of methane emissions have been studied for the period of 1990-2019. A decoupling analysis has been carried out of the gap between trends of the economic growth rates of the livestock industry and the rates of anthropogenic pressure on the environment. The study demonstrated that the decoupling effect in cattle breeding has changed abruptly from strongly negative to weak decoupling. The dynamics of the export volume of dairy and meat products were analysed for the agribusiness of Ukraine during 2004-2021 and a forecast of changes in production volumes, as well as a forecast for the export volume of milk and beef were made for the period up to 2030.
  • Urbanization and land use change: A study in Vietnam

    Tuan Nguyen Tran (Sciendo, 2022-06-01)
    Land-use change is a human process aimed at transforming the natural landscape and emphasizing the role and function of land for socio-economic activities. However, we do not know how the land transition in Vietnam has been proceeding recently. Thus, this article aims to examine the current urbanization process of land conversion in Vietnam. To explore the current situation and recent change of land use, the author analyzed standardized databases and maps from reports of the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment of Vietnam (MoNRE), the General Statistics Office of Vietnam (GSO), and the land cover map of Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). Research results show that the land transition in Vietnam has been similar to the world trend. The highest land conversion rate occurs in the North Central and Central Coast regions, but conversion of agricultural land for urbanization is mainly in the Red River Delta and Southeast. The study also noted some negative socio-economic impacts of land conversion on the lives of suburban residents.
  • Ageing of rural populations in Eastern Poland

    Kiniorska Iwona; Pytel Sławomir (Sciendo, 2022-06-01)
    A demographic view of the ageing process of a population provides an assessmentof the degree of development of this phenomenon and its dynamics at a given time in a given area, such as an administrative unit, a country or other territory. In this study, the main research aim was to assess the demographic situation of rural areas in Eastern Poland in the context of an ageing population. Changes in both the number of people and the demographic structure of the population living in the region were analysed. The time period of the research covered the years 2008-2020. Statistical data used in the study were derived from the Local Data Bank of Statistics Poland. The assessment of the regional specificity of the processes of demographic changes in rural areas was based on the study of the relationships in the analyzed parameters, with the use of statistical measures defining the range of variability of the examined characteristics. In order to achieve the main aim of the study, a typology of the areas with a disturbed age structure was developed. Four groups of rural areas have been identified (labelled from A to D) which are characterised by varying degrees of advancement of the examined problem in 2020.
  • A phytoindicational assessment of the vegetation of afforestation belts in the Middle Dnipro Region, Ukraine

    Goncharenko Igor V.; Solomakha Igor V.; Shevchyk Vasyl L.; Dvirna Tetyana S.; Tymochko Igor Ya.; Solomakha Volodymyr A. (Sciendo, 2022-06-01)
    We performed a study of the vegetation of afforestation belts in the Middle Dnipro Region of Ukraine. These were planted to protect agricultural land from adverse climatic conditions. The syntaxonomy of these afforestation belts is, so far, embedded in the synanthropic class of Robinietea tree plantations, but over time, these may need another syntaxonomic solution. Based on the data, a phytoindicational assessment of these communities was performed. The ecological features of the vegetation of afforestation belts have been determined by the mutual influence of ecological factors of different origin, and the extent of these impacts. In particular, the climatic conditions and edaphic factors and also the peculiarities of the environment-forming influence of different dominant tree species in the main layers and the age of these plantations, which determines at different stages of sylvestral succession processes. According to our phytoindicational assessment, use of cluster analysis of these biotopes of afforestation belts, proved their considerable similarity taking into account all ecological factors, and the distribution is mainly due to the predominant tree species. As a result of ordination analysis, it was found that the factors that most correlate with the ordinal axes are light regime, soil nitrogen and humidity. Phytocoenoses of afforestation belts are a very specific component of the forest biome in this region, because they have been artificially created.
  • The effects of urbanisation on food security in Africa: An overview and synthesis of the literature

    Ngcamu Bethuel Sibongiseni (Sciendo, 2022-06-01)
    The rapid and unplanned urbanisation in Africa has resulted in unprecedented and turbulent effects which include prolonged drought, massive floods, economic losses, increased food insecurity among small-scale and subsistence farmers and increased vulnerability because of rapid climate change. This has been exacerbated by the irrefutable fact that governments in Africa have been ill-prepared and incompetent to effectively deal with the adverse effects of increased urbanisation. In this light, in the overview of this literature study, the researcher set out to explore the theoretical underpinnings and empirical dimensions of the effects of urbanisation on food security in Africa. The study further captures, analyses, and synthesises the literature on best practice applied by governments in Africa in proactively responding to the effects of urbanisation on food security. Furthermore, patterns on the adverse effects of urbanisation relating to food security are unpacked from scholars, and various solutions investigated. This was achieved by rigorously reviewing eleven empirical and relevant journal which were selected from Google Scholar and ResearchGate. The interesting themes that emerged in this study include poor government interventions and decision-making processes, inadequate or absent land-use planning, and high incompetency levels among urban planners. This has led to environmental degradation and unsustainable food security as the result of prime agricultural land being used for infrastructure or housing developments. Solutions suggested for urban food insecurity include public–private partnerships, the alignment of policies with urban agriculture, participatory and strategic land-use planning, and the empowerment of women.
  • The 2016 Vietnam marine life incident: measures of subjective resilience and livelihood implications for affected small-fishery communities

    Ty Pham Huu; Marçon Raphaël; Bayrak Mucahid Mustafa; Phuong Le Thi Hong (Sciendo, 2022-03-01)
    In April 2016, four provinces of Vietnam were struck by one of the largest manmade environmental incidents in Vietnam. Through a discharge of toxic chemicals by Formosa Ha Tinh Steel Corporation, oceanic waters along Vietnam’s central coast were severely polluted. Consequently, the livelihoods of over 510,000 people living in coastal communities were severely affected by the Formosa Ha Tinh Steel Corporation incident (FHS incident). This study focusses on ex-ante and ex-post differences in livelihoods, and the subjective resilience of small-fishery households affected by the FHS incident in Hải Dương commune, a small coastal community, in central Vietnam. This was done through a qualitative analysis of livelihood strategies and resilience capacities of the affected households. Semi-structured interviews (n = 30), expert interviews (n = 3) and secondary data analysis were conducted from March to May 2018 employing a case study approach. Results show that the level of subjective resilience was strongly affected by a combination of social, financial, and human capitals. The presence, or lack, of these capitals combined with contextual factors influenced the livelihood strategies a household could pursue. Households that were able to pursue a combination of intensifying and diversifying livelihood strategies were most successful in recovering from and adjusting to the environmental incident. Households with restrained access to livelihood capitals were limited to intensifying livelihood strategies, having no real other option than persistence and increased dependence on government subsidies. Lastly, migration as a livelihood strategy and subsequent transformative resilience capacities remained generally low.
  • Main directions of the study of plant invasions in Russia

    Tokhtar Valeriy K.; Vinogradova Yulia K.; Notov Alexander A.; Kurskoy Аndrey Yu.; Danilova Elena S. (Sciendo, 2021-12-01)
    This article is focused on the analysis of major approaches to plant invasion research used by Russian researchers. They fall within three main groups: 1. Conventional approaches to floristic analysis based on the Russian scientific tradition of floristic research, 2. Approaches focused on the study of the fraction of invasive flora, making blacklists and regional Black books, 3. New comprehensive approaches based on a synthesis of methods used in botany, geo-information technology and population genetics. Multivariate statistical methods allow for the visualization of various data, including those on alien species group structures in various regions. They make it possible to identify boundaries of ecological niches occupied by plants in respect to climate-and-environmental or ecological variables. An assessment of current statistical interdependence between alien plant characteristics and scores of factors limiting their dissemination facilitates the making of predictive models of plant invasion. Examples of multivariate statistical methods used in invasion biology were analyzed, along with different approaches to the study of the variability of alien species. Alien and invasive fractions of the flora of the Trans-Siberian Railway were analyzed not by administrative units but by natural biomes. This approach allowed us to assess the correlation between the number of invasive species with different natural-climatic and floristic characteristics of biomes. The publication of "Black Books" of various administrative subjects of Russia according to a unified methodology allowed us to make an inventory of invasive species over the vast territory of the country. The experience gained by Russian researchers may be further used for developing universal approaches to plant invasion research.
  • Alien (invasive) vascular plants in Slovakia – a story of successful plant immigrants

    Májeková Jana; Jarolímek Ivan; Zaliberová Marica; Medvecká Jana (Sciendo, 2021-12-01)
    This article summarises the history of research into alien plants and plant communities in Slovakia (Central Europe). Earlier periods are reviewed briefly with reference to literature sources dealing with those periods more comprehensively. A milestone in the research was the publication of the Inventory of the alien flora of Slovakia in 2012 with a complete list of alien vascular plants. The last ten years are discussed more extensively in the article in four sections devoted to i) newly found alien plants, ii) distribution and habitat relations, iii) plant invasions, iv) citizen science based on the comprehensive excerption of literature sources. A list of 51 newly published alien taxa within the last ten years is also included with information on the year of their first occurrence in the wild in Slovakia.
  • Plant invasions in Ukraine

    Zavialova Liudmyla V.; Protopopova Vira V.; Kucher Oksana O.; Ryff Liubov E.; Shevera Myroslav V. (Sciendo, 2021-12-01)
    We present a comprehensive review of the plant invasions of 42 alien species and their impact on vegetation cover in Ukraine. Among these species, those currently posing the greatest threat to the environment have been identified. The structural features of this group were analyzed. In the life form spectrum the phanerophytes and therophytes are dominant, in the ecological spectrum the mesophytes are dominant, and kenophytes predominate at the time of immigration. Among the examined species, plants of North American origin predominate, agriophytes prevail by their degree of naturalization, and ergasiophytes are predominant by their way of entry. The participation of invasive species in natural and anthropogenic plant communities and biotopes was analyzed. These species are a stable component of grasses, scrub and forest habitats. Most of these invasive plants (33 species) are observed in anthropogenic habitats (I). Slightly fewer species of the studied group prefer habitat types E (25), F and G (22 each), although the largest invasions are observed exactly in these biotopes. Invasive species are characterized by eurytopicity. Four species have the greatest ecological plasticity, each of these is found in six types of habitats: Ailanthus altissima (B, F, G, I, J, H), Amaranthus retroflexus (C, E, F, G, I, J), Opuntia humifusa (B, E, F, G, H, I) and Xanthium albinum (B, C, E, F, G, I). Erigeron canadensis is found in five habitat types (C, E, F, G, I). The studied group is characterized by an insignificant regional specificity of the species composition, high invasive potential and stability of population reproduction.
  • The impact of revitalization on the evolution of urban space on former iron and steel works areas in Ruhr region (Germany)

    Chmielewska Marta; Otto Marius (Sciendo, 2013-03-01)
    The aim of the paper was to consider the extent of the impact of revitalization on the evolution of post-industrial sites, which manifests itself in morphological and functional changes of urban space. Research was performed on three former iron and steel works areas located in the Ruhr region in Germany: one of the Thyssen's ironworks in Duisburg - Meiderich, the area of steelworks complex Gute-Hoffnungs-Hütte in Oberhausen and the area of the iron and steel works Phönix in Dortmund - Hörde. Methods were applied specific to urban morphology. For each object of study a comparative analysis of the town plan was carried out. Town plans were compared before and after the revitalization process and special attention was paid to land use. This allowed us to observe morphological and functional changes which occurred as a result of the revitalization of the study areas. The research showed that the revitalization of post-industrial space may be conducted in many different directions but irrespective of that it has a huge impact on the evolution of urban space in both a morphological and a functional way. The extent to which revitalization affects morphological and functional structure of urban space depends on the future plan for the spatial development of the site and its attitude to its post-industrial heritage.
  • Human activity and aeolian relief of Starczynów “Desert”, Poland

    Pełka-Gościniak Jolanta (Sciendo, 2013-09-01)
    Starczynów „Desert” is located in the eastern part of the Silesian Upland (southern Poland) and makes a compact area with the occurrence of aeolian sands, which till the 1960s. were intensively blown. Its flat surface is diversified by many dunes of different shapes and sizes. Aeolian coversands are formed here as a cover of changing thickness. The „desert” is not a typical dry climatic area. The term Starczynów „Desert” refers to the area of occurrence of bare sands and aeolian processes and makes a geographical name that can be found on topographic maps. Its development was conditioned by human activity, where since the Middle Ages dense forest areas have been cut to obtain timber for the needs of contemporary mining and metallurgy of lead and silver ores causing the activation of aeolian processes at sandy substratum, built from the Vistulian proluvial-deluvial deposits. In the formation of the aeolian relief of Starczynów „Desert” it is possible to distinguish some stages of intensive wind activity: the 13th-15th centuries, the 16th-17th centuries, the turn of 18th and 19th centuries, the turn of 20th and 21st centuries. In present times human interference in the environment of Starczynów „Desert” consists of fixing sandy areas to protect them from deflation. Human damage exists here in the aeolian relief through terrain levelling and building fire escape roads. In the north-eastern part of the „desert” sand was exploited, therefore a sandpit appeared. This area was subject to the activity of mining for Zn-Pb ores, which caused numerous collapsed cones. In the last few years this part of the „desert” was properly reclaimed.
  • The issues of drainage of discussed mines in the Katowice conurbation, Poland

    Lamparska Marzena (Sciendo, 2013-03-01)
    The Katowice conurbation is situated in the Upper-Silesian Coal Basin, in a region which had high rate of water inflow in the pre-mining period. In order to make deposits of mineral resources accessible, it was, and still is, necessary provide mines with a draining system, which now reaches as deep as 1200 m. The area of the depression sink which was thus created is about 1200 km2. Currently, all metal ore mines within the conurbation, as well as part of coal mines, have been closed down, but water which flows into them is still pumped out due to the legal obligation to protect neighbouring operating mines. After the operation and drainage of mines cease, water coming to abandoned excavations will begin restoring static reserves in the orogen, which, depending on hydrological conditions, will take between several and a few dozen years. As the level of underground water rises, the process of subsidence of old shallow mining excavations will intensify, and many depressions may appear in highly urbanized areas. In areas of mining subsidence, the underground water-table will be close to the surface, causing flooding of basements and building foundations, and the deepest subsidence basins will probably be completely flooded. Current location of operating mines on the northern and southern sides of the conurbation with the central belt of drained excavations is unfavourable for its sustainable development. A solution, which would make it possible for the conurbation to grow, would be to close down and flood the mines on the northern side as soon as their mining concessions expire, which will be in early 2020s. Then, the area would regain its original stability within a decade and all kinds of construction activities could be carried out there. That, however, requires authorities of municipalities to object to the extension of concessions for mines, which may be impossible to obtain due to fears of social discontent resulting from miners - residents of those municipalities - being made redundant.
  • The typology of the nature values in the mining towns on the examples from the region of the Rybnik Coal Area

    Pukowiec Katarzyna; Kurda Wojciech (Sciendo, 2013-12-01)
    Nature’s resources having a usability attribute are nature values – if they are able to provide for human demands that are being exploited. This article relates to the environmental potential of mining and post – mining areas as well as possibilities of its use in the development of tourisms and recreation. An original typology of the nature value and the assessment of the tourist usability of environment of chosen mining towns of the Rybnik Coal Area – Wodzisław Śląski, Radlin, Rydułtowy, and Pszów are presented in this work. The Rybnik Coal Area is situated in the southern Poland, in a south-west part of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin. A geological substratum consists of Carboniferous rocks with a hard coal layer exploited from the end of 18th century, but more intensively in the last half-century. In all of the researched towns, hard coal mining is still running and anthropogenic processes changing the environment are taking place. An inventory of natural resources was performed during the direct field work in the years 2010-2011. The nature values were catalogued in a typological way according to the elements of the environment from which they result, focusing on the mining character of the research areas. Therefore, geologic, geomorphologic, hydrologic and biotic (of flora and fauna) have been highlighted, while climatic values have been omitted intentionally due to the vast issue of the assessment of the bioclimatic zone potential. Additionally, natural and anthropogenic elements were distinguished in each group of the values. Due to a significant degree of anthropogenic transformations of the environment, the analysed area is characterised by low environmental attractiveness; tourism and recreation play a marginal role there. Among the nature values of the analysed towns, the geologic qualities are the most significant ones. Therefore, geotourism is the form of tourist activity suggested to revive the region. The greatest potential for the development of geotourism is shown by Pszów, Radlin, Rydułtowy. The development and popularisation of geoturism should be included in the planning documents of the towns mentioned above. In order to increase tourist movement, it is suggested to mark up so-called academic-didactic paths and to mark geotourist object with appropriate information signs and more importantly with the development of infrastructure serving tourism and recreation.
  • Lime kilns as an element of the post-industrial cultural landscape of the Silesian Upland, Poland

    Hibszer Adam (Sciendo, 2021-09-01)
    In the Silesian Upland in southern Poland there are many objects related to previous economic activities, mainly from the mining of minerals occurring in a geological basis. In Mikołów Mokre there is the largest group of closed lime kilns in Poland. They constitute a material trace of the quicklime production industry for the construction industry, which operated in this area for almost 200 years. These closed and decaying post-industrial objects are closely related to the presence of limestone and dolomite in the substrate rocks that were obtained from nearby quarries. The aim of the article was to present the current state of these lime kilns and to assess the possibility of using them for tourism purposes. Currently, only two lime kilns are components of the educational trail of the Silesian Botanical Garden established in 2003. Using the example of the Mikołów lime kilns, the opportunities and possibilities for changing the industrial function of these objects to a tourist function are outlined.
  • Syntaxonomy and ecological differentiation of the pioneer vegetation of Ukraine Classes: Isoëto-Nanojuncetea, Bidentetea

    Dubyna Dmytro V.; Dziuba Tetiana P.; Iemelianova Svitlana M.; Felbaba-Klushyna Lyubov M. (Sciendo, 2021-09-01)
    The studies of the pioneer vegetation of freshwater shorelines of water bodies are of particular interest owing to the specific ecology of these habitats and the short cycle for their development in which periods of flooding and subsequent drainage alternate. Using the methods of phytosociological classification and cluster analysis based on the interpretation of 414 phytosociological relevés, the syntaxonomic structure of the pioneer vegetation of freshwater shorelines of the water bodies of Ukraine has been established that are represented by the phytosociological classes Isoëto-Nanojuncetea and Bidentetea. The class Isoëto-Nanojuncetea includes 8 associations that belong to 2 alliances and 1 order and the class Bidentetea includes 10 associations belonging to 2 alliances and 1 order. Phytocoenoses of both classes are more typical for the Polissia region and the forest-steppe zone of Ukraine, where there are favourable habitats with a flat relief, low degree of dissection and a high level of soil humidity. Using a DCA ordination analysis of associations their position in ecological space was determined. It was established that the main factors of ecological differentiation for Isoëto-Nanojuncetea habitats are soil humidity, soil aeration, nitrogen content, as well as temperature regime. Differentiation in the hyperspace of abiotic factors of the class Bidentetea occurs mainly along the gradients of soil humidity, salt regime and acidity. The ecological distribution of syntaxa of this class is also significantly influenced by the concentration of mineral nitrogen compounds in the soil.
  • Post-industrial Cultural Heritage Sites in the Katowice conurbation, Poland

    Lamparska Marzena (Sciendo, 2013-06-01)
    The Katowice conurbation comprises of towns which have developed because of the mining of metal ores, coal and raw rock materials. The development of mining and industry which have lasted for centuries has resulted in the specific character of the landscape of the area with its typical indicators such as housing estates built for the working class, winding towers, chimneys of steelworks, coking plants, power stations, drifts, quarries, etc. The residents of mining communities, and local governments within the conurbation, which have developed owing to mining, are aware of the impending economic slowdown after liquidation of coal mines. Therefore, development of the service sector, including tourism, based on postindustrial facilities can become an important factor in restructuring the economy. This article presents a classification of post-industrial cultural heritage sites prepared for the purpose of geotourism. Several categories of such sites have been distinguished: 1) historic mining landscapes, 2) places adapted for recreation, 3) places documenting changes in the groundwater environment, 4) characteristic Silesian landscapes, places commemorating stages of development of the mining industry, 5) post-mining sites adapted for service, commercial or residential purposes, 6) mining museums and open-air museums. The described post-mining sites occur in different parts of the Katowice conurbation; therefore, linking them by a system of tourist trails and surrounding them by zones of protected landscape will be an important task for the future. Material remains of the industrial culture preserved within the Katowice conurbation, despite their diversity, form complexes of monuments complementary to those that can be found in the entire industrialized Europe. Therefore, the industrial heritage in the area of the Katowice conurbation is an important part of the European, supranational heritage.
  • A new lowland locality for the mountain plant Streptopus amfexifolius (L.) DC. (Silesian voivodeship, Southern Poland)

    Rostański Adam; Cabała Stanisław; Mielczarek Jarosław (Sciendo, 2013-06-01)
    The occurrence of mountain plant species in the Polish lowlands has been at the centre of attention of many botanists. In 2008-2011 we carried out field studies aimed at describing a new lowland population of White Twisted-stalk S. amplexifolius discovered in 2008. We focused on the following aims: to determine the current status of the lowland population of S. amplexifolius; to characterize phytocenoses and habitat conditions in which the species occur; to identify factors that can potentially pose a threat on the population and to propose guidelines for its protection. The newly discovered population is located in the Trójca Forest District (50º 38.737’ N; 18º 48.945’ E), forest department 61L. The main part of the population (ca. 70%) occupies an area of approximately 100 m2. Currently, to protect the population from grazing, the whole area (about 0.25 ha) has been surrounded by metal mesh fence. The population occurs within a poorly developed patch of Fraxino- Alnetum. It contains 107 branched and fruiting individuals of S. amplexifolius and 83 smaller plants (branchless and sporadically fruiting). The number of fruits per plant varies between 6 and 20. One fruit contains an average of 5 seeds (a maximum of 12 seeds and a minimum of 3 seeds per fruit). The occurrence of numerous Padus serotina seedlings and young plants is recorded within the site. Human-related factors have caused substantial changes in the water relations and, subsequently, also in the species composition of these plant communities. The population of S. amplexifolius within the described site seems to be in good condition and develops normally.
  • Extinct and endangered species in the vascular plant flora of Strzelce Opolskie (Southern Poland)

    Folcik Łukasz; Urbisz Andrzej (Sciendo, 2013-03-01)
    Symptoms of anthropogenic changes in the vascular plant flora include the spread of some species groups and the extinction of others. Also habitat condition changes (eutrophication, pollution etc.) and biodiversity loss (at a regional, national and even continental scale) should be mentioned. Numerous papers with rare plant species localities and endangered habitats have been published but the extinction processes and scale of this phenomenon in urban areas where environmental conservation is crucial, are not often analysed. The aim of the present study is to estimate species loss in the vascular plant flora of the town Strzelce Opolskie (Chełm, Silesian Upland) on the basis of the floristic literature and botanical surveys carried out from 2011 to 2013. A comparison has been made between the list of species reported up to 1945 and those species currently occurring in the study area. As a result, a list of 99 species included in the red list of plants of Opole and Silesian voivodeships is presented. Among this group, 45 species are not confirmed after 1945. Numerous extinct and endangered species are from families: Orchidaceae (8 species), Cyperaceae (7 species), Ranunculaceae (7 species) and Lamiaceae (6 species). Strongly represented are species associated with the communities of Festuco-Brometea and Querco- Fagetea classes. From the species presented, 18 species are included in "Red List of Vascular Plants of Poland" (MIREK ET AL. 2006). It was found that the extinct species represent about 7% of Strzelce Opolskie vascular plant flora. It is a focus point for local authorities to protect botanically valuable areas. Actually, the only Miejski Park is under the conservator's protection and there are few individual trees protected due to their age or size.
  • Populations of Cephalanthera damasonium (Mill.) Druce on the hills of the right bank of the River Dnieper (in Forest Steepe vegetation of Ukraine)

    Solomakha lgor V.; Shevchyk Vasyl L.; Tymchenko Iryna A.; Solomakha Volodymyr A.; Dvirna Tetyana S. (Sciendo, 2020-06-01)
    As a result of studying the vegetation cover of artificial (possibly spontaneous) tree plantations on the hills of the right bank of the River Dnieper in the Forest-Steppe of Ukraine we discovered the formation of natural populations of Cephalanthera damasonium (Mill.) Druce. Information on the growth of this species was previously presented (more than 80 years ago) by F. Gryn (samples of which are in The National Herbarium of Ukraine, Kiev), who noted its distribution in these locations. The ecological and coenotic features of the distribution of this species as a part of available populations in the communities of classes Carpino-Fagetea sylvaticae, Quercetea pubescentis, Crataego-Prunetea, Alno glutinosae-Populetea albae have been studied. The largest eight new populations of C. damasonium have been identified on the eastern border of Ukraine. Habitat conditions, number and structure of all new populations were determined. Micropopulations of the species occupy an area from several to 750 m2 with a total population of more than 1,200 specimens. The ontogenetic spectrum is right-sided, with a dominance of generative individuals, and their share is 4/5 of the total number of individuals. The peculiarity of this locality is the high number of individuals in most of these populations, which may be due to favourable ecological-coenotic conditions and the absence of intensive anthropogenic influences. The identified habitats of the study species need protection.
  • The consequences of expropriation of agricultural land and loss of livelihoods on those households who lost land in Da Nang, Vietnam

    Tuan Nguyen Tran (Sciendo, 2021-06-01)
    Acquisition of large-scale agricultural land for urbanization and industrialization is a widespread phenomenon in Vietnam. This acquisition has impacted those households whose land was expropriated in many ways, such as economic, cultural, and social aspects. In this research, the author surveyed 100 households who lost their land for Da Nang Hi-Tech Park project to collect data about the change in their livelihoods and the satisfaction level with their quality of life. This study aimed to answer three questions relating to employment, compensation expenses, and life. The results show that these householders still have many difficulties adapting to a new life after nearly ten years. The unemployment rate increases, but it depends on the gender and age of the worker. Compared with the five years ago, the households’ incomes also decreased by 190 USD/household. The misuse of compensation money paid for their has also had negative impacts on their livelihoods. Some other problems such as environmental pollution and social evils have put pressure on households who lost their land. Hence, most of these households want to return to their previous agricultural life.

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